April 2019

Di Zazzo A, Micera A, Coassin M, Varacalli G, Foulsham W, De Piano M, Bonini S. InflammAging at Ocular Surface: Clinical and Biomolecular Analyses in Healthy Volunteers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(5):1769-1775.Abstract
Purpose: To assess the ocular surface in volunteers who consider themselves as healthy, in order to evaluate how para-inflammatory mechanisms fail with age, and thus investigate the phenomenon of "InflammAging." Methods: In this observational prospective cohort study, volunteers were categorized into three groups according to age: young (19-40 years), middle-aged (41-60 years), and older adults (61-93 years). Clinical assessments included tear breakup time (T-BUT) and Schirmer test type I. Dry eye symptoms were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. Conjunctival mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), MUC5AC, and IL-8 were measured by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Results: A total of 82 volunteers (38 males and 44 females) were enrolled. T-BUT decreased significantly with increasing age (young: 11.13 ± 0.18 seconds; middle-aged: 10.83 ± 0.56 seconds; older: 9.00 ± 1.00 seconds, P < 0.05). Schirmer test values decreased significantly with age (young: 20.6 ± 1.0 mm; middle-aged: 19.2 ± 1.2 mm; older: 16.0 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.05). OSDI scores increased with age in both groups, but they were substantially higher in women. Conjunctival expression of inflammatory markers ICAM-1, IL-8, and MUC5AC increased with age. Conclusions: Clinical signs, symptoms, and biomarkers of chronic inflammation increased with age in a cohort of volunteers who considered themselves healthy, indicating an age-related progressive impairment of ocular surface system function.
Silva RNE, Chiou CA, Wang M, Wang H, Shoji MK, Chou JC, D'Souza EE, Greenstein SH, Brauner SC, Alves MR, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ. Microvasculature of the Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Region in Patients With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2019;28(4):281-288.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary microvasculature in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) of mild to moderate severity using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, swept-source OCTA images were analyzed for 1 eye from each of 30 POAG patients with glaucomatous Humphrey visual field loss and 16 controls. The anatomic boundary of ONH was manually delineated based on Bruch's membrane opening and large vessels were removed from en face angiography images to measure vessel density (VD) and the integrated OCTA by ratio analysis signal (IOS), suggestive of flow, in the ONH and peripapillary region. POAG subgroup analysis was performed based on a history of disc hemorrhage (DH) matched by visual field mean deviation (MD). RESULTS: POAG (mean MD±SD, -3.3±3.0 dB) and control groups had similar demographic characteristics and intraocular pressure on the day of imaging. Groups did not differ in superficial ONH VD or flow indicated by IOS (P≥0.28). POAG eyes showed significantly lower VD (39.4%±4.0%) and flow (38.8%±5.6%) in deep ONH, peripapillary VD (37.9%±2.9%) and flow (43.6%±4.0%) compared with control eyes (44.1%±5.1%, 44.7%±6.9%, 40.7%±1.7%, 47.8%±2.5%, respectively; P≤0.007 for all). In the subgroup analysis, POAG eyes with (n=14) and without DH (n=16) had similar measured OCTA parameters (P>0.99 for all). CONCLUSIONS: The image processing methodology based on the anatomic boundary of ONH demonstrated compromised microvasculature in the deep ONH and peripapillary region in eyes with mild to moderate POAG, regardless of the history of DH.
Goldstein JM, Tabebordbar M, Zhu K, Wang LD, Messemer KA, Peacker B, Ashrafi Kakhki S, Gonzalez-Celeiro M, Shwartz Y, Cheng JKW, Xiao R, Barungi T, Albright C, Hsu Y-C, Vandenberghe LH, Wagers AJ. In Situ Modification of Tissue Stem and Progenitor Cell Genomes. Cell Rep 2019;27(4):1254-1264.e7.Abstract
In vivo delivery of genome-modifying enzymes holds significant promise for therapeutic applications and functional genetic screening. Delivery to endogenous tissue stem cells, which provide an enduring source of cell replacement during homeostasis and regeneration, is of particular interest. Here, we use a sensitive Cre/lox fluorescent reporter system to test the efficiency of genome modification following in vivo transduction by adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) in tissue stem and progenitor cells. We combine immunophenotypic analyses with in vitro and in vivo assays of stem cell function to reveal effective targeting of skeletal muscle satellite cells, mesenchymal progenitors, hematopoietic stem cells, and dermal cell subsets using multiple AAV serotypes. Genome modification rates achieved through this system reached >60%, and modified cells retained key functional properties. This study establishes a powerful platform to genetically alter tissue progenitors within their physiological niche while preserving their native stem cell properties and regulatory interactions.
