PURPOSE: There is no standard of treatment for epithelial pseudodendrites in herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). The purpose of this study is to report the topical antiviral drug, 0.15% ganciclovir for treatment of these lesions. METHODS: This is a retrospective, interventional case series of 4 patients who were diagnosed with HZO epithelial pseudodendrites despite being given oral antiviral treatment and who underwent 0.15% ganciclovir gel topical treatment. Main outcome measures included epithelial healing time, visual acuity, and corneal sensation. RESULTS: All 4 patients were immunocompetent and had epithelial lesions unresponsive to antiviral treatment with oral valacyclovir. Treatment with topical 0.15% ganciclovir gel 5 times a day resulted in the lesions healing successfully within 7 days with improved visual acuity in 3 patients and an increase in corneal sensation in 2 of the 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Topical 0.15% ganciclovir gel, 5 times a day until pseudodendritic lesion healing and tapering to bid for 2 to 4 weeks thereafter, is an effective treatment for pseudodendrites in HZO-affected cases that are often a challenge to manage with other oral or topical antivirals.
PURPOSE: The ability of visually impaired people to deploy attention effectively to maximize use of their residual vision in dynamic situations is fundamental to safe mobility. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate whether tests of dynamic attention (multiple object tracking; MOT) and static attention (Useful Field of View; UFOV) were predictive of the ability of people with central field loss (CFL) to detect pedestrian hazards in simulated driving. METHODS: 11 people with bilateral CFL (visual acuity 20/30-20/200) and 11 age-similar normally-sighted drivers participated. Dynamic and static attention were evaluated with brief, computer-based MOT and UFOV tasks, respectively. Dependent variables were the log speed threshold for 60% correct identification of targets (MOT) and the increase in the presentation duration for 75% correct identification of a central target when a concurrent peripheral task was added (UFOV divided and selective attention subtests). Participants drove in a simulator and pressed the horn whenever they detected pedestrians that walked or ran toward the road. The dependent variable was the proportion of timely reactions (could have stopped in time to avoid a collision). RESULTS: UFOV and MOT performance of CFL participants was poorer than that of controls, and the proportion of timely reactions was also lower (worse) (84% and 97%, respectively; p = 0.001). For CFL participants, higher proportions of timely reactions correlated significantly with higher (better) MOT speed thresholds (r = 0.73, p = 0.01), with better performance on the UFOV divided and selective attention subtests (r = -0.66 and -0.62, respectively, p<0.04), with better contrast sensitivity scores (r = 0.54, p = 0.08) and smaller scotomas (r = -0.60, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that brief laboratory-based tests of visual attention may provide useful measures of functional visual ability of individuals with CFL relevant to more complex mobility tasks.
Susac's syndrome is a rare autoimmune microangiopathy characterized by the clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions, and sensorineural hearing loss. In many cases, the clinical triad is not fully present at the onset of symptoms. MRI studies often show characteristic punched out lesions of the central fibers of the corpus callosum, and leptomeningeal enhancement and deep gray matter lesions may also be seen. Here we present a case of Susac's syndrome in a middle aged man with the unique clinical finding of cauda equina syndrome and spinal MRI showing diffuse lumbosacral nerve root enhancement. Biopsy specimens of the brain, leptomeninges, and skin showed evidence of a pauci-immune endotheliopathy, consistent with pathology described in previous cases of Susac's syndrome. This case is important not only because it expands the clinical features of Susac's syndrome but also because it clarifies the mechanism of a disorder of the endothelium, an important target for many disorders of the nervous system.
Sensory signals must be interpreted in the context of goals and tasks. To detect a target in an image, the brain compares input signals and goals to elicit the correct behavior. We examined how target detection modulates visual recognition signals by recording intracranial field potential responses from 776 electrodes in 10 epileptic human subjects. We observed reliable differences in the physiological responses to stimuli when a cued target was present versus absent. Goal-related modulation was particularly strong in the inferior temporal and fusiform gyri, two areas important for object recognition. Target modulation started after 250 ms post stimulus, considerably after the onset of visual recognition signals. While broadband signals exhibited increased or decreased power, gamma frequency power showed predominantly increases during target presence. These observations support models where task goals interact with sensory inputs via top-down signals that influence the highest echelons of visual processing after the onset of selective responses.
