Diabetes mellitus has profound effects on multiple organ systems; however, the loss of vision caused by diabetic retinopathy might be one of the most impactful in a patient's life. The retina is a highly metabolically active tissue that requires a complex interaction of cells, spanning light sensing photoreceptors to neurons that transfer the electrochemical signal to the brain with support by glia and vascular tissue. Neuronal function depends on a complex inter-dependency of retinal cells that includes the formation of a blood-retinal barrier. This dynamic system is negatively affected by diabetes mellitus, which alters normal cell-cell interactions and leads to profound vascular abnormalities, loss of the blood-retinal barrier and impaired neuronal function. Understanding the normal cell signalling interactions and how they are altered by diabetes mellitus has already led to novel therapies that have improved visual outcomes in many patients. Research highlighted in this Review has led to a new understanding of retinal pathophysiology during diabetes mellitus and has uncovered potential new therapeutic avenues to treat this debilitating disease.
Importance: The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) indicated that urgent or emergent vitreoretinal surgical procedures should continue during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although decreases in the frequency of critical procedures have been reported outside the field of ophthalmology, analyses are limited by volume, geography, and time. Objective: To evaluate whether the frequency of ophthalmic surgical procedures deemed urgent or emergent by the AAO changed across the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: Vitreoretinal practices from 17 institutions throughout the US participated in this multicenter cross-sectional study. The frequency of 11 billed vitreoretinal Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes across respective weeks was obtained from each practice between January 1, 2019, and May 31, 2020. Data were clustered into intravitreal injections (code 67028), lasers and cryotherapy (codes 67141, 67145, and 67228), retinal detachment (RD) repairs (codes 67107, 67108, 67110, and 67113), and other vitrectomies (codes 67036, 67039, and 67040). Institutions were categorized by region (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West Coast), practice setting (academic [tax-exempt] or private [non-tax-exempt]), and date of respective statewide stay-at-home orders. Main Outcomes and Measures: Nationwide changes in the frequency of billing for urgent or emergent vitreoretinal surgical procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 526 536 CPT codes were ascertained: 483 313 injections, 19 257 lasers or cryotherapy, 14 949 RD repairs, and 9017 other vitrectomies. Relative to 2019, a weekly institutional decrease in injections was observed from March 30 to May 2, 2020, with a maximal 38.6% decrease (from a mean [SD] of 437.8 [436.3] to 273.8 [269.0] injections) from April 6 to 12, 2020 (95% CI, -259 to -69 injections; P = .002). A weekly decrease was also identified that spanned a longer interval, at least until study conclusion (March 16 to May 31, 2020), for lasers and cryotherapy, with a maximal 79.6% decrease (from a mean [SD] of 6.6 [7.7] to 1.5 [2.0] procedures) from April 6 to 12, 2020 (95% CI, -6.8 to -3.3 procedures; P < .001), for RD repairs, with a maximal 59.4% decrease (from a mean [SD] of 3.5 [4.0] to 1.6 [2.2] repairs) from April 13 to 19, 2020 (95% CI, -2.7 to -1.4 repairs; P < .001), and for other vitrectomies, with a maximal 84.3% decrease (from a mean [SD] of 3.0 [3.1] to 0.4 [0.8] other vitrectomies) from April 6 to 12, 2020 (95% CI, -3.3 to -1.8 other vitrectomies; P < .001). No differences were identified by region, setting, or state-level stay-at-home order adjustment. Conclusions and Relevance: Although the AAO endorsed the continued performance of urgent or emergent vitreoretinal surgical procedures, the frequency of such procedures throughout the country experienced a substantial decrease that may persist after the COVID-19 pandemic's initial exponential growth phase. This decrease appears independent of region, setting, and state-level stay-at-home orders. It is unknown to what extent vitreoretinal intervention would have decreased without AAO recommendations, and how the decrease is associated with outcomes. Although safety is paramount during the COVID-19 pandemic, practices should consider prioritizing availability for managing high-acuity conditions until underlying reasons for the reduction are fully appreciated.