August 2021

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Ludwig CA, Vail D, Rajeshuni NA, Al-Moujahed A, Rosenblatt T, Callaway NF, Pasricha MV, Ji MH, Moshfeghi DM. Statins and the progression of age-related macular degeneration in the United States. PLoS One 2021;16(8):e0252878.Abstract
PURPOSE: To study the effect of statin exposure on the progression from non-exudative to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of commercially insured patients diagnosed with non-exudative AMD (n = 231,888) from 2007 to 2015. Time-to-event analysis of the association between exposure to lipid-lowering medications and time from non-exudative AMD to exudative AMD diagnosis was conducted. Outcome measures included progression to exudative AMD, indicated by diagnosis codes for exudative AMD or procedural codes for intravitreal injections. RESULTS: In the year before and after first AMD diagnosis, 11,330 patients were continuously prescribed lipid-lowering medications and 31,627 patients did not take any lipid-lowering medication. Of those taking statins, 21 (1.6%) patients were on very-high-dose lipophilic statins, 644 (47.6%) on high-dose lipophilic statins, and 689 (50.9%) on low-dose lipophilic statins. We found no statistically significant relationship between exposure to low (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.38) or high-dose lipophilic statins (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.45) and progression to exudative AMD. No patients taking very-high-dose lipophilic statins converted from non-exudative to exudative AMD, though this difference was not statistically significant due to the subgroup size (p = .23, log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant relationship was found between statin exposure and risk of AMD progression. Interestingly, no patients taking very-high-dose lipophilic statins progressed to exudative AMD, a finding that warrants further exploration.
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Maallo AMS, Moulton EA, Sieberg CB, Giddon DB, Borsook D, Holmes SA. A lateralized model of the pain-depression dyad. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021;127:876-883.Abstract
Chronic pain and depression are two frequently co-occurring and debilitating conditions. Even though the former is treated as a physical affliction, and the latter as a mental illness, both disorders closely share neural substrates. Here, we review the association of pain with depression, especially when symptoms are lateralized on either side of the body. We also explore the overlapping regions in the forebrain implicated in these conditions. Finally, we synthesize these findings into a model, which addresses gaps in our understanding of comorbid pain and depression. Our lateralized pain-depression dyad model suggests that individuals diagnosed with depression should be closely monitored for pain symptoms in the left hemibody. Conversely, for patients in pain, with the exception of acute pain with a known source, referrals in today's pain centers for psychological evaluation should be part of standard practice, within the framework of an interdisciplinary approach to pain treatment.
Marmamula S, Barrenkala NR, Khanna RC, Challa R, Bhakki M, Kumbham TR, Modepalli SB, Yellapragada R, Friedman DS. Near vision impairment among the elderly in residential care-the Hyderabad Ocular Morbidity in Elderly Study (HOMES). Eye (Lond) 2021;35(8):2310-2315.Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To report on the prevalence and risk factors for near vision impairment (NVI) among the elderly in residential care in Telangana State in India. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥60 years were recruited from 41 'home for the aged' centres in Hyderabad, India. All participants had complete eye examinations including presenting and best-corrected visual acuity assessment for distance and near. NVI was defined as binocular presenting near vision worse than N8 (6/15) among those who had a normal presenting distance visual acuity of 6/18 in the better eye. RESULTS: Of the 826 participants, the mean age was 74.4 years (standard deviation-8.4 years), 525 (63.6%) were women, 715 (86.6%) had at least school education. The prevalence of NVI was 51.2% (95% CI: 47.7-54.7) based on presenting vision. On applying multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds of NVI were higher in 80 years and older age (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 3.44-13.6). Those with school education (OR: 0.58: 95% CI: 0.36-0.94) and higher education (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21-0.69) had lower odds for NVI. Similarly, those with self-reported diabetes (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49-0.97), those using spectacles (OR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.05-0.16), and those who had undergone cataract surgery (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.36-0.74) had lower odds for NVI. CONCLUSIONS: NVI was common among the elderly in residential care in homes for the aged in Hyderabad, India. As most of this NVI is correctable, a routine screening programme and dispensing of spectacles can be undertaken to address this vision loss.
