April 2022

Xie L, Cen L-P, Li Y, Gilbert H-Y, Strelko O, Berlinicke C, Stavarache MA, Ma M, Wang Y, Cui Q, Kaplitt MG, Zack DJ, Benowitz LI, Yin Y. Monocyte-derived SDF1 supports optic nerve regeneration and alters retinal ganglion cells' response to Pten deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022;119(15):e2113751119.Abstract
SignificanceThe optic nerve conveys information from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to visual processing areas of the brain. Although this pathway normally cannot regenerate when injured nor in degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, this failure can be partially reversed by eliciting a controlled immune reaction in the eye. We show here that the chemokine SDF1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) is an important contributor to this phenomenon. SDF1 is produced by infiltrative monocytes and acts through its cognate receptor to enhance RGC survival, promote optic nerve regeneration, and sensitize subtypes of RGCs that normally fail to respond to a complementary treatment to exhibit robust, long-distance regeneration. These findings establish SDF1 as an important therapeutic candidate for repairing the injured optic nerve.
Grotz S, Schäfer J, Wunderlich KA, Ellederova Z, Auch H, Bähr A, Runa-Vochozkova P, Fadl J, Arnold V, Ardan T, Veith M, Santamaria G, Dhom G, Hitzl W, Kessler B, Eckardt C, Klein J, Brymova A, Linnert J, Kurome M, Zakharchenko V, Fischer A, Blutke A, Döring A, Suchankova S, Popelar J, Rodríguez-Bocanegra E, Dlugaiczyk J, Straka H, May-Simera H, Wang W, Laugwitz K-L, Vandenberghe LH, Wolf E, Nagel-Wolfrum K, Peters T, Motlik J, Fischer DM, Wolfrum U, Klymiuk N. Early disruption of photoreceptor cell architecture and loss of vision in a humanized pig model of usher syndromes. EMBO Mol Med 2022;14(4):e14817.Abstract
Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common form of monogenic deaf-blindness. Loss of vision is untreatable and there are no suitable animal models for testing therapeutic strategies of the ocular constituent of USH, so far. By introducing a human mutation into the harmonin-encoding USH1C gene in pigs, we generated the first translational animal model for USH type 1 with characteristic hearing defect, vestibular dysfunction, and visual impairment. Changes in photoreceptor architecture, quantitative motion analysis, and electroretinography were characteristics of the reduced retinal virtue in USH1C pigs. Fibroblasts from USH1C pigs or USH1C patients showed significantly elongated primary cilia, confirming USH as a true and general ciliopathy. Primary cells also proved their capacity for assessing the therapeutic potential of CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene repair or gene therapy in vitro. AAV-based delivery of harmonin into the eye of USH1C pigs indicated therapeutic efficacy in vivo.
Naninck T, Kahlaoui N, Lemaitre J, Maisonnasse P, De Mori A, Pascal Q, Contreras V, Marlin R, Relouzat F, Delache B, Hérate C, Aldon Y, van Gils M, Zabaleta N, Tsong Fang RH, Bosquet N, Sanders RW, Vandenberghe LH, Chapon C, Le Grand R. Computed tomography and [18F]-FDG PET imaging provide additional readouts for COVID-19 pathogenesis and therapies evaluation in non-human primates. iScience 2022;25(4):104101.Abstract
Non-human primates (NHPs) are particularly relevant as preclinical models for SARS-CoV-2 infection and nuclear imaging may represent a valuable tool for monitoring infection in this species. We investigated the benefit of computed X-ray tomography (CT) and [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the early phase of the disease in a large cohort (n = 76) of SARS-CoV-2 infected macaques. Following infection, animals showed mild COVID-19 symptoms including typical lung lesions. CT scores at the acute phase reflect the heterogeneity of lung burden following infection. Moreover, [18F]-FDG PET revealed that FDG uptake was significantly higher in the lungs, nasal cavities, lung-draining lymph nodes, and spleen of NHPs by 5 days postinfection compared to pre-infection levels, indicating early local inflammation. The comparison of CT and PET data from previous COVID-19 treatments or vaccines we tested in NHP, to this large cohort of untreated animals demonstrated the value of in vivo imaging in preclinical trials.
