Progress in the application of CRISPR: From gene to base editing

Date Published:

2019 03


The system of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated endonucleases (Cas) has been utilized for genome editing with great accuracy and high efficiency in generating gene knockout, knockin, and point mutations in eukaryotic genomes. However, traditional CRISPR/Cas9 technology introduces double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at a target locus as the first step to make gene corrections, which easily results in undesired mutations. Thus, it is necessary to develop new methods for correcting the unwanted mutations. In this review, we summarize the recent developments and a new approach to genome and base editing by using CRISPR/Cas9. This methodology renders a conversion of one target base into another, for example, C to T (or G to A), and A to G (or T to C) without producing DSBs, requiring a donor DNA template, or generating excessive insertions and deletions. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-derived base editing also improves efficiency in repairing point mutations in the genome.

Last updated on 04/01/2019