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether YAP/TAZ activation in uveal melanoma (UM) and the susceptibility of melanoma cell lines to YAP/TAZ inhibition by verteporfin (VP) is related to the tumor's genetic background. Methods: Characteristics of 144 patients with enucleated UM were analyzed together with mRNA expression levels of YAP/TAZ-related genes (80 patients from the The Cancer Genome Atlas [TCGA] project and 64 patients from Leiden, The Netherlands). VP was administered to cell lines 92.1, OMM1, Mel270, XMP46, and MM28 (UM), CRMM1 and CRMM2 (conjunctival melanoma), and OCM3 (cutaneous melanoma). Viability, growth speed, and expression of YAP1-related proteins were assessed. Results: In TCGA data, high expression of YAP1 and WWTR1 correlated with the presence of monosomy 3 (P = 0.009 and P < 0.001, respectively) and BAP1-loss (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively) in the primary UM; metastasis development correlated with higher expression of YAP1 (P = 0.05) and WWTR1 (P = 0.003). In Leiden data, downstream transcription factor TEAD4 was increased in cases with M3/BAP1-loss (P = 0.002 and P = 0.006) and related to metastasis (P = 0.004). UM cell lines 92.1, OMM1, and Mel270 (GNAQ/11-mutation, BAP1-positive) and the fast-growing cell line OCM3 (BRAF-mutation) showed decreased proliferation after exposure to VP. Two slow-growing UM cell lines XMP46 and MM28 (GNAQ/11-mutation, BAP1-negative) were not sensitive to VP, and neither were the two conjunctival melanoma cell lines (BRAF/NRAS-mutation). Conclusions: High risk UM showed an increased expression of YAP/TAZ-related genes. Although most UM cell lines responded in vitro to VP, BAP1-negative and conjunctival melanoma cell lines did not. Not only the mutational background, but also cell growth rate is an important predictor of response to YAP/TAZ inhibition by VP.
Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020. Lancet Glob Health 2021;9(4):e489-e551.
Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (SCST) is a rare, yet severe, process typically arising from infections of the paranasal sinuses (predominately ethmoid and/or sphenoid sinusitis) and, less commonly, otogenic, odontogenic, and pharyngeal sources. Clinical symptoms of SCST arise from obstruction of venous drainage from the orbit and compression of the cranial nerves within the cavernous sinus. In the preantibiotic era, SCST was considered universally fatal (80-100%); however, with the introduction of antibiotics the overall incidence, morbidity and mortality of SCST have greatly declined. In spite of dramatic improvements, morbidity and mortality remain high, with the majority of patients experiencing neurological sequalae, highlighting the severity of the disease and the need for prompt recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. Here we review of the literature of SCST with a focus on the current recommendations and recent evidence for diagnostic and medical management of this condition.
This study assesses the safety and efficacy of microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) with cataract extraction in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). In our sample of 45 NTG patients, mean intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 13.7 to 12.3 mmHg at 2.5 years, and mean medication burden decreased from 2.0 to 1.1 at 1.5 years. For success defined as IOP reduction ≥ 30% from baseline IOP with medication burden reduction from preoperative levels, success probability was 5.4% at 1.5 years. For success defined as medication burden reduction with an IOP reaching goal IOP as determined by the glaucoma specialist, success probabilities were 67.2% at 1.5 years and 29.4% at 2.5 years. At the last follow-up visit, eyes with two MIGS procedures with different mechanisms of action achieved successful medication reduction 68.8% of the time versus 35.7% achieved by a single MIGS procedure (p = 0.052). At their last visit, visual acuity was unchanged or improved in all eyes (100%). MIGS with cataract surgery results in modest reductions in IOP and medication burden in NTG patients, which may lead to lower costs and better therapeutic compliance. A combination of two MIGS procedures with different mechanisms of action may potentially be more effective in reducing medication burden than a single MIGS procedure in NTG patients. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether MIGS for NTG patients may help decrease medication burden while helping achieve goal IOP.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical effect of topical cyclosporine A (CsA) (0.05%) on dry eye patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and non-Sjogren's syndrome (NSS). METHOD: This retrospective comparative study includes the dry eye (DE) patients who were treated with topical CsA. DE patients were divided into two groups as follows: DE with Sjogren's syndrome (DE-SS) and DE with Non-Sjogren's syndrome (DE-NSS). Dry eye parameters were recorded at baseline and each visit. RESULTS: Schirmer's test 1 scores were 2.7 ± 0.5 mm at baseline and 3.5 ± 0.7 mm at 12th month in DE-SS, 2.9 ± 0.7 mm at baseline and 9.5 ± 0.7 mm in DE-NSS groups at 12th month. Mean ST score was higher in DE-NSS group than DE-SS group at sixth and 12th months of the treatment (both p = 0.001). Tear break-up time score showed a significant improvement in DE-NSS group, and it was lower in DE-NSS group than DE-SS group group at sixth and 12th months of the treatment (p = 0.044 and 0.027, respectively). Mean OSDI score was lower in DE-NSS group than DE-SS group at sixth and 12th months of the treatment (p = 0.030 and 0.032, respectively). CONCLUSION: Topical CsA seems to be more effective in the treatment of the DE-NSS.