Barrett AM, Houston KE. Update on the Clinical Approach to Spatial Neglect. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019;19(5):25.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spatial neglect is asymmetric orienting and action after a brain lesion, causing functional disability. It is common after a stroke; however, it is vastly underdocumented and undertreated. This article addresses the implementation gap in identifying and treating spatial neglect, to reduce disability and improve healthcare costs and burden. RECENT FINDINGS: Professional organizations published recommendations to implement spatial neglect care. Physicians can lead an interdisciplinary team: functionally relevant spatial neglect assessment, evidence-based spatial retraining, and integrated spatial and vision interventions can optimize outcomes. Research also strongly suggests spatial neglect adversely affects motor systems. Spatial neglect therapy might thus "kick-start" rehabilitation and improve paralysis recovery. Clinicians can implement new techniques to detect spatial neglect and lead interdisciplinary teams to promote better, integrated spatial neglect care. Future studies of brain imaging biomarkers to detect spatial neglect, and real-world applicability of prism adaptation treatment, are needed.
Van Tyne D, Manson AL, Huycke MM, Karanicolas J, Earl AM, Gilmore MS. Impact of antibiotic treatment and host innate immune pressure on enterococcal adaptation in the human bloodstream. Sci Transl Med 2019;11(487)Abstract
Multidrug-resistant enterococcal strains emerged in the early 1980s and are now among the leading causes of drug-resistant bacterial infection worldwide. We used functional genomics to study an early bacterial outbreak in patients in a Wisconsin hospital between 1984 and 1988 that was caused by multidrug-resistant The goal was to determine how a clonal lineage of became adapted to growth and survival in the human bloodstream. Genome sequence analysis revealed a progression of increasingly fixed mutations and repeated independent occurrences of mutations in a relatively small set of genes. Repeated independent mutations suggested selection within the host during the course of infection in response to pressures such as host immunity and antibiotic treatment. We observed repeated independent mutations in a small number of loci, including a little studied polysaccharide utilization pathway and the locus. Functional studies showed that mutating these loci rendered better able to withstand antibiotic pressure and innate immune defenses in the human bloodstream. We also observed a shift in mutation pattern that corresponded to the introduction of carbapenem antibiotics in 1987. This work identifies pathways that allow enterococci to survive the transition from the human gut into the bloodstream, enabling them to cause severe bacteremia associated with high mortality.
Nocera AL, Mueller SK, Stephan JR, Hing L, Seifert P, Han X, Lin DT, Amiji MM, Libermann T, Bleier BS. Exosome swarms eliminate airway pathogens and provide passive epithelial immunoprotection through nitric oxide. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019;143(4):1525-1535.e1.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Nasal mucosa-derived exosomes (NMDEs) harbor immunodefensive proteins and are capable of rapid interepithelial protein transfer. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether mucosal exposure to inhaled pathogens stimulates a defensive swarm of microbiocidal exosomes, which also donate their antimicrobial cargo to adjacent epithelial cells. METHODS: We performed an institutional review board-approved study of healthy NMDE secretion after Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 stimulation by LPS (12.5 μg/mL) in the presence of TLR4 inhibitors. Interepithelial transfer of exosomal nitric oxide (NO) synthase and nitric oxide was measured by using ELISAs and NO activity assays. Exosomal antimicrobial assays were performed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proteomic analyses were performed by using SOMAscan. RESULTS: In vivo and in vitro LPS exposure induced a 2-fold increase in NMDE secretion along with a 2-fold increase in exosomal inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and function through TLR4 and inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase activation. LPS stimulation increased exosomal microbiocidal activity against P aeruginosa by almost 2 orders of magnitude. LPS-stimulated exosomes induced a 4-fold increase in NO production within autologous epithelial cells with protein transfer within 5 minutes of contact. Pathway analysis of the NMDE proteome revealed 44 additional proteins associated with NO signaling and innate immune function. CONCLUSIONS: We provide direct in vivo evidence for a novel exosome-mediated innate immunosurveillance and defense mechanism of the human upper airway. These findings have implications for lower airway innate immunity, delivery of airway therapeutics, and host microbiome regulation.
