Pathological neovascularization (NV) is a hallmark of late stage neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). There is accumulating evidence that alterations in inflammatory and immune system pathways that arise from genetic differences, injury, and disease can predispose individuals to retinal neovascular eye diseases. Yet the mechanism of disease progression with respect to the complement system in these maladies is not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the complement system as an emerging player in the etiology of several retinal diseases. We will summarize herein several of the complement system pathways known to be involved in ocular neovascular pathologies. Current treatment for many neovascular eye diseases focuses on suppression of NV with laser ablation, photodynamic therapy, or anti-VEGF angiogenic inhibitors. However, these treatments do not address the underlying cause of many of these diseases. A clear understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms could bring a major shift in our approach to disease treatment and prevention.