AIMS: To compare widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA) with ultra-widefield colour fundus photography (UWF CFP) and fluorescein angiography (UWF FA) for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) lesions. METHODS: This prospective, observational study was conducted at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from December 2018 to October 2019. Proliferative DR, non-proliferative DR and diabetic patients with no DR were included. All patients were imaged with a WF SS-OCTA using a Montage 15×15 mm scan. UWF CFP and UWF FA were taken by a 200°, single capture retinal imaging system. Images were independently evaluated for the presence or absence of DR lesions including microaneurysms (MAs), intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs), neovascularisation elsewhere (NVE), neovascularisation of the optic disc (NVD) and non-perfusion areas (NPAs). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS V.25.0. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-two eyes of 101 participants were included in the study. When compared with UWF CFP, WF SS-OCTA was found to be superior in detecting IRMAs (p<0.001) and NVE/NVD (p=0.007). The detection rates of MAs, IRMAs, NVE/NVD and NPAs in WF SS-OCTA were comparable with UWF FA images (p>0.05). Furthermore, when we compared WF SS-OCTA plus UWF CFP with UWF FA, the detection rates of MAs, IRMAs, NVE/NVD and NPAs were identical (p>0.005). Agreement (κ=0.916) between OCTA and FA in classifying DR was excellent. CONCLUSION: WF SS-OCTA is useful for identification of DR lesions. WF SS-OCTA plus UWF CFP may offer a less invasive alternative to FA for DR diagnosis.
Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Reinshagen KL, Chwalisz BK. Case 292. Radiology 2021;299(1):234-236.Abstract
History A 24-year-old right-handed woman presented to a neuro-ophthalmology clinic in Massachusetts in the summer with acute binocular diplopia when looking down and to the left, which started about 1 month earlier. Her medical history was notable for Raynaud syndrome, recurrent streptococcal pharyngitis, and an allergy to amoxicillin. Three days prior to developing diplopia, she presented to an outside emergency department due to fever, chills, and back pain. She received ciprofloxacin for presumed urinary tract infection based on urinalysis, which demonstrated few bacteria and was negative for leukocyte esterase, nitrites, and white blood cells. She then presented again to an outside emergency department for diplopia evaluation. Initial MRI and MR angiography of the brain at that time did not demonstrate any relevant findings, and the patient was referred to our department for neuro-ophthalmic evaluation, where she was seen 4 weeks later. Neuro-ophthalmic examination revealed 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes, and a right hypertropia in left gaze, downgaze and right head tilt, with right eye excyclotorsion. There were no ocular signs of myasthenia gravis or thyroid eye disease, nor did the patient report ocular or systemic symptoms. She denied recent travel. High-spatial-resolution MRI of the brain and orbit were performed (Figs 1, 2).
PURPOSE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes of Ahmed Clear Path (ACP) valveless glaucoma drainage device in childhood glaucoma. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients ≤16 years with childhood glaucoma who had ACP implantation at Boston Children's Hospital from December 2019 to June 2020 with at least 6 months follow-up period. RESULTS: The study included 7 eyes of 5 patients implanted by a single surgeon. The median follow-up was 12 months. The mean IOP was reduced from 36±3.5▒mmHg on a mean of 2.7±0.6 glaucoma medications preoperatively to a mean IOP of 12.4±2.8▒mmHg (P<0.001) on a mean of 0.7±0.8 medications postoperatively at final follow-up (P=0.0009). Complete success was achieved in 4 eyes while qualified success was achieved in 3 eyes. CONCLUSION: The ACP GDD provided good short term IOP control and technical advantages for implantation for pediatric eyes were observed.