Marmamula S, Barrenakala NR, Challa R, Kumbham TR, Modepalli SB, Yellapragada R, Bhakki M, Reddy JC, Friedman DS, Khanna RC. Visual outcomes after cataract surgery among the elderly residents in the 'homes for the aged' in South India: the Hyderabad Ocular Morbidity in Elderly Study. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(8):1087-1093.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIM: To report visual outcomes and factors associated with good visual outcomes after cataract surgery among the elderly residents in 'homes for the aged' in Hyderabad, India. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥60 years were recruited from 41 'homes for the aged'. All participants had a detailed eye examinations including visual acuity (VA) assessment , refraction, slit-lamp examination and fundus imaging by trained professionals. A detailed history of cataract surgery was recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with good visual outcomes after cataract surgery which was defined as presenting VA of 6/18 or better in the operated eye. Visual impairment (VI) is defined as presenting VA worse than 6/18 in the operated eye. RESULTS: 1215 eyes of 703 individuals had cataract surgery. The mean age of these participants was 77.5 years (SD: 8.2 years; range: 60-108 years), 66.8% were women, 29.9% reported diabetes and 61% reported hypertension. 406/1215 (33.4%; 95% CI 30.8 to 36.1) eyes had VI after cataract surgery. Posterior capsular opacification (31.8%; n=129) was the leading cause of VI followed by uncorrected refractive error (24.1%; n=98). The prevalence of good outcomes was 66.6% (95% CI 63.8 to 69.2). On applying multivariable analysis, younger age, self-reported hypertension, independent mobility, surgery in a non-government (as opposed to private) hospital and undergoing paid surgery were associated with good outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the eyes of elderly individuals living in homes for the aged that had previously undergone cataract surgery had VI. Regular eye examinations with the provision of laser capsulotomy and appropriate refractive correction can substantially improve their vision.
Moon JY, Garg I, Cui Y, Katz R, Zhu Y, Le R, Lu Y, Lu ES, Ludwig CA, Elze T, Wu DM, Eliott D, Miller JW, Kim LA, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Miller JB. Wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in the assessment of retinal microvasculature and choroidal thickness in patients with myopia. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pathological myopia (PM) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. We aimed to evaluate microvascular and chorioretinal changes in different stages of myopia with wide-field (WF) swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional observational study included 186 eyes of 122 patients who had undergone imaging between November 2018 and October 2020. Vessel density (VD) and vessel skeletonised density (VSD) of superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus and whole retina, as well as foveal avascular zone parameters, retinal thickness (RT) and choroidal thickness (CT), were calculated. RESULTS: This study evaluated 75 eyes of 48 patients with high myopia (HM), 43 eyes of 31 patients with mild to moderate myopia and 68 eyes of 53 age-matched controls. Controlling for age and the presence of systemic hypertension, we found that HM was associated with decrease in VD and VSD in all layers on 12×12 mm² scans. Furthermore, HM was associated with a VD and VSD decrease in every Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid, with a larger decrease temporally (βVD=-0.39, βVSD=-10.25, p<0.01). HM was associated with decreased RT and CT. Reduction in RT was outside the macular region, while reduction in CT was in the macular region. CONCLUSION: Using WF SS-OCTA, we identified reduction in microvasculature and structural changes associated with myopia. Decrease in VD and VSD was greater in the temporal quadrant, and reductions in RT and CT were uneven across the retina. Further work may help identify risk factors for the progression of PM and associated vision-threatening complications.
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Nathan A, Rossin EJ, Kaseke C, Park RJ, Khatri A, Koundakjian D, Urbach JM, Singh NK, Bashirova A, Tano-Menka R, Senjobe F, Waring MT, Piechocka-Trocha A, Garcia-Beltran WF, Iafrate JA, Naranbhai V, Carrington M, Walker BD, Gaiha GD. Structure-guided T cell vaccine design for SARS-CoV-2 variants and sarbecoviruses. Cell 2021;184(17):4401-4413.e10.Abstract
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that escape convalescent and vaccine-induced antibody responses has renewed focus on the development of broadly protective T-cell-based vaccines. Here, we apply structure-based network analysis and assessments of HLA class I peptide stability to define mutationally constrained CD8+ T cell epitopes across the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Highly networked residues are conserved temporally among circulating variants and sarbecoviruses and disproportionately impair spike pseudotyped lentivirus infectivity when mutated. Evaluation of HLA class I stabilizing activity for 18 globally prevalent alleles identifies CD8+ T cell epitopes within highly networked regions with limited mutational frequencies in circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and deep-sequenced primary isolates. Moreover, these epitopes elicit demonstrable CD8+ T cell reactivity in convalescent individuals but reduced recognition in recipients of mRNA-based vaccines. These data thereby elucidate key mutationally constrained regions and immunogenic epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome for a global T-cell-based vaccine against emerging variants and SARS-like coronaviruses.
