PURPOSE: To characterize the lifestyle and nutritional risk profile associated with the Mediterranean diet in a Portuguese population with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Nested case-control study (n = 883) within the Coimbra Eye Study, including 434 subjects with AMD and 449 age- and sex-matched subjects without AMD. All enrolled subjects underwent a full risk assessment, including lifestyle-related risk factors and a thorough food frequency questionnaire. This allowed us to build an adherence score to the Mediterranean diet (mediSCORE, range 0-9) constructed from individual food intakes. Food intake was also further analysed by conversion to micronutrient consumption. RESULTS: Our results suggest that physical activity has a protective role in AMD [p = 0.018 after multivariate adjustment, OR: 0.69 (0.51-0.93)]. High (mediSCORE ≥6) was also found to be protective [p = 0.041, OR: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.38-0.97)]. Food group analysis unveiled a specific protective role for increased fruits consumption (p = 0.029). Finally, micronutrient analysis revealed a protective role associated with increased consumption of caffeine, fibres, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High mediSCORE appears to confer protection against the development of AMD in a Mediterranean population. This effect is driven by increased consumption of fruits and some antioxidant micronutrients, which emerged as statistically significant protective factors. Further studies are required to establish dietary recommendations with clinical application.
Importance: To facilitate drug and device development for neonates, the International Neonatal Consortium brings together key stakeholders, including pharmaceutical companies, practitioners, regulators, funding agencies, scientists, and families, to address the need for objective, standardized clinical trial outcome measurements to fulfill regulatory requirements. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that affects preterm neonates. The current International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity does not take into account all of the characteristics of ROP and does not adequately discriminate small changes in disease after treatment. These factors are critical for evaluating outcomes in clinical trials. Observations: There is need for an updated ROP acute disease activity and structure scale as well as end-stage structure and ophthalmologic outcome measures designed for use at different ages. The scale and measures, based on current diagnostic methods and treatments, could be used as a guideline for clinical intervention trials. The scale is intended to be validated against retrospective data and revised for use in future trials. An iterative revision process can be accomplished if new measures are added to clinical trials and evaluated at the end of each trial for prognostic value. The new measures would then be incorporated into a new version of the activity scale and the outcome measures revised. Conclusions and Relevance: An ROP activity scale and outcome measures to obtain the most robust and discriminatory data for clinical trials are needed. The scales should be dynamic and modified as knowledge and imaging modalities improve and then validated using data from well-documented clinical trials. This approach is relevant to improving clinical trial data quality.
Microbial keratitis (MK) is a potentially blinding condition which must be treated emergently to preserve vision. Although long recognized as a significant cause of corneal blindness, our understanding of its true global scale, associated burden of disease, and etiological patterns remains somewhat limited. Current epidemiological data suggests that MK may be epidemic in parts of the world--particularly within South, South-East and East Asia--and may exceed two million cases per year world-wide. Etiological patterns vary between economically developed and developing countries, with bacterial predominance in the former and fungal predominance in the latter. The key to effective management lies in timely diagnosis; however, the current gold standard of stain and culture remains time consuming and often yields no clinically useful results. For this reason, there are attempts to develop highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostic tools to provide rapid diagnosis, inform treatment decision making, and minimize the threat of antimicrobial resistance. We provide an overview of these key areas and of avenues for further research toward the goal of more effectively addressing the problem of MK on both an individual and public health level.
PURPOSE: Intravitreal bevacizumab is increasingly used to treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but it enters the bloodstream, and there is concern that it may alter development of other organs. Previously we reported short-term outcomes of 61 infants enrolled in a dose de-escalation study, and we report the late recurrences and additional treatments. DESIGN: Masked, multicenter, dose de-escalation study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 61 premature infants with type 1 ROP. METHODS: If type 1 ROP was bilateral at enrollment, then the study eye was randomly selected. In the study eye, bevacizumab intravitreal injections were given at de-escalating doses of 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, or 0.031 mg; if needed, fellow eyes received 1 dose level higher: 0.625 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, or 0.063 mg, respectively. After 4 weeks, additional treatment was at the discretion of the investigator. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early and late ROP recurrences, additional treatments, and structural outcomes after 6 months. RESULTS: Of 61 study eyes, 25 (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-54%) received additional treatment: 3 (5%; 95% CI, 1%-14%) for early failure (within 4 weeks), 11 (18%; 95% CI, 9%-30%) for late recurrence of ROP (after 4 weeks), and 11 (18%; 95% CI, 9%-30%) for persistent avascular retina. Re-treatment for early failure or late recurrence occurred in 2 of 11 eyes (18%; 95% CI, 2%-52%) treated with 0.25 mg, 4 of 16 eyes (25%; 95% CI, 7%-52%) treated with 0.125 mg, 8 of 24 eyes (33%; 95% CI, 16%-55%) treated with 0.063 mg, and 0 (0%; 95% CI, 0%-31%) of 10 eyes treated with 0.031 mg. By 6 months corrected age, 56 of 61 study eyes had regression of ROP with normal posterior poles, 1 study eye had developed a Stage 5 retinal detachment, and 4 infants had died of preexisting medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal structural outcomes are very good after low-dose bevacizumab treatment for ROP, although many eyes received additional treatment.