Pathologic angiogenesis causes blindness in many eye diseases. Crespo-Garcia, Tsuruda, and Dejda et al. employed bioinformatics to characterize cell senescence as a primary factor in the common pathogenesis of retinopathies. They validated their findings using human and mouse retina with proliferative retinopathy. Clearance of senescent cells suppressed neovessel growth.
The rationale of spinal administration of endothelin-1(ET-1) mediated anti-nociceptive effect has not been elucidated. ET-1 is reported to promote nuclear effluxion of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in myocytes, and spinal HDAC5 is implicated in modulation of pain processing. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether central ET-1 plays an anti-nociceptive role by facilitating spinal HDAC5 nuclear shuttling under neuropathic pain. Here, we demonstrate that upregulating spinal ET-1 attenuated the nociception induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation surgery and this analgesic effect mediated by ET-1 was attenuated by intrathecal injection of endothelin A receptor selective inhibitor (BQ123) or by blocking the exportation of nuclear HDAC5 by adeno-associated viruses targeting neuronal HDAC5 (AVV-HDAC5 S259/498A Mutant). Notably, ET-1 administration increased spinal glutamate acid decarboxylases (GAD65/67) expression via initiating HDAC5 nuclear exportation and increased the acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (Acetyl-H3K9) in the promotor regions of spinal Gad1 and Gad2 genes. This was reversed by blocking endothelin A receptor function or by inhibiting the spinal neuronal nuclear exportation of HDAC5. Therefore, inducing spinal GABAergic neuronal HDAC5 nuclear exportation may be a novel therapeutic approach for managing neuropathic pain. PERSPECTIVE: Neuropathic pain is intractable in a clinical setting, and epigenetic regulation is considered to contribute to this processing. Characterizing the anti-nociceptive effect of ET-1 and investigating the associated epigenetic mechanisms in animal models may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies and targets for treating neuropathic pain.
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between refractive error and diabetic retinopathy (DR). DESIGN: Clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Type I diabetes individuals with serial refractive error and DR stage measurements over 30 years in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) follow-up study. METHODS: Stage of DR was measured every 6 months from standard fundus photographs, and refractive error was measured annually during the 6.5 years of DCCT; then, both were staggered every fourth year during EDIC with the full cohort measured at EDIC years 4 and 10. Outcomes of DR were 2- or 3-step progression, presence of proliferative DR (PDR), clinically significant macular edema (CSME), diabetic macular edema (DME), or ocular surgery. Myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent of ≤-0.5, >-0.5 and <0.5, and ≥0.5, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each outcome separately, Cox proportional hazard (PH) models assessed the association between the refractive error status and the subsequent risk of that outcome, both without and with adjustment for potential risk factors. RESULTS: Hyperopia was associated with a higher risk of 2-step progression (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.59), 3-step progression (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05-1.73), and PDR (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92) compared with emmetropia in unadjusted models. These associations remained significant after adjustment for DCCT treatment group, cohort, age, sex, smoking, duration of diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, albumin excretion rate, and DCCT/EDIC mean updated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (2-step progression: HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.58; 3-step progression: HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68; PDR: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.00-1.90). Myopia was not associated with any of the 5 DR outcomes in the unadjusted models and only marginally associated with 2-step progression (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.24) in the adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia is not associated with DR progression risk. Hyperopia is an independent risk factor for 2-step and 3-step DR progression and PDR.
PURPOSE: To identify common causes of emergency department-treated eye injury among older adults in the United States (US), and to characterize of fall-related ocular trauma in this population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a nationally representative database of US emergency department-treated injuries, was used to assemble a cohort of adults 65 years and older with eye injuries between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2019. Demographic information, diagnosis, disposition, injury location and consumer product associated with injury were collected. Narrative descriptions of all injuries were reviewed to identify eye injuries secondary to falls. RESULTS: 4,953 eye injuries among older adults were reported from 2000 to 2019, a stratified probability sample representing approximately 238,162 injuries, with an average annual frequency of 12,000 injuries. Falls accounted for 11.5% of these injuries. Fall-related eye injuries commonly presented from home (66.5%) and were more likely to occur in the winter than eye injuries from other causes (28.1% vs. 18.4%, p<0.01). Risk factors for fall-related eye injury included older age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.10-1.13 per year), female sex (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.1 vs. male), Black race (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5 vs. White) and presentation from a nursing home (OR 12.7, 95% CI 4.9-32.8 vs. other locations). Older adults with fall-related injury were more likely to be hospitalized (OR 22.8, 95% CI 15.3-33.9) and to suffer from a ruptured globe (OR 14.1, 95% CI 6.5-30.6) than those with fall-unrelated injury. CONCLUSIONS: Falls are an important mechanism of ocular trauma in older adults and are associated with worse outcomes compared to eye injuries from other causes.