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Pasquale LR, Gong L, Wiggs JL, Pan L, Yang Z, Wu M, Yang Z, Chen DF, Zeng W. Development of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma-Like Features in a Rhesus Macaque Colony From Southern China. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(9):20.Abstract
Purpose: To describe the ocular phenotype of spontaneous glaucoma in a non-human primate colony. Methods: In total, 722 Rhesus macaque monkeys aged 10 to 25 years underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus photography (FP), and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. Monkeys with baseline cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) <0.5 were used to establish baseline ocular features. A subset was followed longitudinally for three years and compared to glaucoma suspects on the basis of OCT/FP criteria. Results: The average IOP under ketamine sedation and average CDR for the entire colony was 13.0 ± 4.3 mm Hg and 0.38 ± 0.07, respectively. The mean baseline conscious IOP of glaucoma suspects (N = 18) versus controls (N = 108) was 16.2 ± 3.5 mm Hg and 13.9 ± 2.3 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.001). All glaucoma suspects had unremarkable slit lamp examinations and open angles based on anterior segment OCT. Baseline global circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was 91.5 ± 11.0 µM versus 102.7 ± 8.5 µM in suspects and controls, respectively (P < 0.0001). All sectors on the baseline circumpapillary OCT showed a significant reduction in RNFL thickness versus controls (P ≤ 0.0022) except for the temporal sector (P ≥ 0.07). In three-year longitudinal analysis, neither CDR nor OCT parameters changed in controls (N = 40; P ≥ 0.16), whereas significant increase in CDR (P = 0.018) and nominally significant decreases in two OCT sectors (nasal, P = 0.023 and nasal inferior, P = 0.046) were noted in suspects. Conclusions: Members of a nonhuman primate colony exhibit important ophthalmic features of human primary open-angle glaucoma. Translational Relevance: Identification of a spontaneous model of glaucoma in nonhuman primates represents an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate the natural history, pathogenesis and effective therapeutic strategies for the disease.
Peng C, Wang Y, Ji L, Kuang L, Yu Z, Li H, Zhang J, Zhao J. LncRNA-MALAT1/miRNA-204-5p/Smad4 Axis Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Proliferation and Migration of Lens Epithelial Cells. Curr Eye Res 2021;46(8):1137-1147.Abstract
MATERIALS AND METHODS: LECs were cultured and induced with TGF-β2 (10 ng/mL). SiRNA against MALAT1 (Si-MALAT1) was transfected into LECs to knockdown the expression of MALAT1. To overexpress or knockdown miR-204-5p, miR-204-5p mimics (miR-204-5p mimics) and anti-miR-204-5p (miR-204-5p inhibitor) were transfected into LECs. We used RNA FISH to identify the location of MALAT1. RNA levels of MALAT1 and miR-204-5p were analyzed by RT-qPCR. Additionally, target protein levels of Smad4, epithelial differentiation and mesenchymal markers were analyzed with Western blot. We employed EdU Labeling to measured cell proliferation and performed Transwell Assay to analyze the cell migration. Dual-luciferase reporter assays in LECs were conducted to verify whether miRNA-204-5p was negatively regulated by MALAT1 and Smad4 was a direct target of miR-204-5p. RESULTS: The expression of MALAT1 was upregulated in PCO specimens. MALAT1 was overexpressed in TGF-β2 induced LECs, and the knockdown of MALAT1 could attenuate TGF-β2 induced EMT. Besides, the upregulation of MALAT1 was correlated with the downregulation of miR-204-5p and upregulation of Smad4. Importantly, MALAT1 was revealed to be located in the cytoplasm of LECs. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays confirmed that MALAT1 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-204-5p and then regulate its direct target Smad4. Finally, the knockdown of MALAT1 could inhibit the EMT, proliferation, and migration of LECs; however, those can be reversed by anti-miR-204-5p. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that MALAT1 may regulate EMT, proliferation, and migration of LECs as a ceRNA by "sponging" miR-204-5p and targeting Smad4, and serve as a promising therapeutic target in preventing PCO.