IMPORTANCE: There is a major lack of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of prismatic treatments for hemianopia. Evidence for their effectiveness is mostly based on anecdotal case reports and open-label evaluations without a control condition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of real relative to sham peripheral prism glasses for patients with complete homonymous hemianopia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Double-masked, randomized crossover trial at 13 study sites, including the Peli laboratory at Schepens Eye Research Institute, 11 vision rehabilitation clinics in the United States, and 1 in the United Kingdom. Patients were 18 years or older with complete homonymous hemianopia for at least 3 months and without visual neglect or significant cognitive decline. INTERVENTION: Patients were allocated by minimization into 2 groups. One group received real (57-prism diopter) oblique and sham (<5-prism diopter) horizontal prisms; the other received real horizontal and sham oblique, in counterbalanced order. Each crossover period was 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the overall difference, across the 2 periods of the crossover, between the proportion of participants who wanted to continue with (said yes to) real prisms and the proportion who said yes to sham prisms. The secondary outcome was the difference in perceived mobility improvement between real and sham prisms. RESULTS: Of 73 patients randomized, 61 completed the crossover. A significantly higher proportion said yes to real than sham prisms (64% vs 36%; odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.8-21.0). Participants who continued wear after 6 months reported greater improvement in mobility with real than sham prisms at crossover end (P = .002); participants who discontinued wear reported no difference. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Real peripheral prism glasses were more helpful for obstacle avoidance when walking than sham glasses, with no differences between the horizontal and oblique designs. Peripheral prism glasses provide a simple and inexpensive mobility rehabilitation intervention for hemianopia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00494676.
PURPOSE: To describe the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and/or focal laser photocoagulation in the treatment of serous retinal detachments secondary to lupus choroidopathy. METHODS: The medical records of three patients with serous detachments secondary to lupus choroidopathy who were treated with PDT and/or focal laser photocoagulation were reviewed. Concomitant systemic medical therapy as well as visual acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: All patients received systemic immunosuppressive therapy and had control of their extraocular manifestations prior to PDT and/or laser photocoagulation. One patient received only focal laser photocoagulation and had complete resolution of the subretinal fluid on OCT. The two other patients received a combination of PDT and focal laser treatment. One had improvement in vision and resolution of subretinal fluid on OCT. The second patient, who had longstanding lupus choroidopathy and associated subretinal fluid and macular edema, had only a significant decrease in fluid on OCT but no vision improvement. CONCLUSION: In conjunction with control of systemic disease, PDT and/or focal laser photocoagulation can be successful in resolving subretinal fluid secondary to lupus choroidopathy.
PURPOSE: To establish normal noninvasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT) values in the Chinese population and investigate age-related changes in NI-BUT using a newly developed Keratograph. METHODS: Forty normal volunteers with a mean age of 32.8 ± 16.7 years were recruited for this study. Clinical and demographic data, including age, gender, fluorescein tear film breakup time (FBUT), and Schirmer I test values were collected from the subjects. Noninvasive tear film breakup time was measured using a new method based on a corneal topographer equipped with a modified scan software. The correlations between the NI-BUT, age, and gender were determined. RESULTS: In total, a significant difference between the NI-BUT and the FBUT was found (4.9 ± 2.4 seconds vs. 9.0 ± 3.0 seconds; p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference in the NI-BUT was observed between the male and female subjects (5.5 ± 2.0 seconds vs. 4.5 ± 2.5 seconds; p = 0.137). In addition, no significant correlation was detected between the NI-BUT and age (0.143, p = 0.321). CONCLUSIONS: The NI-BUT values found in this study are much lower than those of previous reports. Our results show no significant differences in tear film stability with age. The tear physiology of the Chinese population may not be the same as in Western populations.
KL P, van W S, RJL W, MS G. Enterococcal Genomics. In: Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection [Internet]. Boston: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary; 2014-. . 2014Abstract
PURPOSE: Among cases of visually significant uveitic macular edema (ME), to estimate the incidence of visual improvement and identify predictive factors.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS: Eyes with uveitis, seen at 5 academic ocular inflammation centers in the United States, for which ME was documented to be currently present and the principal cause of reduced visual acuity (<20/40).
METHODS: Data were obtained by standardized chart review.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Decrease of ≥ 0.2 base 10 logarithm of visual acuity decimal fraction-equivalent; risk factors for such visual improvement.
