A microanatomic abnormality of the lacrimal gland associated with Goldenhar syndrome.


Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Katowitz WR, Eagle RC. A microanatomic abnormality of the lacrimal gland associated with Goldenhar syndrome. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(5):654-63.

Date Published:

2016 Sep-Oct


A 12-month-old male infant, noted from birth to have a diffuse right temporal epibulbar thickening that encroached on the limbus inferotemporally, was found to manifest stigmata of Goldenhar syndrome, including a limbal dermoid with vellus hairs, esotropia, astigmatism, fullness and ectropion of the lower eyelid, preauricular skin tag, agenesis of the right kidney, and a supernumerary rib. In the excised epibulbar specimen, in addition to a solid dermoid, lobules of lacrimal gland tissue were interpreted as a portion of the palpebral or orbital lobes. This tissue displayed a unique histopathologic finding. Within some of the lobules were cuffs of eosinophilic squamous (epidermoid) cells that surrounded the intralobular ductules and made variable incursions into, with replacement of, the acinar units. Immunohistochemistry disclosed that the normal acinar and lumen-forming ductular cells were intermediate weight cytokeratin7-positive. The acinar cells were additionally gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 positive. The cells of the squamous cuffs were heavy weight cytokeratin 5/6-positive. The outermost basal cells of the cuffs were cytokeratin 14-positive, in common with the myoepithelial cells of the acini. The intraacinar squamous cells were negative for smooth muscle actin and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15. These findings suggest, but do not prove, that the source of the periductular and acinar squamous metaplasia was the germinal transitional cells where the acinar myoepithelium interfaces and imperceptibly converts into ductular basal cells. The foregoing findings are evaluated in the context of the panoply of ocular, facial, and visceral anomalies manifested in Goldenhar spectrum.

Last updated on 09/28/2016