The viral antigen (Ag)-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), i.e., PSC-CTLs, have the ability to suppress the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After adoptive transfer, PSC-CTLs can infiltrate into the local tissues to suppress HIV replication. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the viral Ag-specific PSC-CTLs elicit the antiviral response remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we generated the functional HIV-1 Gag epitope SL9-specific CTLs from the induced PSC (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-CTLs, and investigated the suppression of SL9-specific iPSC-CTLs on viral replication and the protection of CD4+ T cells. A chimeric HIV-1, i.e., EcoHIV, was used to produce HIV replication in mice. We show that adoptive transfer of SL9-specific iPSC-CTLs greatly suppressed EcoHIV replication in the peritoneal macrophages and spleen in the animal model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the adoptive transfer significantly reduced expression of PD-1 on CD4+ T cells in the spleen and generated persistent anti-HIV memory T cells. These results indicate that stem cell-derived viral Ag-specific CTLs can robustly accumulate in the local tissues to suppress HIV replication and prevent CD4+ T cell exhaustion through reduction of PD-1 expression.
Importance: Lack of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) after extremely preterm birth may contribute to preterm morbidity, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Objective: To determine whether enteral supplementation with fatty acids from birth to 40 weeks' postmenstrual age reduces ROP in extremely preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Mega Donna Mega trial, a randomized clinical trial, was a multicenter study performed at 3 university hospitals in Sweden from December 15, 2016, to December 15, 2019. The screening pediatric ophthalmologists were masked to patient groupings. A total of 209 infants born at less than 28 weeks' gestation were tested for eligibility, and 206 infants were included. Efficacy analyses were performed on as-randomized groups on the intention-to-treat population and on the per-protocol population using as-treated groups. Statistical analyses were performed from February to April 2020. Interventions: Infants received either supplementation with an enteral oil providing AA (100 mg/kg/d) and DHA (50 mg/kg/d) (AA:DHA group) or no supplementation within 3 days after birth until 40 weeks' postmenstrual age. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was severe ROP (stage 3 and/or type 1). The secondary outcomes were AA and DHA serum levels and rates of other complications of preterm birth. Results: A total of 101 infants (58 boys [57.4%]; mean [SD] gestational age, 25.5 [1.5] weeks) were included in the AA:DHA group, and 105 infants (59 boys [56.2%]; mean [SD] gestational age, 25.5 [1.4] weeks) were included in the control group. Treatment with AA and DHA reduced severe ROP compared with the standard of care (16 of 101 [15.8%] in the AA:DHA group vs 35 of 105 [33.3%] in the control group; adjusted relative risk, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.28-0.91]; P = .02). The AA:DHA group had significantly higher fractions of AA and DHA in serum phospholipids compared with controls (overall mean difference in AA:DHA group, 0.82 mol% [95% CI, 0.46-1.18 mol%]; P < .001; overall mean difference in control group, 0.13 mol% [95% CI, 0.01-0.24 mol%]; P = .03). There were no significant differences between the AA:DHA group and the control group in the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (48 of 101 [47.5%] vs 48 of 105 [45.7%]) and of any grade of intraventricular hemorrhage (43 of 101 [42.6%] vs 42 of 105 [40.0%]). In the AA:DHA group and control group, respectively, sepsis occurred in 42 of 101 infants (41.6%) and 53 of 105 infants (50.5%), serious adverse events occurred in 26 of 101 infants (25.7%) and 26 of 105 infants (24.8%), and 16 of 101 infants (15.8%) and 13 of 106 infants (12.3%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, compared with standard of care, enteral AA:DHA supplementation lowered the risk of severe ROP by 50% and showed overall higher serum levels of both AA and DHA. Enteral lipid supplementation with AA:DHA is a novel preventive strategy to decrease severe ROP in extremely preterm infants. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03201588.
