September 2022

Hoogsteen KMP, Szpiro S, Kreiman G, Peli E. Beyond the Cane: Describing Urban Scenes to Blind People for Mobility Tasks. ACM Trans Access Comput 2022;15(3)Abstract
Blind people face difficulties with independent mobility, impacting employment prospects, social inclusion, and quality of life. Given the advancements in computer vision, with more efficient and effective automated information extraction from visual scenes, it is important to determine what information is worth conveying to blind travelers, especially since people have a limited capacity to receive and process sensory information. We aimed to investigate which objects in a street scene are useful to describe and how those objects should be described. Thirteen cane-using participants, five of whom were early blind, took part in two urban walking experiments. In the first experiment, participants were asked to voice their information needs in the form of questions to the experimenter. In the second experiment, participants were asked to score scene descriptions and navigation instructions, provided by the experimenter, in terms of their usefulness. The descriptions included a variety of objects with various annotations per object. Additionally, we asked participants to rank order the objects and the different descriptions per object in terms of priority and explain why the provided information is or is not useful to them. The results reveal differences between early and late blind participants. Late blind participants requested information more frequently and prioritized information about objects' locations. Our results illustrate how different factors, such as the level of detail, relative position, and what type of information is provided when describing an object, affected the usefulness of scene descriptions. Participants explained how they (indirectly) used information, but they were frequently unable to explain their ratings. The results distinguish between various types of travel information, underscore the importance of featuring these types at multiple levels of abstraction, and highlight gaps in current understanding of travel information needs. Elucidating the information needs of blind travelers is critical for the development of more useful assistive technologies.
Yang M, Fjærvoll HK, Fjærvoll KA, Wang NH, Utheim TP, Serhan CN, Dartt DA. Sex-based differences in conjunctival goblet cell responses to pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators. Sci Rep 2022;12(1):16305.Abstract
Many conjunctival inflammatory diseases differ between the sexes and altered conjunctival goblet cells (CGCs) response is often involved. Inflammation is initiated by the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and terminated by the biosynthesis of specialized pro-resolution mediators (SPMs). Herein, we determined the sex-based difference in the responses of CGCs to inflammatory stimuli or pro-resolving lipid SPMs and their interaction with sex hormones. GCs were cultured from pieces of human conjunctiva in RPMI media. CGCs were transferred 24 h before the start of experiments to phenol red-free and FBS-free media to minimize exogenous hormones. RT-PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy (IF), and Western Blot (WB) were performed to determine the presence of sex hormone receptors. Cellular response to pro-inflammatory stimuli or SPMs was studied by measuring the increase in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) using fura 2/AM microscopy. Use of RT-PCR demonstrated estrogen receptor (ER) α in 4/5 males and 3/3 females; ERβ in 2/4 males and 2/3 females; and androgen receptors (AR) in 3/3 male and 3/3 female CGCs. Positive immunoreactivity by IF and protein expression by WB was detected using antibodies for the ERα and ERβ in 3/3 males and 3/3 females, while AR were only present in males. Significantly different Ca2+ responses between sexes were found with carbachol only at 10-3 M, but not with histamine or leukotriene (LT) B4 at any concentration used. Incubation with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), or estradiol (E2) at 10-7 M for 30 min significantly inhibited the LTB4-stimulated [Ca2+]i increase in male and female CGCs. Incubation with DHT, E1, and E2 overnight significantly inhibited the LTB4 response in females, while DHT and E2 significantly inhibited the LTB4 response in males. The SPM lipoxin A4 (LXA4) (10-9-10-8 M), but not the resolvins D1 or D2, induced an [Ca2+]i increase that was significantly higher in males compared to females. We conclude that male and female CGCs showed differences in the expression of sex hormone receptors. Treatment with sex hormones altered pro-inflammatory mediator LTB4-induced response. Males compared to females have a higher response to the ω-6-fatty acid derived SPM LXA4, indicating males may terminate inflammation in conjunctival goblet cells faster than females.