The Wnt signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in vascular morphogenesis in various organs including the eye. Wnt ligands and receptors are key regulators of ocular angiogenesis both during the eye development and in vascular eye diseases. Wnt signaling participates in regulating multiple vascular beds in the eye including regression of the hyaloid vessels, and development of structured layers of vasculature in the retina. Loss-of-function mutations in Wnt signaling components cause rare genetic eye diseases in humans such as Norrie disease, and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) with defective ocular vasculature. On the other hand, experimental studies in more prevalent vascular eye diseases, such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and corneal neovascularization, suggest that aberrantly increased Wnt signaling is one of the causations for pathological ocular neovascularization, indicating the potential of modulating Wnt signaling to ameliorate pathological angiogenesis in eye diseases. This review recapitulates the key roles of the Wnt signaling pathway during ocular vascular development and in vascular eye diseases, and pharmaceutical approaches targeting the Wnt signaling as potential treatment options.
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes serious antibiotic-resistant infections. Its population structure is marked by the appearance and dissemination of successful lineages across different settings. To begin understanding the population structure of S. aureus causing ocular and otolaryngology infections, we characterized 262 isolates by antimicrobial sensitivity testing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus were subjected to SCCmec typing and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) screening. Although we detected a high level of genetic diversity among methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) isolates, (63 sequence types-STs), the population was dominated by five lineages: ST30, ST5, ST8, ST15 and ST97. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin was common among the major MSSA lineages, with fluctuations markedly impacted by genetic background. Isolates belonging to the predominant lineage, ST30, displayed high rates of resistance to penicillin (100%), erythromycin (71%), and clindamycin (63%). Overall, 21% of the isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRSA), with an apparent enrichment among otitis and orbital cellulitis isolates (>40%). MRSA isolates belonged to 14 STs grouped in 5 clonal complexes (CC), however, CC5 (56.1%) and CC8 (38.6%) dominated the population. Most CC5 strains were SCCmec type II, and resembled the hospital-adapted USA100 clone. CC8 strains were SCCmec type IV, and 86% were positive for the PVL toxin, common features of the community-acquired clone USA300. CC5 strains harboring a SCCmec type IV, typical for the USA800 clone, comprised 15.5% of the population. USA100 strains were highly resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and levofloxacin (100%), while USA300 strains were frequently resistant to erythromycin (89%) but displayed lower rates of resistance to levofloxacin (39%) and clindamycin (17%). Our data demonstrate that the ocular and otolaryngology S. aureus populations are composed of strains that are commonly resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics, and are associated with the major epidemic clonal complexes of both community and hospital origins.
The meibomian gland (MG) is a sebaceous gland that secretes through a holocrine process. Because such secretion requires the destruction of MG acinar epithelial cells, they need constant renewal and differentiation. The processes that promote these regenerative events in the human MG are unknown, nor is it known how to distinguish MG progenitor and differentiated cells. We discovered that Lrig1 and DNase2 serve as biomarkers for human MG progenitor and differentiated cells, respectively. Lrig1 is expressed in MG basal epithelial cells in the acinar periphery, a location where progenitor cells originate in sebaceous glands. DNase2 is expressed in the differentiated epithelial cells of the MG central acinus. Furthermore, proliferation stimulates, and differentiation suppresses, Lrig1 expression in human MG epithelial cells. The opposite is true for DNase2 expression. Our biomarker identification may have significant value in clinical efforts to restore MG function and to regenerate MGs after disease-induced dropout. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:887-892.