RESULTS: We identified 1510 eyes (of 1077 patients) with visual impairment to a level <20/40 attributed to ME. Most patients were female (67%) and white (76%), and had bilateral uveitis (82%). The estimated 6-month incidence of ≥ 2 lines of visual acuity improvement in affected eyes was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49%-55%). Vision reduced by ME was more likely to improve by 2 lines in eyes initially with poor visual acuity (≤ 20/200; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7), active uveitis (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5), and anterior uveitis as opposed to intermediate (HR, 1.2), posterior (HR, 1.3), or panuveitis (HR, 1.4; overall P = 0.02). During follow-up, reductions in anterior chamber or vitreous cellular activity or in vitreous haze each led to significant improvements in visual outcome (P <0.001 for each). Conversely, snowbanking (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-0.99), posterior synechiae (HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9), and hypotony (HR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.5) each were associated with lower incidence of visual improvement with respect to eyes lacking each of these attributes at a given visit.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that many, but not all, patients with ME causing low vision in a tertiary care setting will enjoy meaningful visual recovery in response to treatment. Evidence of significant ocular damage from inflammation (posterior synechiae and hypotony) portends a lower incidence of visual recovery. Better control of anterior chamber or vitreous activity is associated with a greater incidence of visual improvement, supporting an aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment approach for ME cases with active inflammation.
PURPOSE: The CAV1/CAV2 (caveolin 1 and caveolin 2) genomic region previously was associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), although replication among independent studies has been variable. The aim of this study was to assess the association between CAV1/CAV2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and POAG in a large case-control dataset and to explore associations by gender and pattern of visual field (VF) loss further.
DESIGN: Case-control study.
PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed 2 large POAG data sets: the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study (976 cases, 1140 controls) and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium (2132 cases, 2290 controls).
METHODS: We studied the association between 70 SNPs located within the CAV1/CAV2 genomic region in the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR studies, both genotyped on the Illumina Human 660WQuadv1C BeadChip array and imputed with the Markov Chain Haplotyping algorithm using the HapMap 3 reference panel. We used logistic regression models of POAG in the overall population and separated by gender, as well as by POAG subtypes defined by type of VF defect (peripheral or paracentral). Results from GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR were meta-analyzed, and a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of 7.7 × 10(-4) was used to account for multiple comparisons.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall POAG, overall POAG by gender, and POAG subtypes defined by pattern of early VF loss.
RESULTS: We found significant associations between 10 CAV1/CAV2 SNPs and POAG (top SNP, rs4236601; pooled P = 2.61 × 10(-7)). Of these, 9 were significant only in women (top SNP, rs4236601; pooled P = 1.59 × 10(-5)). Five of the 10 CAV1/CAV2 SNPs were associated with POAG with early paracentral VF (top SNP, rs17588172; pooled P = 1.07 × 10(-4)), and none of the 10 were associated with POAG with peripheral VF loss only or POAG among men.
CONCLUSIONS: CAV1/CAV2 SNPs were associated significantly with POAG overall, particularly among women. Furthermore, we found an association between CAV1/CAV2 SNPs and POAG with paracentral VF defects. These data support a role for caveolin 1, caveolin 2, or both in POAG and suggest that the caveolins particularly may affect POAG pathogenesis in women and in patients with early paracentral VF defects.
There is no known treatment for the dry form of an age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Cell death and inflammation are important biological processes thought to have central role in AMD. Here we show that receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase mediates necrosis and enhances inflammation in a mouse model of retinal degeneration induced by dsRNA, a component of drusen in AMD. In contrast to photoreceptor-induced apoptosis, subretinal injection of the dsRNA analog poly(I : C) caused necrosis of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), as well as macrophage infiltration into the outer retinas. In Rip3(-/-) mice, both necrosis and inflammation were prevented, providing substantial protection against poly(I : C)-induced retinal degeneration. Moreover, after poly(I : C) injection, Rip3(-/-) mice displayed decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α and IL-6) in the retina, and attenuated intravitreal release of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a major damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). In vitro, poly(I : C)-induced necrosis were inhibited in Rip3-deficient RPE cells, which in turn suppressed HMGB1 release and dampened TNF-α and IL-6 induction evoked by necrotic supernatants. On the other hand, Rip3 deficiency did not modulate directly TNF-α and IL-6 production after poly(I : C) stimulation in RPE cells or macrophages. Therefore, programmed necrosis is crucial in dsRNA-induced retinal degeneration and may promote inflammation by regulating the release of intracellular DAMPs, suggesting novel therapeutic targets for diseases such as AMD.