Madjedi KM, Stuart KV, Chua SYL, Luben RN, Warwick A, Pasquale LR, Kang JH, Wiggs JL, Lentjes MA, Aschard H, Sattar N, Foster PJ, Khawaja AP, for and the and Consortium MRFGCUKBEV. The Association between Serum Lipids and Intraocular Pressure in 2 Large United Kingdom Cohorts. Ophthalmology 2022;129(9):986-996.Abstract
PURPOSE: Serum lipids are modifiable, routinely collected blood test features associated with cardiovascular health. We examined the association of commonly collected serum lipid measures (total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides) with intraocular pressure (IOP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in the UK Biobank and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: We included 94 323 participants from the UK Biobank (mean age, 57 years) and 6230 participants from the EPIC-Norfolk (mean age, 68 years) cohorts with data on TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides collected between 2006 and 2009. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, medical, and ophthalmic covariables was used to examine the associations of serum lipids with corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Corneal-compensated IOP. RESULTS: Higher levels of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C were associated independently with higher IOPcc in both cohorts after adjustment for key demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. For each 1-standard deviation increase in TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C, IOPcc was higher by 0.09 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.11 mmHg; P < 0.001), 0.11 mmHg (95% CI, 0.08-0.13 mmHg; P < 0.001), and 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.05-0.09 mmHg; P < 0.001), respectively, in the UK Biobank cohort. In the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, each 1-standard deviation increase in TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C was associated with a higher IOPcc by 0.19 mmHg (95% CI, 0.07-0.31 mmHg; P = 0.001), 0.14 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03-0.25 mmHg; P = 0.016), and 0.17 mmHg (95% CI, 0.06-0.29 mmHg; P = 0.003). An inverse association between triglyceride levels and IOP in the UK Biobank (-0.05 mmHg; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.03; P < 0.001) was not replicated in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort (P = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that serum TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C are associated positively with IOP in 2 United Kingdom cohorts and that triglyceride levels may be associated negatively. Future research is required to assess whether these associations are causal in nature.
Lee D, Nakai A, Miwa Y, Tomita Y, Kunimi H, Chen J, Ikeda S-I, Tsubota K, Negishi K, Kurihara T. Retinal degeneration induced in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury and its management by pemafibrate treatment. FASEB J 2022;36(9):e22497.Abstract
Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common cause of visual impairment. To date, no effective treatment is available for retinal I/R injury. In addition, the precise pathological mechanisms still need to be established. Recently, pemafibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) modulator, was shown to be a promising drug for retinal ischemia. However, the role of pemafibrate in preventing retinal I/R injury has not been documented. Here, we investigated how retinal degeneration occurs in a mouse model of retinal I/R injury by elevation of intraocular pressure and examined whether pemafibrate could be beneficial against retinal degeneration. Adult mice were orally administered pemafibrate (0.5 mg/kg/day) for 4 days, followed by retinal I/R injury. The mice were continuously administered pemafibrate once every day until the end of the experiments. Retinal functional changes were measured using electroretinography. Retina, liver, and serum samples were used for western blotting, quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Retinal degeneration induced by retinal inflammation was prevented by pemafibrate administration. Pemafibrate administration increased the hepatic PPARα target gene expression and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21, a neuroprotective molecule in the eye. The expression of hypoxia-response and pro-and anti-apoptotic/inflammatory genes increased in the retina following retinal I/R injury; however, these changes were modulated by pemafibrate administration. In conclusion, pemafibrate is a promising preventive drug for ischemic retinopathies.
Margeta MA, Yin Z, Madore C, Pitts KM, Letcher SM, Tang J, Jiang S, Gauthier CD, Silveira SR, Schroeder CM, Lad EM, Proia AD, Tanzi RE, Holtzman DM, Krasemann S, Chen DF, Butovsky O. Apolipoprotein E4 impairs the response of neurodegenerative retinal microglia and prevents neuronal loss in glaucoma. Immunity 2022;55(9):1627-1644.e7.Abstract
The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease and a decreased risk of glaucoma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we found that in two mouse glaucoma models, microglia transitioned to a neurodegenerative phenotype characterized by upregulation of Apoe and Lgals3 (Galectin-3), which were also upregulated in human glaucomatous retinas. Mice with targeted deletion of Apoe in microglia or carrying the human APOE4 allele were protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Similarly to Apoe-/- retinal microglia, APOE4-expressing microglia did not upregulate neurodegeneration-associated genes, including Lgals3, following IOP elevation. Genetic and pharmacologic targeting of Galectin-3 ameliorated RGC degeneration, and Galectin-3 expression was attenuated in human APOE4 glaucoma samples. These results demonstrate that impaired activation of APOE4 microglia is protective in glaucoma and that the APOE-Galectin-3 signaling can be targeted to treat this blinding disease.