Putra I, Shen X, Anwar KN, Rabiee B, Samaeekia R, Almazyad E, Giri P, Jabbehdari S, Hayat MR, Elhusseiny AM, Ghassemi M, Mahmud N, Edward DP, Joslin CE, Rosenblatt MI, Dana R, Eslani M, Hematti P, Djalilian AR. Preclinical Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Cryopreserved Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Corneal Repair. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(10):3.Abstract
Purpose: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance tissue repair as a cell-based therapy. In preparation for a phase I clinical study, we evaluated the safety, dosing, and efficacy of bone marrow-derived MSCs after subconjunctival injection in preclinical animal models of mice, rats, and rabbits. Methods: Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were expanded to passage 4 and cryopreserved. Viability of MSCs after thawing and injection through small-gauge needles was evaluated by vital dye staining. The in vivo safety of human and rabbit MSCs was studied by subconjunctivally injecting MSCs in rabbits with follow-up to 90 days. The potency of MSCs on accelerating wound healing was evaluated in vitro using a scratch assay and in vivo using 2-mm corneal epithelial debridement wounds in mice. Human MSCs were tracked after subconjunctival injection in rat and rabbit eyes. Results: The viability of MSCs after thawing and immediate injection through 27- and 30-gauge needles was 93.1% ± 2.1% and 94.9% ± 1.3%, respectively. Rabbit eyes demonstrated mild self-limiting conjunctival inflammation at the site of injection with human but not rabbit MSCs. In scratch assay, the mean wound healing area was 93.5% ± 12.1% in epithelial cells co-cultured with MSCs compared with 40.8% ± 23.1% in controls. At 24 hours after wounding, all MSC-injected murine eyes had 100% corneal wound closure compared with 79.9% ± 5.5% in controls. Human MSCs were detectable in the subconjunctival area and peripheral cornea at 14 days after injection. Conclusions: Subconjunctival administration of MSCs is safe and effective in promoting corneal epithelial wound healing in animal models. Translational Relevance: These results provide preclinical data to support a phase I clinical study.
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Rosenblatt TR, Vail D, Ludwig CA, Al-Moujahed A, Pasricha MV, Ji MH, Callaway NF, Moshfeghi DM. Fall risk in patients with pseudophakic monovision. Can J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Vision changes can precipitate falls in the elderly resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that pseudophakic monovision and ensuing anisometropia and aniseikonia impact elderly fall risk. This study assessed fall risk in patients with pseudophakic monovision, pseudophakic single vision distance (classic cataract surgery), and cataracts with no surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective single-institution cohort study PARTICIPANTS: Patients with bilateral cataracts diagnosed at 60 years of age or older who underwent bilateral cataract surgery (monovision or single vision distance) or did not undergo any cataract surgery (n = 13 385). Patients with unilateral surgery or a fall prior to cataract diagnosis were excluded. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Stanford Research Repository. Time-to-fall analysis was performed across all 3 groups. Primary outcome was hazard ratio (HR) for fall after second eye cataract surgery or after bilateral cataract diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 13 385 patients (241 pseudophakic monovision, 2809 pseudophakic single vision, 10 335 no surgery), 850 fell after cataract diagnosis. Pseudophakic monovision was not associated with fall risk after controlling for age, sex, and myopia. Pseudophakic single-vision patients had a decreased time to fall compared with no-surgery patients (log rank, p < 0.001). Older age at cataract diagnosis (HR =1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.06, p < 0.001) or at time of surgery (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07, p < 0.001) increased fall risk, as did female sex (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51, p = 0.002) and preexisting myopia (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.71, p = 0.046) among nonsurgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudophakic monovision did not impact fall risk, but pseudophakic single vision may increase falls compared with patients without cataract surgery.
