PURPOSE: To determine whether an association between Vitamin D and noninfectious ocular inflammation exists. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study with 765 patients (333 uveitis cases, 103 scleritis cases, 329 controls). Logistic regression models examined the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and ocular inflammation. RESULTS: The odds of having uveitis were 1.92 times higher for patients with hypovitaminosis D compared to patients with normal Vitamin D levels in the multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.92, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.36-2.72, p = 2.32 × 10]. A secondary analysis demonstrated that the odds of developing uveitis or scleritis were 5% lower and 4% lower, respectively, for every unit increase in Vitamin D level (uveitis: OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.94-0.97, p = 9.87 × 10; scleritis: OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93-0.99, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Hypovitaminosis D was associated with increased risk of ocular inflammation in this retrospective study.