A key event during mammalian sexual development is regression of the Müllerian ducts (MDs) in the bipotential urogenital ridges (UGRs) of fetal males, which is caused by the expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) in the Sertoli cells of the differentiating testes. The paracrine signaling mechanisms involved in MD regression are not completely understood, particularly since the receptor for MIS, MISR2, is expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the MD, but regression occurs in both the epithelium and mesenchyme. Microarray analysis comparing MIS signaling competent and Misr2 knockout embryonic UGRs was performed to identify secreted factors that might be important for MIS-mediated regression of the MD. A seven-fold increase in the expression of Wif1, an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling, was observed in the Misr2-expressing UGRs. Whole mount in situ hybridization of Wif1 revealed a spatial and temporal pattern of expression consistent with Misr2 during the window of MD regression in the mesenchyme surrounding the MD epithelium that was absent in both female UGRs and UGRs knocked out for Misr2. Knockdown of Wif1 expression in male UGRs by Wif1-specific siRNAs beginning on embryonic day 13.5 resulted in MD retention in an organ culture assay, and exposure of female UGRs to added recombinant human MIS induced Wif1 expression in the MD mesenchyme. Knockdown of Wif1 led to increased expression of β-catenin and its downstream targets TCF1/LEF1 in the MD mesenchyme and to decreased apoptosis, resulting in partial to complete retention of the MD. These results strongly suggest that WIF1 secretion by the MD mesenchyme plays a role in MD regression in fetal males.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of light damage to the retina by a surgical microscope during implantation of a Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) in rabbits. METHODS: The retinal irradiance from a Zeiss OPMI Lumera S7 operating microscope was measured at the working distance (16.5 cm). Light transmittance through an isolated B-KPro was measured. A B-KPro was implanted into 1 eye of 12 rabbits with the optic covered during the procedure. The operated eyes were then continuously exposed to a fixed light intensity under the microscope for 1 hour. Fluorescein angiography was carried out on days 2 and 9 postsurgery, after which the animals were euthanized. Further, we compared the potential of these retinal exposures to well-accepted light safety guidelines applicable to humans. RESULTS: Light transmittance of B-KPro revealed a blockage of short wavelengths (<390 nm) and of long wavelengths (1660-1750 nm) of light. In addition, the surgical microscope filtered a part of the blue, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths. Neither fluorescein angiography nor a histological examination showed any morphological retinal changes in our rabbits. Moreover, the retinal exposures were well below the safety limits. CONCLUSIONS: Modern surgical microscopes have filters incorporated in them that block the most damaging wavelengths of light. The B-KPro is made of 100% poly(methyl methacrylate), which makes it in itself a blocker of short wavelengths of light. No damage could be demonstrated in the animal study, and the retinal exposures were well below the safety limits. Together, these results suggest that light exposures during B-KPro surgery present a low risk of photochemical damage to the retina.
PURPOSE: To determine the influence of diabetes and diabetes type on ocular outcomes following central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients evaluated over a 4-year period in a tertiary diabetes eye care center. Ophthalmic findings were recorded including visual acuity and the presence of retinal neovascularization at presentation, after 3-6 months, and at last follow-up. RESULTS: The records of 19,648 patients (13,571 diabetic; 6077 nondiabetic) were reviewed. The prevalence of CRVO in diabetic patients (N=72) and nondiabetic patients (N=27) were 0.5 and 0.4%, respectively. Disc neovascularization (21.3 vs 0.0%, P=0.05) and panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) (48.7 vs 21.4%, P=0.01) were more common in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic patients. Compared with type 2 diabetic patients, retinal neovascularization (28.6 vs 3.7%, P=0.004) and subsequent PRP (78.6 vs 41.9%, P=0.01) were more likely in type 1 patients. Optic nerve head collateral vessels (CVs) were observed less than half as often (21.4 vs 56.5%, P=0.04) in patients with type 1 diabetes. Presence of optic nerve head CVs at baseline was associated with less likelihood of PRP (14.3 vs 46.1%, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, the rates of CRVO in diabetic and nondiabetic patients were similar to previously published population-based studies. Following CRVO, diabetic patients had higher rates of disc neovascularization and were more likely to require subsequent PRP than nondiabetic patients. As compared with CRVO patients with type 2 diabetes, patients with type 1 diabetes and CRVO had worse anatomic outcomes with substantially increased risks of retinal neovascularization and PRP; however, final visual acuity outcomes were similar.