Moussa K, Begaj T, Ma K, Barrantes PC, Eliott D, Sobrin L. Systemic lymphoma masquerading as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome: Report of a case with multimodal imaging and histopathology. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;27:101643.Abstract
Purpose: To report a case of systemic diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting with ocular manifestations and neurologic findings resembling Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Observations: A 51-year-old Caucasian man presented with headache, ear pain, and blurry vision in both eyes. He was found to have bilateral exudative retinal detachments. After a short period of initial improvement with high dose systemic corticosteroid, his condition significantly worsened. An extensive work-up, including a kidney biopsy, led to a diagnosis of systemic diffuse large B cell lymphoma. He had excellent recovery following treatment with appropriate chemotherapy. Conclusions and Importance: Systemic malignancy may present with ocular manifestations and may masquerade as another diagnosis. An unexpected clinical course may suggest an alternative diagnosis. A broad systemic work-up including an evaluation for malignancy should be considered for patients presenting with unexplained exam or systemic findings.
Maleki A, Fernandez CC, Philip AM, Manhapra A, Chang PY, Foster SC. Acute macular neuroretinopathy in a patient with birdshot chorioretinopathy after intravitreal triamcinolone suspension injection. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;:11206721221124653.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a case of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TRIESENCE®) injection for cystoid macular edema secondary to birdshot chorioretinopathy. METHOD: A case report. PATIENT: A 62-year-old female. RESULTS: The patient presented with acutely decreased vision and a ring scotoma around her central vision three days after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TRIESENCE®) injection for cystoid macular edema in her right eye (OD) secondary to birdshot chorioretinopathy. She had undergone pars plana vitrectomy, cataract extraction, and secondary intraocular lens implantation OD three months prior to the recent injection. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/1000 OD and 20/50 OS. Intraocular pressure was 21 mmHg OD and 12 mmHg OS. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a hypofluorescent area in the perifoveal zone OD. Optical coherence tomography OD depicted hyperreflective areas in the outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, and retinal pigment epithelium. We diagnosed her with AMN OD and started her on brimonidine three times a day OD. She came back a week later with resolved scotoma and her vision improved to 20/60 OD. Five weeks later, BCVA was 20/40 and Intraocular pressures (IOP) was 12 mmHg OD. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPORTANCE: Intravitreal triamcinolone injection may be a cause of AMN with cystoid macular edema (CME) and borderline-high intraocular pressure. Brimonidine may be an effective treatment for these patients in the early course of the disease.
Lennikov A, Yang M, Chang K, Pan L, Saddala MS, Lee C, Ashok A, Cho K-S, Utheim TP, Chen DF. Direct modulation of microglial function by electrical field. Front Cell Dev Biol 2022;10:980775.Abstract
Non-invasive electric stimulation (ES) employing a low-intensity electric current presents a potential therapeutic modality that can be applied for treating retinal and brain neurodegenerative disorders. As neurons are known to respond directly to ES, the effects of ES on glia cells are poorly studied. A key question is if ES directly mediates microglial function or modulates their activity merely via neuron-glial signaling. Here, we demonstrated the direct effects of ES on microglia in the BV-2 cells-an immortalized murine microglial cell line. The low current ES in a biphasic ramp waveform, but not that of rectangular or sine waveforms, significantly suppressed the motility and migration of BV-2 microglia in culture without causing cytotoxicity. This was associated with diminished cytoskeleton reorganization and microvilli formation in BV-2 cultures, as demonstrated by immunostaining of cytoskeletal proteins, F-actin and β-tubulin, and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, ES of a ramp waveform reduced microglial phagocytosis of fluorescent zymosan particles and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BV-2 cells as shown by Proteome Profiler Mouse Cytokine Array. The results of quantitative PCR and immunostaining for cyclooxygenase-2, Interleukin 6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α corroborated the direct suppression of LPS-induced microglial responses by a ramp ES. Transcriptome profiling further demonstrated that ramp ES effectively suppressed nearly half of the LPS-induced genes, primarily relating to cellular motility, energy metabolism, and calcium signaling. Our results reveal a direct modulatory effect of ES on previously thought electrically "non-responsive" microglia and suggest a new avenue of employing ES for anti-inflammatory therapy.
