PURPOSE: To report the long-term visual outcomes and complications after Boston keratoprosthesis type II implantation in the largest single-center case series with the longest average follow-up. DESIGN: Retrospective review of consecutive clinical case series. PARTICIPANTS: Between January 1992 and April 2015 at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 48 eyes of 44 patients had keratoprosthesis type II implanted by 2 surgeons (C.H.D. and J.C.). METHODS: For each eye, data were collected and analyzed on the preoperative characteristics, intraoperative procedures, and postoperative course. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity outcomes, postoperative complications, and device retention. RESULTS: The most common indications for surgery were Stevens-Johnson syndrome in 41.7% (20 of 48 eyes) and mucous membrane pemphigoid in 41.7% (20 of 48 eyes). Mean follow-up duration was 70.2 months (standard deviation, 61.8 months; median, 52 months; range, 6 months to 19.8 years). Almost all patients (95.8%, 46 of 48 eyes) had a preoperative visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. Postoperative visual acuity improved to 20/200 or better in 37.5% (18 of 48 eyes) and to 20/100 or better in 33.3% (16 of 48 eyes) at the last follow-up visit. The most common postoperative complication was retroprosthetic membrane formation in over half (60.4%, 29 of 48 eyes). The most pressing postoperative complication was glaucoma onset or progression in about a third. Preexisting glaucoma was present in 72.9% (35 of 48 eyes). Glaucoma progressed in 27.1% (13 of 48 eyes) and was newly diagnosed in 8.3% (4 of 48 eyes) after surgery. Other postoperative complications were tarsorrhaphy revision in 52.1% (25 of 48 eyes), retinal detachment in 18.8% (9 of 48 eyes), infectious endophthalmitis in 6.3% (3 of 48 eyes), and choroidal detachment or hemorrhage in 8.3% (4 of 48 eyes). Half of eyes retained their initial keratoprosthesis at the last follow-up (50.0%, 24 of 48 eyes). CONCLUSIONS: The Boston keratoprosthesis type II is a viable option to salvage vision in patients with poor prognosis for other corneal procedures. Retroprosthetic membranes, keratoprosthesis retention, and glaucoma are major challenges in the postoperative period; however, the keratoprosthesis can still provide improved vision in a select group of patients.