Jaffe GJ, Foster SC, Pavesio CE, Paggiarino DA, Riedel GE. Effect of an Injectable Fluocinolone Acetonide Insert on Recurrence Rates in Chronic Noninfectious Uveitis Affecting the Posterior Segment: Twelve-Month Results. Ophthalmology 2019;126(4):601-610.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of an intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide (FA) insert to manage inflammation associated with chronic noninfectious posterior uveitis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, prospective, doubled-masked, sham-controlled, 3-year phase 3 clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-nine participants with recurrent noninfectious posterior uveitis were assigned randomly to FA insert (n = 87) or sham injection (n = 42). The more severely affected eye in participants with bilateral disease was designated as the study eye. METHODS: The insert (FA, 0.18 mg) was injected into the vitreous cavity; sham injection mimicked the insert delivery procedure. Ophthalmic examinations, OCT, and ocular tolerability and discomfort assessments were conducted; study visits were on days 7 and 28 and months 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Uveitis recurrence was treated as needed. The 6-month recurrence rate was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS: The 6-month (28% and 91%) and 12-month (38% and 98%) uveitis recurrence rates were significantly lower (P < 0.001) with FA insert vs. sham, respectively. Fewer recurrences per study eye (mean, 0.7 vs. 2.5), lower incidence of 15-letter or more decrease in best-corrected visual acuity (14% vs. 31%), and reduced systemic (19% vs. 40%) and local (7% vs. 62%) uveitis adjunctive treatments were observed with FA insert vs. sham, respectively. The FA insert group showed higher rates of cataract. Intraocular pressure-lowering treatment use was similar between groups. No deaths, treatment-related study discontinuations, or unanticipated safety signals were observed through 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic noninfectious posterior uveitis was managed successfully in this study population; FA insert eyes experienced fewer uveitis recurrence episodes, required fewer adjunctive treatments, and demonstrated less visual acuity loss compared with sham eyes. The FA insert treatment group showed higher rates of cataract; delivery by injection was not associated with an increase in ocular adverse events or any other safety measures not typically associated with local steroid use, suggesting the procedure is appropriate for an office setting.
Coco G, Amparo F, Patel SP, Foulsham W, Carreno-Galeano JT, Stockslager SG, Ciolino JB, Yin J, Dana R. Oral guaifenesin for treatment of filamentary keratitis: A pilot study. Ocul Surf 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: Pilot study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral guaifenesin in reducing the signs and symptoms of filamentary keratitis. METHODS: Prospective, uncontrolled open-label pilot study. Twelve patients with non-Sjögren dry eye disease (DED) and secondary filamentary keratitis received treatment with oral guaifenesin 600 mg twice a day (total dose of 1.2 g/day) for 4 weeks. Adverse events, change in the number of corneal filaments, corneal fluorescein staining (CFS; NEI grading system), and symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index) were assessed. RESULTS: Before starting oral guaifenesin, all patients were on topical medical therapy for their condition. At baseline, the mean number of filaments was 5.8 ± 2.9, CFS score 7.3 ± 3.2, and OSDI score 55.6 ± 25. After 4 weeks of treatment, the number of filaments was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.04 vs. baseline), CFS score 6.5 ± 3.1 (p = 0.5), and OSDI score 46.1 ± 30.9 (p = 0.2). One patient discontinued the medication due to gastrointestinal side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Oral guaifenesin was safe and generally well tolerated, and demonstrated modest efficacy in reducing the severity of filamentary keratitis. These results should be considered preliminary; however, placebo-controlled investigations would be justified to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of oral guaifenesin as a mucolytic in treatment of filamentary keratitis.
Sayres R, Taly A, Rahimy E, Blumer K, Coz D, Hammel N, Krause J, Narayanaswamy A, Rastegar Z, Wu D, Xu S, Barb S, Joseph A, Shumski M, Smith J, Sood AB, Corrado GS, Peng L, Webster DR. Using a Deep Learning Algorithm and Integrated Gradients Explanation to Assist Grading for Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmology 2019;126(4):552-564.Abstract
PURPOSE: To understand the impact of deep learning diabetic retinopathy (DR) algorithms on physician readers in computer-assisted settings. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic technology. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand seven hundred ninety-six retinal fundus images from 1612 diabetic patients. METHODS: Ten ophthalmologists (5 general ophthalmologists, 4 retina specialists, 1 retina fellow) read images for DR severity based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy disease severity scale in each of 3 conditions: unassisted, grades only, or grades plus heatmap. Grades-only assistance comprised a histogram of DR predictions (grades) from a trained deep-learning model. For grades plus heatmap, we additionally showed explanatory heatmaps. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each experiment arm, we computed sensitivity and specificity of each reader and the algorithm for different levels of DR severity against an adjudicated reference standard. We also measured accuracy (exact 5-class level agreement and Cohen's quadratically weighted κ), reader-reported confidence (5-point Likert scale), and grading time. RESULTS: Readers graded more accurately with model assistance than without for the grades-only condition (P < 0.001). Grades plus heatmaps improved accuracy for patients with DR (P < 0.001), but reduced accuracy for patients without DR (P = 0.006). Both forms of assistance increased readers' sensitivity moderate-or-worse DR: unassisted: mean, 79.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 72.3%-86.5%]; grades only: mean, 87.5% [95% CI, 85.1%-89.9%]; grades plus heatmap: mean, 88.7% [95% CI, 84.9%-92.5%] without a corresponding drop in specificity (unassisted: mean, 96.6% [95% CI, 95.9%-97.4%]; grades only: mean, 96.1% [95% CI, 95.5%-96.7%]; grades plus heatmap: mean, 95.5% [95% CI, 94.8%-96.1%]). Algorithmic assistance increased the accuracy of retina specialists above that of the unassisted reader or model alone; and increased grading confidence and grading time across all readers. For most cases, grades plus heatmap was only as effective as grades only. Over the course of the experiment, grading time decreased across all conditions, although most sharply for grades plus heatmap. CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning algorithms can improve the accuracy of, and confidence in, DR diagnosis in an assisted read setting. They also may increase grading time, although these effects may be ameliorated with experience.