Rossin EJ, Tsui I, Wong SC, Hou KK, Prakhunhungsit S, Blair MP, Shapiro MJ, Leishman L, Nagiel A, Lifton JA, Quiram P, Ringeisen AL, Henderson RH, Arruti N, Buzzacco DM, Kusaka S, Ferrone PJ, Belin PJ, Chang E, Hubschman J-P, Murray TG, Leung EH, Wu W-C, Olsen KR, Harper AC, Rahmani S, Goldstein J, Lee T, Nudleman E, Cernichiaro-Espinosa LA, Chhablani J, Berrocal AM, Yonekawa Y. Traumatic Retinal Detachment in Patients with Self-Injurious Behavior: An International Multicenter Study. Ophthalmol Retina 2021;5(8):805-814.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes, and management recommendations in patients with traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) resulting from self-injurious behavior (SIB). DESIGN: International, multicenter, retrospective, interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with SIB from 23 centers with RRD in at least 1 eye. METHODS: Clinical histories, preoperative assessment, surgical details, postoperative management, behavioral intervention, and follow-up examination findings were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The rate of single-surgery anatomic success (SSAS) was the primary outcome. Other outcomes included new RRD in formerly attached eyes, final retinal reattachment, and final visual acuity. RESULTS: One hundred seven eyes with RRDs were included from 78 patients. Fifty-four percent of patients had bilateral RRD or phthisis bulbi in the fellow eye at final follow-up. The most common systemic diagnoses were autism spectrum disorder (35.9%) and trisomy 21 (21.8%) and the most common behavior was face hitting (74.4%). The average follow-up time was 3.3 ± 2.8 years, and surgical outcomes for operable eyes were restricted to patients with at least 3 months of follow-up (81 eyes). Primary initial surgeries were vitrectomy alone (33.3%), primary scleral buckle (SB; 26.9%), and vitrectomy with SB (39.7%), and 5 prophylactic SBs were placed. Twenty-three eyes (21.5%) with RRDs were inoperable. The SSAS was 23.1% without tamponade (37.2% if including silicone oil), and final reattachment was attained in 80% (36.3% without silicone oil tamponade). Funnel-configured RRD (P = 0.006) and the presence of grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P = 0.002) correlated with re-detachment. The use of an SB predicted the final attachment rate during the initial surgery (P = 0.005) or at any surgery (P = 0.008. These associations held if restricting to 64 patients with ≥12 months followup. Anatomic reattachment correlated with better visual acuity (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: RRD resulting from SIB poses therapeutic challenges because of limited patient cooperation, bilateral involvement, chronicity, and ongoing trauma in vulnerable and neglected patients. The surgical success rates were some of the lowest in the modern retinal detachment literature. The use of an SB may result in better outcomes, and visual function can be restored in some patients.
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Schill HM, Wolfe JM, Brady TF. Relationships between expertise and distinctiveness: Abnormal medical images lead to enhanced memory performance only in experts. Mem Cognit 2021;49(6):1067-1081.Abstract
Memories are encoded in a manner that depends on our knowledge and expectations ("schemas"). Consistent with this, expertise tends to improve memory: Experts have elaborated schemas in their domains of expertise, allowing them to efficiently represent information in this domain (e.g., chess experts have enhanced memory for realistic chess layouts). On the other hand, in most situations, people tend to remember abnormal or surprising items best-those that are also rare or out-of-the-ordinary occurrences (e.g., surprising-but not random-chess board configurations). This occurs, in part, because such images are distinctive relative to other images. In the current work, we ask how these factors interact in a particularly interesting case-the domain of radiology, where experts actively search for abnormalities. Abnormality in mammograms is typically focal but can be perceived in the global "gist" of the image. We ask whether, relative to novices, expert radiologists show improved memory for mammograms. We also test for any additional advantage for abnormal mammograms that can be thought of as unexpected or rare stimuli in screening. We find that experts have enhanced memory for focally abnormal images relative to normal images. However, radiologists showed no memory benefit for images of the breast that were not focally abnormal, but were only abnormal in their gist. Our results speak to the role of schemas and abnormality in expertise; the necessity for spatially localized abnormalities versus abnormalities in the gist in enhancing memory; and the nature of memory and decision-making in radiologists.
