A Comprehensive Review of Sex Disparities in Symptoms, Pathophysiology, and Epidemiology of Dry Eye Syndrome.

Date Published:

2016 Apr 21


INTRODUCTION: The etiology, frequency, manifestation, and treatment of dry eye syndrome are commonly influenced by sex and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study aims to review the differences in epidemiology, pathophysiology, and associated diseases between the sexes. The terms men and male and women and female are used interchangeably throughout the review to refer to biological sex. RESULTS: There are numerous objective and subjective markers of dry eye syndrome but not one diagnostic criterion. There are numerous associated conditions with dry eye syndrome varying from autoimmune to allergic. Large epidemiologic studies reviewed suggest that there does indeed exist a difference between dry eye symptoms between men and women, with women having dry eye signs and reporting dry eye symptoms more often than men. The increased prevalence in women could be correlated to an increased association with certain systemic diseases, specifically autoimmune diseases, and to hormonal variations. Several studies found equivocal data about prevalence of dry eye symptoms between men and women. DISCUSSION: Interpreting studies that investigate epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of dry-eye conditions is complicated by the lack of universally adapted diagnostic criteria and standardized, specific diagnostic tests, and inter-study variability in the definition of dry eye syndrome.

See also: Cornea, April 2016, All, 2016
Last updated on 04/29/2016