Marmalidou A, Palioura S, Dana R, Kheirkhah A. Medical and surgical management of conjunctivochalasis. Ocul Surf 2019;Abstract
Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) is a bilateral conjunctival condition characterized by loose, redundant conjunctival folds, typically in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. It is a common cause of ocular irritation, especially in older age. For asymptomatic CCH, no treatment is necessary. For treatment of symptomatic CCH, however, a variety of medical and surgical approaches are currently available, which will be thoroughly appraised in this review article. The first step in the management is medical therapy, which involves enhanced lubrication and use of anti-inflammatory medications. In refractory cases, a surgical approach may be undertaken for symptom relief. Several techniques have been described for this, with varying success rates. These include conjunctival cauterization, conjunctival excision, scleral fixation of the conjunctiva, conjunctival ligation, laser conjunctivoplasty, and radiowave electrosurgery. Among these, conjunctival cauterization and excision of the redundant conjunctiva, with or without tissue grafting, have gained popularity.
Garza-Leon M, Amparo F, Ortíz G, de la Parra-Colin P, Sanchez-Huerta V, Beltran F, Hernandez-Quintela E. Translation and validation of the contact lens dry eye questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8) to the Spanish language. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2019;42(2):155-158.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present the process of cultural and psychometric adaptation, and clinical validation of a new version in the Spanish language of the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The translation-retro-translation method was applied to the CLDEQ-8 questionnaire. Two independent native Spanish-speaking translators adapted the questionnaire from English to Spanish, and then a committee of experienced clinicians (CE) evaluated the semantic equivalence and designed a Spanish version of the CLDEQ-8 questionnaire. The resulting translated version was tested conducting a pilot study in contact lens users and assessing their perception and overall understanding of the terminology. The results were analyzed and a final version was designed. The final version was retro-translated to English by a native English-speaking translator and compared with the original CLDEQ-8 version to confirm there were no meaningful differences. To clinically validate the new instrument, a prospective study was conducted to apply the new Spanish CLDEQ-8 to 50 contact lens users. RESULTS: Fifty patients were studied with an average age of 21.50 ± 1.66 years. The average CLDEQ-8 score was 13.28 ± 6.81 points (range 1-31). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.89, with a corrected index of homogeneity >0.50 for all evaluated items. CONCLUSIONS: The process of trans-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire CLDEQ-8 resulted in the elaboration of a reliable and much needed instrument capable of measuring frequency and intensity of dry eye symptoms in Spanish-speaking contact lens users.