Vemula SK, Kim SA, Muvavarirwa T, Bell JL, Whitman MC. Impaired Extraocular Muscle Innervation Is Present Before Eye Opening in a Mouse Model of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022;63(10):4.Abstract
Purpose: To determine if extraocular muscles (EOMs) from mice with nystagmus show abnormalities in myofiber composition and innervation, as seen in EOMs from human nystagmus patients, and to determine when in development those changes occur. Methods: Balb/c albino mice were crossed to pigmented mice to generate heterozygous mice, which were mated to create experimental litters containing albinos and wild-type controls. Orbits were harvested from adult animals (12 weeks old); on postnatal day (P)0, P10, P14, and P21; and from 6-week-old animals. EOM sections were collected from the intraorbital portion of the muscles. Sections were immunostained for slow and fast myosin and for neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The proportion of each myofiber subtype and the density and size of NMJs were quantified. Initial innervation patterns were assessed using whole-mount immunostaining of embryonic day (E)13.5 embryos expressing IslMN:GFP. Results: Adult albino EOMs display an increased proportion of slow myofibers, larger slow myofibers, and a decreased density of NMJs-similar to human nystagmus patients. The percentage of NMJs on slow myofibers is also lower in albino animals. The initial innervation pattern of the incoming ocular motor neurons is normal in E13.5 albino embryos. Differences in the proportion of slow and fast myofiber subtypes are present as early as P14, and a lower percentage of NMJs on slow myofibers is present by P21. There is a lower density of NMJs on albino EOMs as early as P10, prior to eye opening. Conclusions: Changes in NMJ development observed before eye opening indicate that nystagmus is not solely secondary to poor vision.
Farhat W, Yeung V, Ross A, Kahale F, Boychev N, Kuang L, Chen L, Ciolino JB. Advances in biomaterials for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Biomater Sci 2022;10(19):5391-5429.Abstract
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Although traditional chemotherapy has shown some success in retinoblastoma management, there are several shortcomings to this approach, including inadequate pharmacokinetic parameters, multidrug resistance, low therapeutic efficiency, nonspecific targeting, and the need for adjuvant therapy, among others. The revolutionary developments in biomaterials for drug delivery have enabled breakthroughs in cancer management. Today, biomaterials are playing a crucial role in developing more efficacious retinoblastoma treatments. The key goal in the evolution of drug delivery biomaterials for retinoblastoma therapy is to resolve delivery-associated obstacles and lower nonlocal exposure while ameliorating certain adverse effects. In this review, we will first delve into the historical perspective of retinoblastoma with a focus on the classical treatments currently used in clinics to enhance patients' quality of life and survival rate. As we move along, we will discuss biomaterials for drug delivery applications. Various aspects of biomaterials for drug delivery will be dissected, including their features and recent advances. In accordance with the current advances in biomaterials, we will deliver a synopsis on the novel chemotherapeutic drug delivery strategies and evaluate these approaches to gain new insights into retinoblastoma treatment.