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of topical Janus kinase inhibition on ocular surface inflammation and immunity. METHODS: Ophthalmic 0.003% tofacitinib (CP-690,550) was administered topically to inhibit Janus kinase activation at the ocular surface. Male BALB/c mice 6 to 8 weeks of age were subjected to corneal thermocautery and randomized to receive tofacitinib, vehicle, or no treatment. Corneas were subsequently excised for fluorescence-activated cell sorting and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Female C57BL/6 mice 6 to 8 weeks of age were exposed to desiccating stress to induce experimental dry eye disease and randomized to receive tofacitinib, tofacitinib and vehicle, vehicle, or no treatment. Corneal fluorescein staining was performed to evaluate clinical disease severity. The corneas and conjunctivae were harvested for immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: After corneal thermocautery, it was found that tofacitinib treatment decreased the corneal infiltration of CD45+, Gr-1+, and CD11b+ cells on days 1 and 3. Transcripts encoding interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were significantly decreased by tofacitinib treatment at post-thermocautery day 3. In experimental dry eye disease, tofacitinib treatment twice per day significantly decreased corneal fluorescein staining on days 12 and 15. The corneal infiltration of CD11b+ cells was significantly decreased by tofacitinib treatment twice per day. Tofacitinib treatment twice per day significantly increased the corneal expression of IL-1RA, and significantly decreased the corneal expression of tumor necrosis factor and IL-23. Further, tofacitinib treatment twice per day significantly decreased the conjunctival expression of IL-17A and significantly increased the conjunctival expression of FoxP3. CONCLUSIONS: Topical ophthalmic tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, suppressed ocular surface inflammation and immunity in experimental corneal thermocautery and dry eye disease.
We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT) task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6) than they could track (M = 4.0), but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design. Compared to single-task baseline, iMOT performance decreased and MOT performance increased when the two tasks had to be completed together. Overall, these findings suggest: 1) There is a clear limit to the number of items that can be simultaneously controlled, for a given speed and display density; 2) participants can control more items than they can track; 3) task-relevant action appears not to disrupt MOT performance in the current experimental context.
PURPOSE: To estimate the impact of dry eye disease (DED) on work performance and productivity in office workers using visual display terminals (VDTs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Six hundred seventy-two Japanese young and middle-aged office workers using VDTs completed a questionnaire that was designed to measured at-work performance deficits and productivity losses using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire, completed by e-mail. Using the Japanese dry eye diagnostic criteria, respondents were classified into 3 groups: definite DED, probable DED, and non DED. RESULTS: Of the 672 office workers, 553 subjects (82.3%), including 366 men and 187 women, completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical evaluation. As for the total workplace productivity loss, the non DED group demonstrated a loss of 3.56%, those with probable DED demonstrated a loss of 4.06%, and those with definite DED demonstrated a loss of 4.82%, indicating significantly worse performance and productivity (P = .014, trend test). For the 4 subscales, DED was associated with significantly lower on-the-job time management (P = .009, trend test) and combined mental performance and interpersonal functioning (P = .011, trend test). After controlling for age, sex, VDT working hours, and diagnosis of DED, time management, physical demands, and mental and interpersonal functioning showed a significant relationship to DED (each P > .05). Annual DED productivity losses were estimated to be $6160 per employee when measured by total production and $1178 per employee calculated by wage. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that there is a significant impact of DED on the total productivity of Japanese VDT users.
PURPOSE: Exfoliation syndrome (ES) is commonly associated with glaucoma, premature cataracts, and other ocular and systemic pathologies. LOXL1 gene variants are significantly associated with ES; however, the role of the protein in ES development remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ocular phenotype in Loxl1(-/-) (null) mice. METHODS: Loxl1 null mice and strain-matched controls (C57BL) were evaluated by clinical and histologic analyses. RESULTS: Anterior segment histology showed a pronounced vesiculation of the anterior lens in the null mice. The lesions were subcapsular and in direct apposition with the posterior iris surface. Fluorescein angiography showed increased diffusion of fluorescein into the anterior chamber of the null mice compared with age-matched controls (P = 0.003, two-tailed, unequal variance t-test), suggesting compromise of the blood-aqueous barrier. Intraocular pressure measurements were within the normal range (16.5 ± 2.0 mm Hg) in null mice up to 1 year of age. Immunohistochemistry showed decreased elastin in the iris and ciliary body in the null mouse compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Elimination of LOXL1 in mice impairs the blood-aqueous humor barrier in the ocular anterior segment and causes lens abnormalities consistent with cataract formation, but does not result in deposition of macromolecular material or glaucoma. These results show that mice lacking LOXL1 have some ES features but that complete disease manifestation requires other factors that could be genetic and/or environmental.