PURPOSE: To determine if the Schirmer I test (without anesthesia) cut-off value is a predictor of dry eye severity in a large Norwegian cohort of dry eye disease (DED) patients, which are grouped into six levels of tear production. METHODS: Patients (n = 1090) with DED of different etiologies received an extensive dry eye work-up: osmolarity (Osm), tear meniscus height (TMH), tear film break-up time (TFBUT), ocular protection index (OPI), ocular surface staining (OSS), Schirmer I test (ST), meibum expressibility (ME), and meibum quality (MQ). Classification of dry eye severity level (DESL) and diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) were also included. The cohort was divided into six groups: below and above cut-off values of 5 (groups 1 and 2), 10 (groups 3 and 4), and 15 mm (groups 5 and 6) of ST. Mann-Whitney test and Chi-Square test were used for group comparison of parameters (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: The groups 1, 3, and 5 had values indicating more severe DED than the groups 2, 4, 6 with significant difference in DESL, Osm, TFBUT, OPI, OSS, and TMH. Regardless of the choice of cut-off values, there was no statistically significant difference in ME, MQ, and MGD between groups below and above selected cut-off value. When gender difference was considered in each group, significant difference was only observed for DESL (groups 2, 4, and 5), TFBUT (groups 2, 4, and 5), OPI (groups 2 and 6), and ME (group1). CONCLUSIONS: Schirmer I is a robust discriminator for DESL, Osm, TFBUT, OPI, OSS, and TMH, but not for ME, MQ, and MGD. Patients with lower tear production levels presented with more severe DED at all three defined cut-off values. Interestingly, the differences in the mean values of DESL were minimal although statistically significant. Thus, the clinical value of different Schirmer levels appears to be limited.
Breast milk (BM) hormones have been hypothesised as a nutritional link between maternal and infant metabolic health. This study aimed to evaluate hormone concentrations in BM of women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the relationship between maternal factors, BM hormones and infant growth. We studied ninety-six nulliparous women with (n 48) and without GDM and their exclusively breastfed term singletons. Women with GDM received dietary therapy or insulin injection for euglycaemia during pregnancy. Hormone concentrations in BM, maternal BMI and infant growth were longitudinally evaluated on postnatal days 3, 42 and 90. Mothers with GDM had decreased concentrations of adiponectin (P colostrum<0·001; P mature-milk=0·009) and ghrelin (P colostrum=0·011; P mature-milk<0·001) and increased concentration of insulin in BM (P colostrum=0·047; P mature-milk=0·021). Maternal BMI was positively associated with adiponectin (β=0·06; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·1; P=0·001), leptin (β=0·16; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·2; P<0·001) and insulin concentrations (β=0·06; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·1; P<0·001), and inversely associated with ghrelin concentration in BM (β=-0·08; 95 % CI -0·1, -0·06; P<0·001). Among the four hormones, adiponectin was inversely associated with infant growth in both the GDM (β weight-for-height=-2·49; 95 % CI -3·83, -1·15; P<0·001; β head-circumference=-0·39; 95 % CI -0·65, -0·13; P=0·003) and healthy groups (β weight-for-height=-1·42; 95 % CI -2·38, -0·46; P=0·003; β head-circumference=-0·15; 95 % CI -0·27, -0·03; P=0·007). Maternal BMI and GDM are important determinants of BM hormone concentrations. Milk-borne adiponectin is determined by maternal metabolic status and plays an independent down-regulating role in early infant growth.
Purpose: To report the resolution of a fluoroquinolone-resistant keratitis with use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) device for enhanced targeted delivery of moxifloxiacin. Observations: A 62-year-old female presented with a 3-day history of pain, photophobia, and declining vision in left eye. The patient had a 2-year history of binocular PROSE treatment for ocular chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD). A corneal ulcer was diagnosed and treated with topical 0.5% moxifloxacin solution 6 times per day, with continued wear of the PROSE device. After 4 days, worsening symptoms led to an increase in application of moxifloxicin to every 2 hours while awake. The drug was administered by removal of the device, cleaning and replenishing the reservoir with sterile saline, and adding one drop of the drug to the reservoir prior to reinsertion. Four days later, the corneal surface was epithelialized with only small subepithelial infiltrate remaining. The corneal culture grew an isolate carrying multiple mutations in the topoisomerase genes. These mutations were correlated with varying levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin (256 μg/mL), levofloxacin (8 μg/mL), and moxifloxacin (16 μg/mL). Conclusions and Importance: Although the infecting strain exhibited resistance to fluoroquinolones, the infection resolved when moxifloxacin was combined with PROSE therapy. Frequent dosing to the PROSE reservoir is likely to increase fluoroquinolone bioavailability and may represent a valuable approach to overcome antibiotic resistance.