Singh RB, Khera T, Ly V, Saini C, Cho W, Shergill S, Singh KP, Agarwal A. Ocular complications of perioperative anesthesia: a review. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021;259(8):2069-2083.Abstract
Ocular complications associated with anesthesia in ocular and non-ocular surgeries are rare adverse events which may present with clinical presentations vacillating between easily treatable corneal abrasions to more serious complication such as irreversible bilateral vision loss. In this review, we outline the different techniques of anesthetic delivery in ocular surgeries and highlight the incidence and etiologies of associated injuries. The changes in vision in non-ocular surgeries are mistaken for residual sedation or anesthetics, therefore require high clinical suspicion on part of the treating ophthalmologists, to ensure early diagnosis, adequate and swift management especially in surgeries such as cardiac, spine, head and neck, and some orthopedic procedures, that have a comparatively higher incidence of ocular complications. In this article, we review the literature for reports on the clinical incidence of different ocular complications associated with anesthesia in non-ocular surgeries and outline the current understanding of pathophysiological processes associated with these adverse events.
Solyman O, Zaakouk M, Elhusseiny AM. Juvenile ossifying fibroma of the maxilla presenting with proptosis and dystopia in a 4-year-old child. Orbit 2021;40(4):347-349.
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Ung L, Chodosh J. Urgent unmet needs in the care of bacterial keratitis: An evidence-based synthesis. Ocul Surf 2021;Abstract
Bacterial corneal infections, or bacterial keratitis (BK), are ophthalmic emergencies that frequently lead to irreversible visual impairment. Though increasingly recognized as a major cause of global blindness, modern paradigms of evidence-based care in BK have remained at a diagnostic and therapeutic impasse for over half a century. Current standards of management - based on the collection of corneal cultures and the application of broad-spectrum topical antibiotics - are beset by important yet widely underrecognized limitations, including approximately 30% of all patients who will develop moderate to severe vision loss in the affected eye. Though recent advances have involved a more clearly defined role for adjunctive topical corticosteroids, and novel therapies such as corneal crosslinking, overall progress to improve patient and population-based outcomes remains incommensurate to the chronic morbidity caused by this disease. Recognizing that the care of BK is guided by the clinical axiom, "time equals vision", this chapter offers an evidence-based synthesis for the clinical management of these infections, underscoring critical unmet needs in disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.
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Wagner A, Wang C, Fessler J, DeTomaso D, Avila-Pacheco J, Kaminski J, Zaghouani S, Christian E, Thakore P, Schellhaass B, Akama-Garren E, Pierce K, Singh V, Ron-Harel N, Douglas VP, Bod L, Schnell A, Puleston D, Sobel RA, Haigis M, Pearce EL, Soleimani M, Clish C, Regev A, Kuchroo VK, Yosef N. Metabolic modeling of single Th17 cells reveals regulators of autoimmunity. Cell 2021;184(16):4168-4185.e21.Abstract
Metabolism is a major regulator of immune cell function, but it remains difficult to study the metabolic status of individual cells. Here, we present Compass, an algorithm to characterize cellular metabolic states based on single-cell RNA sequencing and flux balance analysis. We applied Compass to associate metabolic states with T helper 17 (Th17) functional variability (pathogenic potential) and recovered a metabolic switch between glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, akin to known Th17/regulatory T cell (Treg) differences, which we validated by metabolic assays. Compass also predicted that Th17 pathogenicity was associated with arginine and downstream polyamine metabolism. Indeed, polyamine-related enzyme expression was enhanced in pathogenic Th17 and suppressed in Treg cells. Chemical and genetic perturbation of polyamine metabolism inhibited Th17 cytokines, promoted Foxp3 expression, and remodeled the transcriptome and epigenome of Th17 cells toward a Treg-like state. In vivo perturbations of the polyamine pathway altered the phenotype of encephalitogenic T cells and attenuated tissue inflammation in CNS autoimmunity.