Jacoba CMP, Ashraf M, Cavallerano JD, Tolson AM, Tolls D, Pellegrini E, Fleming A, Sun JK, Aiello LP, Silva PS. Association of Maximizing Visible Retinal Area by Manual Eyelid Lifting With Grading of Diabetic Retinopathy Severity and Detection of Predominantly Peripheral Lesions When Using Ultra-Widefield Imaging. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(4):421-425.Abstract
Importance: Methods that increase visible retinal area (VRA; measured in millimeters squared) may improve identification of diabetic retinopathy (DR) lesions. Objective: To evaluate the association of dilation and manual eyelid lifting (MLL) with VRA on ultra-widefield imaging (UWFI) and the association of VRA with grading of DR severity and detection of predominantly peripheral lesions (PPLs). Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective, comparative case-control study at the Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts. Nonmydriatic UWFI with MLL was acquired from a DR teleophthalmology program (Joslin Vision Network [JVN]). A second cohort of mydriatic UWFI was acquired at an academic retina practice (Beetham Eye Institute [BEI]) from November 6, 2017, to November 6, 2018, and with MLL thereafter until November 6, 2019. Fully automated algorithms determined VRA and hemorrhage and/or microaneurysm (HMA) counts. Predominantly peripheral lesions and HMAs were defined as present when at least 1 field had greater HMA number in the peripheral retina than within the corresponding Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study field. Participants included 3014 consecutive patients (5919 eyes) undergoing retinal imaging at JVN and BEI. Exposures: Dilation and MLL performed at the time of UWFI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Visible retinal area, DR severity, and presence of PPLs. Results: Of the 3014 participants, mean (SD) age was 56.1 (14.5) years, 1302 (43.2%) were female, 2450 (81.3%) were White, and mean (SD) diabetes duration was 15.9 (11.4) years. All images from 5919 eyes with UWFI were analyzed. Mean (SD) VRA was 665.1 (167.6) mm2 for all eyes (theoretical maximal VRA, 923.9 mm2), 550.8 (240.7) mm2 for nonmydriatic JVN with MLL (1418 eyes [24.0%]), 688.1 (119.9) mm2 for mydriatic BEI images (3650 eyes [61.7%]), and 757.0 (69.7) mm2 for mydriatic and MLL BEI images (851 eyes [14.4%]). Dilation increased VRA by 25% (P < .001) and MLL increased VRA an additional 10% (P < .001). Nonmydriatic MLL increased VRA by 11.0%. With MLL, HMA counts in UWFI fields increased by 41.7% (from 4.8 to 6.8; P < .001). Visible retinal area was moderately associated with increasing PPL-HMA overall and in each cohort (all, r = 0.33; BEI, r = 0.29; JVN, r = 0.36; P < .001). In JVN images, increasing VRA was associated with more PPL-HMA (quartile 1 [Q1], 23.7%; Q2, 45.8%; Q3, 60.6%; and Q4, 69.2%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Using fully automated VRA and HMA detection algorithms, pupillary dilation and eyelid lifting were shown to substantially increase VRA and PLL-HMA detection. Given the importance of HMA and PPL for determining risk of DR progression, these findings emphasize the importance of maximizing VRA for optimal risk assessment in clinical trials and teleophthalmology programs.