Lin LY, Pan W, Ying G-S, Binenbaum G. Ocular Findings in Children with Headache. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2022;:1-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of ophthalmological findings suggesting an ocular cause for headache or occult neurological disease, among children with headache. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study on children with headache at a tertiary outpatient ophthalmology clinic. All children underwent sensorimotor, anterior segment, and dilated fundoscopic examinations, with or without cycloplegic refraction. Prevalence of one or more new findings of ocular or occult neurological cause of headache, including glaucoma, uveitis, optic nerve elevation, or possible asthenopia from strabismus or refractive issues. Headache characteristics and associated symptoms were evaluated as risk factors for ocular findings. RESULTS: Among 1,878 children with headache (mean age 10 yrs, range 2-18), 492 (26.1%, 95% CI 24.3-28.2%) children had one or more new ocular findings that could cause headache or indicate intracranial disease: refractive issues (342, 18.2%), strabismus (83, 4.4%), optic nerve elevation (51, 2.7%; 26 with papilledema, 25 with pseudopapilledema), uveitis (6, 0.3%), and glaucoma (2, 0.1%). Shorter headache duration was associated with ocular findings (p = .047), but headache frequency, photophobia, nausea/vomiting, and visual changes were not. In univariable analysis, visual changes (p ≤ .001), nausea/vomiting (p ≤ .002), and morning headache (p = .02) were associated with optic nerve elevation. CONCLUSION: An ophthalmologic examination including cycloplegic refraction is indicated in children with headache, as one-quarter have a treatable ocular condition, which may be related to the headache, or sign of intracranial pathology. While nausea, visual changes, or morning headache should raise concern, coincident visual, ocular, or systemic symptoms are not reliable predictors of discovering ocular pathology in a child with headache.
Ho TC, Maamari RN, Kossler AL, Sears CM, Freitag SK, Reshef ER, Shinder R, Rootman DB, Diniz SB, Kahana A, Schlachter D, Do TH, Kally P, Turner S, Mokhtarzadeh A, Harrison AR, Hwang CJ, Kim HJ, Avila SA, Thomas DA, Magazin M, Wester ST, Lee WW, Clauss KD, Holds JB, Sniegowski M, Compton CJ, Briggs C, Malik AI, Lucarelli MJ, Burkat CN, Patel LG, Couch SM. Outcomes of Patients With Thyroid Eye Disease Partially Treated With Teprotumumab. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: In response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, teprotumumab production was temporarily halted with resources diverted toward vaccine production. Many patients who initiated treatment with teprotumumab for thyroid eye disease were forced to deviate from the standard protocol. This study investigates the response of teprotumumab when patients receive fewer than the standard 8-dose regimen. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional cohort study included patients from 15 institutions with active or minimal to no clinical activity thyroid eye disease treated with the standard teprotumumab infusion protocol. Patients were included if they had completed at least 1 teprotumumab infusion and had not yet completed all 8 planned infusions. Data were collected before teprotumumab initiation, within 3 weeks of last dose before interruption, and at the visit before teprotumumab reinitiation. The primary outcome measure was reduction in proptosis more than 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included change in clinical activity score (CAS), extraocular motility restriction, margin reflex distance-1 (MRD1), and reported adverse events. RESULTS: The study included 74 patients. Mean age was 57.8 years, and 77% were female. There were 62 active and 12 minimal to no clinical activity patients. Patients completed an average of 4.2 teprotumumab infusions before interruption. A significant mean reduction in proptosis (-2.9 mm in active and -2.8 mm in minimal to no clinical activity patients, P < 0.01) was noted and maintained during interruption. For active patients, a 3.4-point reduction in CAS (P < 0.01) and reduction in ocular motility restriction (P < 0.01) were maintained during interruption. CONCLUSIONS: Patients partially treated with teprotumumab achieve significant reduction in proptosis, CAS, and extraocular muscle restriction and maintain these improvements through the period of interruption.
Guzman Aparicio MA, Liebman DL, Chodosh J, Freitag SK, Kazlas M, Mai DD, Marando CM, Mukai S, Wu AM, Chen TC. Two pediatric cases of reticular corneal epithelial edema associated with netarsudil. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;27:101638.Abstract
Purpose: To report two pediatric cases of reticular corneal epithelial edema associated with the use of netarsudil ophthalmic solution 0.02%. Observations: In Case 1, a six-year-old male with glaucoma following cataract surgery was treated with netarsudil for thirteen months and developed diffuse reticular corneal epithelial edema on post-operative day one after undergoing transscleral diode cyclophotocoagulation for persistently elevated intraocular pressures. In Case 2, a three-month-old male with bilateral ocular hypertension developed unilateral inferior reticular corneal epithelial edema five weeks after initiation of netarsudil, which had been discontinued in the fellow eye two weeks prior. In both cases, the reticular epithelial edema resolved following cessation of netarsudil. Conclusions and Importance: Netarsudil-associated reticular corneal epithelial edema can occur in infants and young children.