PURPOSE: To determine the six-year incidence, risk factors, and causes of visual impairment in a Chinese population. METHODS: This was a population-based study of eye disease in Chinese adults in a rural district of Handan in China. 6,830 individuals were invited to participate in 2006 and 5,394 returned for follow-up in 2012. All participants underwent standardized eye examinations. Visual impairment was defined according to WHO criteria. The incidence of visual impairment was age- and gender-standardized to the 2010 China Census. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for visual impairment. RESULTS: The leading causes of visual impairment were cataract and refractive error. Based on (PVA), the six-year incidence rates of low vision and blindness were 5.2% and 0.5%, respectively. Incidence of low vision was associated with older age ( < .001), less education ( < .001), diabetes ( < .05), and lower BMI ( < .001). The incidence of blindness was associated with diabetes ( < .05). Based on (BCVA), the six-year incidence rates of low vision and blindness were 0.8% and 0.1%, respectively. Incidence of low vision was associated with older age ( < .001) and lower BMI ( < .05). None of these factors were associated with the incidence of blindness. CONCLUSION: In Handan, the incidence of visual impairment was high and associated with older age, less education, diabetes, and lower BMI. The majority of cases were due to unoperated cataract and uncorrected refractive error, reflecting the need for improved eye care in this region.
Jacobs DS, Carrasquillo KG, Cottrell PD, Fernández-Velázquez FJ, Gil-Cazorla R, Jalbert I, Pucker AD, Riccobono K, Robertson DM, Szczotka-Flynn L, Speedwell L, Stapleton F. CLEAR - Medical use of contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):289-329.Abstract
The medical use of contact lenses is a solution for many complex ocular conditions, including high refractive error, irregular astigmatism, primary and secondary corneal ectasia, disfiguring disease, and ocular surface disease. The development of highly oxygen permeable soft and rigid materials has extended the suitability of contact lenses for such applications. There is consistent evidence that bandage soft contact lenses, particularly silicone hydrogel lenses, improve epithelial healing and reduce pain in persistent epithelial defects, after trauma or surgery, and in corneal dystrophies. Drug delivery applications of contact lens hold promise for improving topical therapy. Modern scleral lens practice has achieved great success for both visual rehabilitation and therapeutic applications, including those requiring retention of a tear reservoir or protection from an adverse environment. This report offers a practical and relevant summary of the current evidence for the medical use of contact lenses for all eye care professionals including optometrists, ophthalmologists, opticians, and orthoptists. Topics covered include indications for use in both acute and chronic conditions, lens selection, patient selection, wear and care regimens, and recommended aftercare schedules. Prevention, presentation, and management of complications of medical use are reviewed.
Contact lenses in the future will likely have functions other than correction of refractive error. Lenses designed to control the development of myopia are already commercially available. Contact lenses as drug delivery devices and powered through advancements in nanotechnology will open up further opportunities for unique uses of contact lenses. This review examines the use, or potential use, of contact lenses aside from their role to correct refractive error. Contact lenses can be used to detect systemic and ocular surface diseases, treat and manage various ocular conditions and as devices that can correct presbyopia, control the development of myopia or be used for augmented vision. There is also discussion of new developments in contact lens packaging and storage cases. The use of contact lenses as devices to detect systemic disease has mostly focussed on detecting changes to glucose levels in tears for monitoring diabetic control. Glucose can be detected using changes in colour, fluorescence or generation of electric signals by embedded sensors such as boronic acid, concanavalin A or glucose oxidase. Contact lenses that have gained regulatory approval can measure changes in intraocular pressure to monitor glaucoma by measuring small changes in corneal shape. Challenges include integrating sensors into contact lenses and detecting the signals generated. Various techniques are used to optimise uptake and release of the drugs to the ocular surface to treat diseases such as dry eye, glaucoma, infection and allergy. Contact lenses that either mechanically or electronically change their shape are being investigated for the management of presbyopia. Contact lenses that slow the development of myopia are based upon incorporating concentric rings of plus power, peripheral optical zone(s) with add power or non-monotonic variations in power. Various forms of these lenses have shown a reduction in myopia in clinical trials and are available in various markets.