PURPOSE: To report the long-term surgical outcomes for a cohort of children with large-angle infantile esotropia.
DESIGN: Multicenter, nonrandomized clinical study.
METHODS: Setting: Two tertiary-care pediatric hospitals.
STUDY POPULATION: Children with large-angle (≥55 prism diopters) infantile esotropia.
INTERVENTION: Surgical treatment of infantile esotropia.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Success rate at final follow-up (postoperative deviation ≤ 10 prism diopters and no need for retreatment).
RESULTS: A total of 88 patients with large-angle infantile esotropia were treated during the 13-year study period. Treatment was bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions in 70 patients, botulinum toxin-augmented surgery in 15 patients, and 3-muscle surgery in 3 patients. After a mean follow-up of 40 months, 20 patients (23%) had a successful outcome compared to 68 treatment failures (77%). Of the 68 treatment failures, 59 had residual or recurrent esotropia and 9 had sequential exotropia. On multivariate logistic regression, treatment modality was the only factor significantly associated with a successful outcome. Specifically, patients treated with botulinum toxin-augmented surgery were more likely to have a successful outcome compared to patients treated with bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions. For the 26 patients (30%) who underwent retreatment, the mean number of procedures was 2.1, and 7 (27%) had a deviation of ≤10 prism diopters at final follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall success rate for treatment of large-angle infantile esotropia was poor in this cohort, with most failures owing to recurrent or residual esotropia. Botulinum toxin-augmented surgery was associated with a higher success rate at final follow-up.