Date Published:2016 Feb
PURPOSE: We performed a literature synthesis to identify the full spectrum of compounds implicated in drug-induced, bilateral secondary angle-closure glaucoma (2° ACG). METHODS: Systematic PubMed literature review identified relevant bilateral 2° ACG case reports. We evaluated these reports with both the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale to assess the causality of reported drug reactions and a 2° ACG scale scoring system we developed to determine the likelihood that the event represented bilateral 2° ACG. Two independent graders performed these analyses and their scores were averaged for interpretation. The Naranjo scale ranges from -4 to +13 and the drug reaction was considered definite if the score was ≥9, probable if 5 to 8, possible if 1 to 4, and doubtful if ≤0. The 2° ACG score ranges from 0 to 7. We considered a 2° ACG score of ≥4 as evidence of significant likelihood that the drug reaction represented bilateral 2° ACG. RESULTS: No drug had a definite Naranjo score, but the following drug entities had probable Naranjo scores and 2° ACG scores ≥4: acetazolamide, "anorexiant mix," bupropion, cabergoline, "ecstasy," escitalopram, flavoxate, flucloxacillin, hydrochlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene, mefenamic acid, methazolamide, oseltamivir, topiramate, topiramate/bactrim, and venlafaxine. Root chemical analysis revealed that sulfur-containing and non-sulfur-containing compounds contributed to bilateral 2° ACG. CONCLUSIONS: Several compound preparations were implicated in drug-induced bilateral 2° ACG. Treating physicians should be aware that some forms of recreational drug use, which the patient may not admit to, could contribute to this vision-threatening side effect.