Uveal melanoma is a rare form of melanoma that originates in the eye, exerts widespread therapeutic resistance and displays an inherent propensity for hepatic metastases. Since metastatic disease is characterized by poor survival, there is an unmet clinical need to identify new therapeutic targets in uveal melanoma. Here, we show that the pleiotropic cytokine midkine is expressed in uveal melanoma. Midkine expression in primary uveal melanoma significantly correlates with poor survival and is elevated in patients that develop metastatic disease. Monosomy 3 and histopathological staging parameters are associated with midkine expression. In addition, we demonstrate that midkine promotes survival, migration across a barrier of hepatic sinusoid endothelial cells and resistance to AKT/mTOR inhibition. Furthermore, midkine is secreted and mediates mTOR activation by maintaining phosphorylation of the mTOR target RPS6 in uveal melanoma cells. Therefore, midkine is identified as a uveal melanoma cell survival factor that drives metastasis and therapeutic resistance, and could be exploited as a biomarker as well as a new therapeutic target. Implications: Midkine is identified as a survival factor that drives liver metastasis and therapeutic resistance in melanoma of the eye.
AIM: To describe survival and neonatal morbidities in infants born before 24 weeks of gestation during a 12-year period. METHODS: Data were retrieved from national registries and validated in medical files of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation 2007-2018 in Sweden. Temporal changes were evaluated. RESULTS: In 2007-2018, 282 live births were recorded at 22 weeks and 460 at 23 weeks of gestation. Survival to discharge from hospital of infants born alive at 22 and 23 weeks increased from 20% to 38% (p = 0.006) and from 45% to 67% (p < 0.001) respectively. Caesarean section increased from 12% to 22% (p = 0.038) for infants born at 22 weeks. Neonatal morbidity rates in infants alive at 40 weeks of postmenstrual age (n = 399) were unchanged except for an increase in necrotising enterocolitis from 0 to 33% (p = 0.017) in infants born at 22 weeks of gestation. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was more common in boys than girls, 90% versus 82% (p = 0.044). The number of infants surviving to 40 weeks doubled over time. CONCLUSION: Increased survival of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation resulted in increasing numbers of very immature infants with severe neonatal morbidities likely to have a negative impact on long-term outcome.
BACKGROUND: Eyelid warming is an important treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Specialized chambered devices, using warm moist air have been developed. PURPOSE: To critically evaluate the literature on the safety and efficacy of chambered warm moist air devices in MGD treatment and pinpoint areas of future research. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched on 06 June 2021. The search term was '(warm OR heat OR steam OR goggle OR spectacle OR moist air) AND (meibomian OR MGD OR blepharitis OR eyelid OR dry eye OR DED)'. All relevant articles with available English full text were included. RESULTS: Eighteen articles assessing the application of chambered warm moist air eyelid warming devices were identified. In single-application studies, steam-based eyelid warming increased the eyelid temperature and improved symptoms, lipid layer thickness, and tear film breakup time (TBUT). In treatment studies, the steam-based devices improved TBUT and symptom scores. However, in the only randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing chambered steam-based heat to hot towel treatment, there was no difference between groups for the primary outcome measure; the proportion of subjects noting symptom improvement after 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: Currently available chambered warm moist air eyelid warming devices are safe and effective at raising eyelid temperature to therapeutic levels and improving signs and symptoms of dry eye. However, it is not clear if they provide a greater benefit than other eyelid warming therapies. Further well-conducted RCTs comparing moist and dry heat devices should be conducted on patients across the range of DED severities and subtype spectrum.
Visual symptoms are common after concussion in children and adolescents, making it essential for clinicians to understand how to screen, identify, and initiate clinical management of visual symptoms in pediatric patients after this common childhood injury. Although most children and adolescents with visual symptoms after concussion will recover on their own by 4 weeks, for a subset who do not have spontaneous recovery, referral to a specialist with experience in comprehensive concussion management (eg, sports medicine, neurology, neuropsychology, physiatry, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology) for additional assessment and treatment may be necessary. A vision-specific history and a thorough visual system examination are warranted, including an assessment of visual acuity, ocular alignment in all positions of gaze, smooth pursuit (visual tracking of a moving object), saccades (visual fixation shifting between stationary targets), vestibulo-ocular reflex (maintaining image focus during movement), near point of convergence (focusing with both eyes at near and accommodation (focusing with one eye at near because any of these functions may be disturbed after concussion. These deficits may contribute to difficulty with returning to both play and the learning setting at school, making the identification of these problems early after injury important for the clinician to provide relevant learning accommodations, such as larger font, preprinted notes, and temporary use of audio books. Early identification and appropriate management of visual symptoms, such as convergence insufficiency or accommodative insufficiency, may mitigate the negative effects of concussion on children and adolescents and their quality of life.