Wai KM, Locascio JJ, Wolkow N. Bacterial dacryoadenitis: clinical features, microbiology, and management of 45 cases, with a recent uptick in incidence. Orbit 2021;:1-9.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the clinical features, microbiology, management, and incidence of bacterial dacryoadenitis at our institution. METHODS: This was a case series examining patients with bacterial dacryoadenitis from 2004 to 2020. Charts were reviewed for demographics, comorbidities, presenting symptoms and signs, radiology, microbiology, and management. Main outcomes included need for surgical intervention or inpatient admission. RESULTS: Forty-five patients with bacterial dacryoadenitis had a mean age of 46.1 years. Presenting symptoms included eyelid edema (100%), extraocular motility restriction (53.3%), and purulent discharge (75.5%). Based on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, 9 (20.5%) patients presented with definite abscess and 15 (34%) presented with a phlegmon or early abscess. Eleven patients (24.4%) required surgical drainage. Twenty patients (44.4%) required admission, for an average stay of 4 days (range 2-8 days). Common organisms included Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Presence of an early abscess or phlegmon correlated with need for drainage (p < 0.01). Extraocular motility restriction correlated with need for drainage (p = 0.02) and admission (p = 0.05). The incidence of bacterial dacryoadenitis at our institution increased as a percentage of confirmed dacryoadenitis cases; from 2004 to 2010 the incidence was 0 to 9.1% per year, while from 2010 to 2019 the incidence ranged from 7.7 to 36.2%. In 2019, our institution had 17 cases (incidence 36.2%) of bacterial dacryoadenitis. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial dacryoadenitis is a major cause of dacryoadenitis, and its incidence may be increasing. It can resolve with minimal complications if managed appropriately, although some patients may require surgical drainage or admission for intravenous antibiotics.
Wiegand I, Westenberg E, Wolfe JM. Order, please! Explicit sequence learning in hybrid search in younger and older age. Mem Cognit 2021;49(6):1220-1235.Abstract
Sequence learning effects in simple perceptual and motor tasks are largely unaffected by normal aging. However, less is known about sequence learning in more complex cognitive tasks that involve attention and memory processes and how this changes with age. In this study, we examined whether incidental and intentional sequence learning would facilitate hybrid visual and memory search in younger and older adults. Observers performed a hybrid search task, in which they memorized four or 16 target objects and searched for any of those target objects in displays with four or 16 objects. The memorized targets appeared either in a repeating sequential order or in random order. In the first experiment, observers were not told about the sequence before the experiment. Only a subset of younger adults and none of the older adults incidentally learned the sequence. The "learners" acquired explicit knowledge about the sequence and searched faster in the sequence compared to random condition. In the second experiment, observers were told about the sequence before the search task. Both younger and older adults searched faster in sequence blocks than random blocks. Older adults, however, showed this sequence-learning effect only in blocks with smaller target sets. Our findings indicate that explicit sequence knowledge can facilitate hybrid search, as it allows observers to predict the next target and restrict their visual and memory search. In older age, the sequence-learning effect is constrained by load, presumably due to age-related decline in executive functions.
Wolfe JM. Guided Search 6.0: An updated model of visual search. Psychon Bull Rev 2021;28(4):1060-1092.Abstract
This paper describes Guided Search 6.0 (GS6), a revised model of visual search. When we encounter a scene, we can see something everywhere. However, we cannot recognize more than a few items at a time. Attention is used to select items so that their features can be "bound" into recognizable objects. Attention is "guided" so that items can be processed in an intelligent order. In GS6, this guidance comes from five sources of preattentive information: (1) top-down and (2) bottom-up feature guidance, (3) prior history (e.g., priming), (4) reward, and (5) scene syntax and semantics. These sources are combined into a spatial "priority map," a dynamic attentional landscape that evolves over the course of search. Selective attention is guided to the most active location in the priority map approximately 20 times per second. Guidance will not be uniform across the visual field. It will favor items near the point of fixation. Three types of functional visual field (FVFs) describe the nature of these foveal biases. There is a resolution FVF, an FVF governing exploratory eye movements, and an FVF governing covert deployments of attention. To be identified as targets or rejected as distractors, items must be compared to target templates held in memory. The binding and recognition of an attended object is modeled as a diffusion process taking > 150 ms/item. Since selection occurs more frequently than that, it follows that multiple items are undergoing recognition at the same time, though asynchronously, making GS6 a hybrid of serial and parallel processes. In GS6, if a target is not found, search terminates when an accumulating quitting signal reaches a threshold. Setting of that threshold is adaptive, allowing feedback about performance to shape subsequent searches. Simulation shows that the combination of asynchronous diffusion and a quitting signal can produce the basic patterns of response time and error data from a range of search experiments.
Wu C, VanderVeen DK. Impact of higher oxygen saturation levels on postnatal weight gain to predict retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr 2021;110(8):2348-2349.

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