Baker CW, Glassman AR, Beaulieu WT, Antoszyk AN, Browning DJ, Chalam KV, Grover S, Jampol LM, Jhaveri CD, Melia M, Stockdale CR, Martin DF, Sun JK, Sun JK. Effect of Initial Management With Aflibercept vs Laser Photocoagulation vs Observation on Vision Loss Among Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema Involving the Center of the Macula and Good Visual Acuity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2019;Abstract
Importance: Intravitreous injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor agents are effective for treating diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula (center-involved DME [CI-DME]) with visual acuity impairment (20/32 or worse). The best approach to treating patients with CI-DME and good visual acuity (20/25 or better) is unknown. Objective: To compare vision loss at 2 years among eyes initially managed with aflibercept, laser photocoagulation, or observation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 91 US and Canadian sites among 702 adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Participants had 1 study eye with CI-DME and visual acuity of 20/25 or better. The first participant was randomized on November 8, 2013, and the final date of follow-up was September 11, 2018. Interventions: Eyes were randomly assigned to 2.0 mg of intravitreous aflibercept (n = 226) as frequently as every 4 weeks, focal/grid laser photocoagulation (n = 240), or observation (n = 236). Aflibercept was required for eyes in the laser photocoagulation or observation groups that had decreased visual acuity from baseline by at least 10 letters (≥ 2 lines on an eye chart) at any visit or by 5 to 9 letters (1-2 lines) at 2 consecutive visits. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was at least a 5-letter visual acuity decrease from baseline at 2 years. Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration adverse events (defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or vascular or unknown death) were reported. Results: Among 702 randomized participants (mean age, 59 years; 38% female [n=264]), 625 of 681 (92% excluding deaths) completed the 2-year visit. For eyes with visual acuity that decreased from baseline, aflibercept was initiated in 25% (60/240) and 34% (80/326) in the laser photocoagulation and observation groups, respectively. At 2 years, the percentage of eyes with at least a 5-letter visual acuity decrease was 16% (33/205), 17% (36/212), and 19% (39/208) in the aflibercept, laser photocoagulation, and observation groups, respectively (aflibercept vs laser photocoagulation risk difference, -2% [95% CI, -9% to 5%]; relative risk, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.57-1.35; P = .79]; aflibercept vs observation risk difference, -3% [95% CI, -11% to 4%]; relative risk, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.55-1.27; P = .79]; laser photocoagulation vs observation risk difference, -1% [95% CI, -9% to 6%]; relative risk, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.64-1.41; P = .79]). Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration vascular events occurred in 15 (7%), 13 (5%), and 8 (3%) participants in the aflibercept, laser photocoagulation, and observation groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among eyes with CI-DME and good visual acuity, there was no significant difference in vision loss at 2 years whether eyes were initially managed with aflibercept or with laser photocoagulation or observation and given aflibercept only if visual acuity worsened. Observation without treatment unless visual acuity worsens may be a reasonable strategy for CI-DME. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01909791.
Tsoka P, Barbisan PR, Kataoka K, Chen XN, Tian B, Bouzika P, Miller JW, Paschalis EI, Vavvas DG. NLRP3 inflammasome in NMDA-induced retinal excitotoxicity. Exp Eye Res 2019;181:136-144.Abstract
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity is an acute form of experimental retinal injury as a result of overactivation of glutamate receptors. NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing-3) inflammasome, one of the most studied sensors of innate immunity, has been reported to play a critical role in retinal neurodegeneration with controversial implications regarding neuroprotection and cell death. Thus far, it has not been elucidated whether NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity can trigger NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Moreover, it is unknown if NLRP3 is beneficial or detrimental to NMDA-mediated retinal cell death. Here, we employed a murine model of NMDA-induced retinal excitotoxicity by administering 100 nmoles of NMDA intravitreally, which resulted in massive TUNEL (TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labelling) cell death in all retinal layers and especially in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 24 h post injection. NMDA insult in the retina potentiates macrophage/microglia cell infiltration, primes the NLRP3 inflammasome in a transcription-dependent manner and induces the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, despite NLRP3 inflammasome upregulation, systemic deletion of Nlrp3 or Casp1 (caspase-1) did not significantly alter the NMDA-induced, excitotoxicity-mediated TUNEL retinal cell death at 24 h (acute phase). Similarly, the deletion of the two aforementioned genes did not alter the survival of the Brn3a (brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A) RGCs in a significant way at 3- or 7-days post injection (long-term phase). Our results indicate that NMDA-mediated retinal excitotoxicity induces immune cell recruitment and NLRP3 inflammasome activity even though inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation is not a leading contributing factor to cell death in this type of retinal injury.
Noble CW, Gangaputra SS, Thompson IA, Yuan A, Apolo AB, Lee J-M, Papaliodis GN, Kodati S, Bishop R, Magone TM, Sobrin L, Sen NH. Ocular Adverse Events following Use of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Metastatic Malignancies. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2019;:1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the clinical features, severity, and management of ocular immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for metastatic malignancies. METHODS: Retrospective chart review at three tertiary ophthalmology clinics. Electronic medical records were reviewed between 2000 and 2017 for patients with new ocular symptoms while undergoing checkpoint inhibition therapy. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified. Ocular irAEs ranged from keratoconjunctivitis sicca to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like findings. Average timing of irAEs from starting checkpoint inhibitor therapy was 15.7 weeks. Ocular inflammation was successfully controlled with corticosteroids in most cases, however three patients discontinue treatment as a result of ocular inflammation with decreased visual acuity, two discontinued due to progression of metastatic disease, and one discontinued due to severe systemic irAEs. CONCLUSION: We found a wide spectrum of ocular irAEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In most cases, ocular AEs did not limit ongoing cancer treatment.

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