Marmamula S, Barrenkala NR, Kumbham TR, Modepalli SB, Yellapragada R, Khanna RC, Friedman DS. Impact of an intervention for avoidable vision loss on visual function in the elderly-The Hyderabad Ocular Morbidity in Elderly Study (HOMES). Eye (Lond) 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To report the impact of interventions for avoidable vision impairment (VI) on the visual function of elderly residents in 'homes for the aged' in India. METHODS: Participants aged ≥60 years were recruited. A comprehensive eye examination was conducted by trained examiners and interventions were provided. Trained social investigators administered the Indian Vision Function questionnaire (INDVFQ) to assess visual function before and after the intervention (spectacles, cataract surgery or laser capsulotomy). Lower scores on IVFQ imply better visual function. VI was defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 in the better eye. VI due to cataract, uncorrected refractive errors, and posterior capsular opacification after cataract surgery were considered avoidable VI. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants (n = 613) was 73.8 years (standard deviation: 8.1 years) and 378 (62.2%) were women. 64/103 (62.1%) participants who had avoidable VI at baseline were evaluated after the intervention. Significant gains were observed in all four domains of visual function. There was a 14.9% improvement in mobility scores (33.8 versus 28.8; p = 0.03), a 19.9% improvement in the activity limitations score (36.8 versus 29.5; p < 0.01), a 10.9% improvement in the psychosocial impact score (41.1 versus 36.6; p < 0.01) and a 13.6% improvement in the visual symptoms score (49.2 versus 42.5 p < 0.01). Overall, the mean IVFQ score improved by 16.4% (47.6 versus 39.8; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Elderly individuals in residential care with avoidable VI had a significant improvement in visual function after relatively low-cost interventions such as spectacles and cataract surgery. Strategies are needed to provide these interventions for the elderly in 'homes for the aged' in India.
Ogawa Y, Dana R, Kim S, Jain S, Rosenblatt MI, Perez VL, Clayton JA, Alves M, Rocha EM, Amparo F, Seo KY, Wang Y, Shen J, Oh JY, Vanathi M, Nair S, Na K-S, Riemens A, Sippel K, Soifer M, Wang S, Trindade M, Kim MK, Yoon CH, Yagi R, Hiratsuka R, Ogawa M, Shimizu E, Sato Y, Pflugfelder S, Tsubota K. Multicenter prospective validation study for international chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease consensus diagnostic criteria. Ocul Surf 2022;26:200-208.Abstract
PURPOSE: To validate the international chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) diagnostic criteria (ICCGVHD) compared to the National Institute of Health diagnostic criteria 2014 (NIH2014) for chronic ocular GVHD. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2019, the study enrolled 233 patients with or without chronic ocular GVHD combined with the presence or absence of systemic chronic GVHD in an internationally prospective multicenter and observational cohort from 9 institutions. All patients were evaluated for four clinical parameters of ICCGVHD. RESULTS: The relation between the ICCGVHD score (0-11) and NIH2014 eye score (0-4) was relatively high (r = 0.708, 95% CI: 0.637-0.767, p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of ICCGVHD for NIH 2014 for 233 patients were 94.3% (95% CI: 89.6%-98.1%) and 71.7% (95% CI: 63.0-79.5%), respectively (cutoff value of the ICCGVHD score = 6). The positive predictive value was 77.1% (95% CI: 71.1%-82.1%), and the negative predictive value was 87.0% (95% CI:81.6-92.5%). For the patients with systemic GVHD (n = 171), the sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 67.2%, respectively (ICCGVHD-score cutoff value = 6). By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.903 (95% CI: 0.859-0.948). For patients without systemic GVHD (n = 62), the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 76.7%, respectively (ICCGVHD-score cutoff value = 6). The AUC was 0.891 (95% CI 0.673-1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Good sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and correlation were found between ICCGVHD and NIH2014. ICCGVHD scores ≥6 can be useful to diagnose ocular GVHD with or without systemic GVHD for clinical research.