Bispo PJM, Sahm DF, Asbell PA. A Systematic Review of Multi-decade Antibiotic Resistance Data for Ocular Bacterial Pathogens in the United States. Ophthalmol Ther 2022;11(2):503-520.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Since 2009, the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study has been assessing in vitro antibiotic resistance for bacterial isolates sourced from ocular infections in the US. The main goal of this systematic review was to compare in vitro resistance data for ocular pathogens from published US studies with the most recently published data from the ARMOR study (2009-2018) and, where possible, to evaluate trends in bacterial resistance over time over all studies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE®, BIOSIS Previews®, and EMBASE® databases (1/1/1995-6/30/2021). Data were extracted from relevant studies and antibiotic susceptibility rates for common ocular pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci [CoNS], Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae), longitudinal changes in susceptibility, and multidrug resistance (MDR) were compared descriptively. RESULTS: Thirty-two relevant studies were identified. High in vitro resistance was found among S. aureus and CoNS to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and methicillin/oxacillin across studies, with high rates of MDR noted, specifically among methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Data from studies pre-dating or overlapping the early years of ARMOR reflected increasing rates of S. aureus resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, methicillin/oxacillin, and aminoglycosides, while the ARMOR data suggested slight decreases in resistance to these classes between 2009 and 2018. Overall, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence peaked from 2005 to 2015 with a possible decreasing trend in more recent years. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Data from local and regional US datasets were generally consistent with data from the national ARMOR surveillance study. Continued surveillance of ocular bacterial pathogens is needed to track trends such as methicillin resistance and MDR prevalence and any new emerging antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Susceptibility data from ARMOR can inform initial choice of therapy, especially in practice areas where local antibiograms are unavailable.
Natera-de Benito D, Jurgens JA, Yeung A, Zaharieva IT, Manzur A, DiTroia SP, Di Gioia SA, Pais L, Pini V, Barry BJ, Chan W-M, Elder JE, Christodoulou J, Hay E, England EM, Munot P, Hunter DG, Feng L, Ledoux D, O'Donnell-Luria A, Phadke R, Engle EC, Sarkozy A, Muntoni F. Recessive variants in COL25A1 gene as novel cause of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita with ocular congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder. Hum Mutat 2022;43(4):487-498.Abstract
A proper interaction between muscle-derived collagen XXV and its motor neuron-derived receptors protein tyrosine phosphatases σ and δ (PTP σ/δ) is indispensable for intramuscular motor innervation. Despite this, thus far, pathogenic recessive variants in the COL25A1 gene had only been detected in a few patients with isolated ocular congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders. Here we describe five patients from three unrelated families with recessive missense and splice site COL25A1 variants presenting with a recognizable phenotype characterized by arthrogryposis multiplex congenita with or without an ocular congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder phenotype. The clinical features of the older patients remained stable over time, without central nervous system involvement. This study extends the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of COL25A1 related conditions, and further adds to our knowledge of the complex process of intramuscular motor innervation. Our observations indicate a role for collagen XXV in regulating the appropriate innervation not only of extraocular muscles, but also of bulbar, axial, and limb muscles in the human.
Halawa OA, Kolli A, Oh G, Mitchell WG, Glynn RJ, Kim DH, Friedman DS, Zebardast N. Racial and Socioeconomic Differences in Eye Care Utilization among Medicare Beneficiaries with Glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2022;129(4):397-405.Abstract
PURPOSE: Evaluate differences in eye care utilization among patients with glaucoma by race and socioeconomic status (SES). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Representative 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries aged > 65 years with continuous part A/B enrollment between January 1, 2014, and July 1, 2014, at least 1 diagnosis code for glaucoma within that period, and a glaucoma diagnosis in the Chronic Conditions Warehouse before January 1, 2014. METHODS: The following race/ethnicity categories were defined in our cohort: non-Hispanic White, Black/African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Low SES was defined as having 2 or more enrollment-based low-income indicators (dual eligibility for Medicare/Medicaid, Part D limited income subsidies, and eligibility for Part A and B State buy-in). Negative binomial regression analyses were carried out to compare relative rate ratios (RRs) of eye care utilization among racial groups stratified by low and non-low SES. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measured from July 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016: eye examinations and eye care-related office visits; eye care-related inpatient and emergency department (ED) encounters; eye care-related nursing home and home-visit encounters; visual field and retinal nerve fiber OCT tests; glaucoma lasers and surgeries. RESULTS: Among 78 526 participants with glaucoma, mean age was 79.1 years (standard deviation, 7.9 years), 60.9% were female, 78.4% were non-Hispanic White, and 13.8% met enrollment-based criteria for low-SES. Compared with White beneficiaries, Blacks had lower counts of outpatient visits (RR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.93), visual field (VF) tests (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.94), but more inpatient/ED encounters (RR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.55-3.78) and surgeries (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27). Hispanics had fewer outpatient visits (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) OCT tests (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.93), but more inpatient/ED encounters (RR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.18-4.57) and selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.42) versus non-Hispanic Whites. In the non-low SES group, Black versus White disparities persisted in outpatient visits (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92-0.95), VF (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.98), RNFL OCT (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.78-0.83), and inpatient/ED encounters (RR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.55-4.26). CONCLUSIONS: Disparities were found in eye care utilization among Black and Hispanic patients with glaucoma. These differences persisted among Blacks after stratification by SES, suggesting that systemic racism may be an independent driver in this population.