PURPOSE: Pediatric optic neuritis (ON) is a rare disease that has not been well characterized. The Pediatric ON Prospective Outcomes Study (PON1) was the first prospective study to our knowledge aiming to evaluate visual acuity (VA) outcomes, including VA, recurrence risk, and final diagnosis 2 years after enrollment. DESIGN: Nonrandomized observational study at 23 pediatric ophthalmology or neuro-ophthalmology clinics in the United States and Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 28 (64%) of 44 children initially enrolled in PON1 (age 3-<16 years) who completed their 2-year study visit. METHODS: Participants were treated at the investigator's discretion. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Age-normal monocular high-contrast VA (HCVA). Secondary outcomes included low-contrast VA (LCVA), neuroimaging findings, and final diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 28 participants completed the 2-year outcome with a median enrollment age of 10.3 years (range, 5-15); 46% were female, and 68% had unilateral ON at presentation. Final 2-year diagnoses included isolated ON (n = 11, 39%), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-associated demyelination (n = 8, 29%), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 4,14%), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD) (n = 3, 11%), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2, 7%). Two participants (7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-24) had subsequent recurrent ON (plus 1 participant who did not complete the 2-year visit); all had MS. Two other participants (7%) had a new episode in their unaffected eye. Mean presenting HCVA was 0.81 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (∼20/125), improving to 0.14 logMAR (∼20/25-2) at 6 months, 0.12 logMAR (∼20/25-2) at 1 year, and 0.11 logMAR (20/25-1) at 2 years (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.3 [20/20+1-20/40-1]). Twenty-four participants (79%) had age-normal VA at 2 years (95% CI, 60-90); 21 participants (66%) had 20/20 vision or better. The 6 participants without age-normal VA had 2-year diagnoses of NMOSD (n = 2 participants, 3 eyes), MS (n = 2 participants, 2 eyes), and isolated ON (n = 2 participants, 3 eyes). Mean presenting LCVA was 1.45 logMAR (∼20/500-2), improving to 0.78 logMAR (∼20/125+2) at 6 months, 0.69 logMAR (∼20/100+1) at 1 year, and 0.68 logMAR (∼20/100+2) at 2 years (95% CI, 0.48-0.88 [20/50+1-20/150-1]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite poor VA at presentation, most children had marked improvement in VA by 6 months that was maintained over 2 years. Associated neurologic autoimmune diagnoses were common. Additional episodes of ON occurred in 5 (18%) of the participants (3 relapses and 2 new episodes).
PURPOSE: Over the past two decades, advancements in imaging modalities have significantly evolved the diagnosis and management of retinal diseases. Through these novel platforms, we have developed a deeper understanding of the anatomy of the choroidal vasculature and the choriocapillaris. The recently developed tools such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have helped elucidate the pathological mechanisms of several posterior segment diseases. In this review, we have explained the anatomy of the choriocapillaris and its close relationship to the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium. METHODS: A comprehensive search of medical literature was performed through the Medline/PubMed database using search terms: choriocapillaris, choroid, quantification, biomarkers, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, choroidal blood flow, mean blur rate, flow deficit, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, OCTA, Doppler imaging, uveitis, choroiditis, white dot syndrome, tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal granuloma, pachychoroid, toxoplasmosis, central serous chorioretinopathy, multifocal choroiditis, choroidal neovascularization, choroidal thickness, choroidal vascularity index, choroidal vascular density, and choroidal blood supply. The search terms were used either independently or combined with choriocapillaris/choroid. RESULTS: The imaging techniques which are used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze choriocapillaris are described. The pathological alterations in the choriocapillaris in an array of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, age-related macular degeneration, pachychoroid spectrum of diseases, and inflammatory disorders have been comprehensively reviewed. The future directions in the study of choriocapillaris have also been discussed. CONCLUSION: The development of imaging tools such as OCT and OCTA has dramatically improved the assessment of choriocapillaris in health and disease. The choriocapillaris can be delineated from the stromal choroid using the OCT and quantified by manual or automated methods. However, these techniques have inherent limitations due to the lack of an anatomical distinction between the choriocapillaris and the stromal choroid, which can be overcome with the use of predefined segmentation slabs on OCT and OCTA. These segmentation slabs help in standardizing the choriocapillaris imaging and obtain repeatable measurements in various conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, pachychoroid spectrum, and ocular inflammations. Additionally, Doppler imaging has also been effectively used to evaluate the choroidal blood flow and quantifying the choriocapillaris and establishing its role in the pathogenesis of various retinochoroidal diseases. As tremendous technological advancements such as wide-field and ultra-wide field imaging take place, there will be a significant improvement in the ease and accuracy of quantifying the choriocapillaris.