Chinn RN, Raghuram A, Curtiss MK, Gehring AM, De Paula AJ, Roberts TL. Repeatability of the Accommodative Response Measured by the Grand Seiko Autorefractor in Children With and Without Amblyopia and Adults. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;236:221-231.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess test-retest repeatability of the accommodative response (AR) in children with and without amblyopia and adults using the Grand Seiko autorefractor. DESIGN: Prospective reliability assessment. METHODS: Test-retest of accommodation was obtained while participants viewed 20/150 sized letters at 33 cm using the Grand Seiko autorefractor in children 5 to <11 years with amblyopia (n=24) and without amblyopia (n=36), and adults 18 to <35 years (n=34). Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess repeatability and reliability. The AR between the fellow and amblyopic eyes of children with amblyopia and eye 1 and eye 2 of the visually normal participants was assessed using group comparisons. RESULTS: The 95% LOA of the AR was greatest in the amblyopic eyes (-1.25 diopters [D], 1.62 D) of children with amblyopia. The 95% LOA were similar between the fellow eyes (-0.88 D, 0.74 D) of children with amblyopia and both eyes of the children without amblyopia (eye 1: -0.68 D, 0.71 D; eye 2: -0.59 D, 0.70 D) and the adults (eye 1: 95% LOA = -0.49 D, 0.45 D; eye 2: LOA = -0.66 D, 0.67 D). ICCs revealed the Grand Seiko autorefractor as a reliable instrument for measuring AR. CONCLUSIONS: The Grand Seiko autorefractor was more repeatable and reliable when measuring the AR in children and adults without amblyopia than in the amblyopic eye in children with amblyopia. It is recommended that multiple measures of the AR be obtained in amblyopic eyes to improve the precision of measures.
Kim JE, Glassman AR, Josic K, Melia M, Aiello LP, Baker C, Eells JT, Jampol LM, Kern TS, Marcus D, Salehi-Had H, Shah SN, Martin DF, Stockdale CR, Sun JK, Sun JK. A Randomized Trial of Photobiomodulation Therapy for Center-Involved Diabetic Macular Edema with Good Visual Acuity (Protocol AE). Ophthalmol Retina 2022;6(4):298-307.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine if treatment with a photobiomodulation (PBM) device results in greater improvement in central subfield thickness (CST) than placebo in eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema (CI-DME) and good vision. DESIGN: Phase 2 randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Participants had CI-DME and visual acuity (VA) 20/25 or better in the study eye and were recruited from 23 clinical sites in the United States. METHODS: One eye of each participant was randomly assigned 1:1 to a 670-nm light-emitting PBM eye patch or an identical device emitting broad-spectrum white light at low power. Treatment was applied for 90 seconds twice daily for 4 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in CST on spectral-domain OCT at 4 months. RESULTS: From April 2019 to February 2020, 135 adults were randomly assigned to either PBM (n = 69) or placebo (n = 66); median age was 62 years, 37% were women, and 82% were White. The median device compliance was 92% with PBM and 95% with placebo. OCT CST increased from baseline to 4 months by a mean (SD) of 13 (53) μm in PBM eyes and 15 (57) μm in placebo eyes, with the mean difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) being -2 (-20 to 16) μm (P = 0.84). CI-DME, based on DRCR Retina Network sex- and machine-based thresholds, was present in 61 (90%) PBM eyes and 57 (86%) placebo eyes at 4 months (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.30 (0.44-3.83); P = 0.63). VA decreased by a mean (SD) of -0.2 (5.5) letters and -0.6 (4.6) letters in the PBM and placebo groups, respectively (difference [95% CI] = 0.4 (-1.3 to 2.0) letters; P = 0.64). There were 8 adverse events possibly related to the PBM device and 2 adverse events possibly related to the placebo device. None were serious. CONCLUSIONS: PBM as given in this study, although safe and well-tolerated, was not found to be effective for the treatment of CI-DME in eyes with good vision.
Yu-Wai-Man P, Newman NJ, Carelli V, La Morgia C, Biousse V, Bandello FM, Clermont CV, Campillo LC, Leruez S, Moster ML, Cestari DM, Foroozan R, Sadun A, Karanjia R, Jurkute N, Blouin L, Taiel M, Sahel J-A, Sahel J-A. Natural history of patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy-results from the REALITY study. Eye (Lond) 2022;36(4):818-826.Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: REALITY is an international observational retrospective registry of LHON patients evaluating the visual course and outcome in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Demographics and visual function data were collected from medical charts of LHON patients with visual loss. The study was conducted in 11 study centres in the United States of America and Europe. The collection period extended from the presymptomatic stage to at least more than one year after onset of vision loss (chronic stage). A Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) local regression model was used to analyse the evolution of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over time. RESULTS: 44 LHON patients were included; 27 (61%) carried the m.11778G>A ND4 mutation, 8 (18%) carried the m.3460G>A ND1 mutation, and 9 (20%) carried the m.14484T>C ND6 mutation. Fourteen (32%) patients were under 18 years old at onset of vision loss and 5 (11%) were below the age of 12. The average duration of follow-up was 32.5 months after onset of symptoms. At the last observed measure, mean BCVA was 1.46 LogMAR in ND4 patients, 1.52 LogMAR in ND1 patients, and 0.97 LogMAR in ND6 patients. The worst visual outcomes were reported in ND4 patients aged at least 15 years old at onset, with a mean BCVA of 1.55 LogMAR and no tendency for spontaneous recovery. The LOESS modelling curve depicted a severe and permanent deterioration of BCVA. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst LHON patients with the three primary mtDNA mutations, adult patients with the m.11778G>A ND4 mutation had the worst visual outcomes, consistent with prior reports.
Lu ES, Cui Y, Le R, Zhu Y, Wang JC, Laíns I, Katz R, Lu Y, Zeng R, Garg I, Wu DM, Eliott D, Vavvas DG, Husain D, Miller JW, Kim LA, Miller JB. Detection of neovascularisation in the vitreoretinal interface slab using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(4):534-539.Abstract
AIMS: To compare the efficacy of diabetic retinal neovascularisation (NV) detection using the widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA) vitreoretinal interface (VRI) Angio slab and SS-OCT VRI Structure slab. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from January 2019 to June 2020. Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and patients with diabetes but without diabetic retinopathy were included. All patients were imaged with WF SS-OCTA using the 12×12 mm Angio scan protocol centred on the fovea and optic disc. The en-face SS-OCTA VRI Angio slab and SS-OCT VRI Structure slab were evaluated for the presence or absence of NV. SS-OCTA B-scan was used to classify NV according to cross-sectional morphology (forward, tabletop or flat). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS V.26.0. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-two eyes of 89 participants were included in the study. VRI Angio detected NV at higher rates compared with VRI Structure (p<0.05). Combining VRI Angio and Structure improved detection rates compared with VRI Angio alone (p<0.05). Due to segmentation errors of the internal limiting membrane, NV with flat morphological classification had lower rates of detection on VRI Angio compared with NV with forward and tabletop morphology (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: WF SS-OCTA 12×12 mm VRI Angio and SS-OCT VRI Structure imaging centred on the fovea and optic disc detected NV with high sensitivity and low false positives. The VRI slab may be useful to diagnose and monitor PDR in clinical practice.

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