Wolfram syndrome was initially reported as an autosomal recessive (AR), progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to diabetes insipidus, childhood onset diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy, and deafness (D) also known as DIDMOAD. However, heterozygous dominant pathogenic variants in Wolfram syndrome type 1 (WFS1) may lead to distinct, allelic conditions, described as isolated sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), syndromic SNHL, congenital cataracts, or early onset DM. We report a family with a novel dominant, likely pathogenic variant in WFS1 (NM_006005.3) c.2605_2616del12 (p.Ser869_His872del), resulting in cataracts, SNHL, and DM in a female and her mother. A maternal aunt had cataracts, DM, and SNHL but was not tested for the familial WFS1 mutation. Both the mother and maternal aunt had early menopause by age 43 years and infertility which may be a coincidental finding that has not been associated with autosomal dominant AD WFS1-related disorder to the best of our knowledge. Screening at risk individuals in families with the AR Wolfram syndrome, for DM, SNHL, and for cataracts is indicated.
TOPIC: An international, expert-led consensus initiative organized by the Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS), along with the International Ocular Inflammation Society and the International Uveitis Study Group, systematically developed evidence- and experience-based recommendations for the treatment of tubercular choroiditis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The diagnosis and management of tubercular uveitis (TBU) pose a significant challenge. Current guidelines and literature are insufficient to guide physicians regarding the initiation of antitubercular therapy (ATT) in patients with TBU. METHODS: An international expert steering subcommittee of the COTS group identified clinical questions and conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the use of ATT for tubercular choroiditis. Using an interactive online questionnaire, guided by background knowledge from published literature, 81 global experts (including ophthalmologists, pulmonologists, and infectious disease physicians) generated preliminary consensus statements for initiating ATT in tubercular choroiditis, using Oxford levels of medical evidence. In total, 162 statements were identified regarding when to initiate ATT in patients with tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis, tuberculoma, and tubercular focal or multifocal choroiditis. The COTS group members met in November 2018 to refine these statements by a 2-step modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Seventy consensus statements addressed the initiation of ATT in the 3 subtypes of tubercular choroiditis, and in addition, 10 consensus statements were developed regarding the use of adjunctive therapy in tubercular choroiditis. Experts agreed on initiating ATT in tubercular choroiditis in the presence of positive results for any 1 of the positive immunologic tests along with radiologic features suggestive of tuberculosis. For tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis and tuberculoma, positive results from even 1 positive immunologic test were considered sufficient to recommend ATT, even if there were no radiologic features suggestive of tuberculosis. DISCUSSION: Consensus guidelines were developed to guide the initiation of ATT in patients with tubercular choroiditis, based on the published literature, expert opinion, and practical experience, to bridge the gap between clinical need and available medical evidence.
TOPIC: The Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS), supported by the International Ocular Inflammation Society, International Uveitis Study Group, and Foster Ocular Immunological Society, set up an international, expert-led consensus project to develop evidence- and experience-based guidelines for the management of tubercular uveitis (TBU). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The absence of international agreement on the use of antitubercular therapy (ATT) in patients with TBU contributes to a significant heterogeneity in the approach to the management of this condition. METHODS: Consensus statements for the initiation of ATT in TBU were generated using a 2-step modified Delphi technique. In Delphi step 1, a smart web-based survey based on background evidence from published literature was prepared to collect the opinion of 81 international experts on the use of ATT in different clinical scenarios. The survey included 324 questions related to tubercular anterior uveitis (TAU), tubercular intermediate uveitis (TIU), tubercular panuveitis (TPU), and tubercular retinal vasculitis (TRV) administered by the experts, after which the COTS group met in November 2019 for a systematic and critical discussion of the statements in accordance with the second round of the modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Forty-four consensus statements on the initiation of ATT in TAU, TIU, TPU, and TRV were obtained, based on ocular phenotypes suggestive of TBU and corroborative evidence of tuberculosis, provided by several combinations of immunologic and radiologic test results. Experts agreed on initiating ATT in recurrent TAU, TIU, TPU, and active TRV depending on the TB endemicity. In the presence of positive results for any 1 of the immunologic tests along with radiologic features suggestive of past evidence of tuberculosis infection. In patients with a first episode of TAU, consensus to initiate ATT was reached only if both immunologic and radiologic test results were positive. DISCUSSION: The COTS consensus guidelines were generated based on the evidence from published literature, specialists' opinions, and logic construction to address the initiation of ATT in TBU. The guidelines also should inform public policy by adding specific types of TBU to the list of conditions that should be treated as tuberculosis.
PURPOSE: To investigate a cluster of corneoscleral rim cultures positive for Achromobacter species over a 6-month period at Massachusetts Eye and Ear. METHODS: An increased rate of positive corneal donor rim cultures was noted at Massachusetts Eye and Ear between July and December 2017. Positive cultures were subjected to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by phenotypic (MicroScan WalkAway) and genotypic (16S rDNA sequencing) methods. Samples of the eye wash solution (GeriCare) used in the eye bank were also evaluated. Antimicrobial activity of Optical-GS against Achromobacter spp. at 4°C and 37°C was assessed by time-kill kinetics assay. RESULTS: Of 99 donor rims cultured, 14 (14.1%) grew bacteria with 11 (78.6%) due to uncommon nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli. These had been identified by standard automated methods as Achromobacter (n = 3), Alcaligenes (n = 3), Ralstonia (n = 2), Pseudomonas (n = 2), and Stenotrophomonas (n = 1). Eight of these 11 isolates were subsequently available for molecular identification, and all were identified as Achromobacter spp. Six bottles of eyewash solution were evaluated and were positive for abundant Achromobacter spp. (3.4 × 105 ± 1.1 CFU/mL). Optisol-GS had no bactericidal activity against Achromobacter spp. at 4°C after 24-hour incubation but was bactericidal at 37°C. None of the patients who had received the contaminated corneas developed postoperative infection. CONCLUSIONS: An eyewash solution arising from a single lot was implicated in the contamination of donor rims by Achromobacter spp. The isolates were able to survive in the Optisol-GS medium at the recommended storage temperature. This highlights the need to continue improving protocols for tissue preparation and storage.
The cornea is a transparent avascular tissue on the anterior segment of the eye responsible for providing refractive power and forming a protective barrier against the external environment. Infectious and inflammatory conditions can compromise the structure of the cornea, leading to visual impairment and blindness. Galectins are a group of β-galactoside-binding proteins expressed by immune and non-immune cells that play pivotal roles in innate and adaptive immunity. In this brief review, we discuss how different members of this family of proteins affect both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in the cornea, particularly in the context of infection, transplantation and wound healing. We further describe recent research showing beneficial effects of galectin-targeted therapy in corneal diseases.
PURPOSE: To characterize the rates of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) medications before and after publication of the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network protocol S. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional study from January 2012, through September 2019, using a nationally representative claims-based database, Clinformatics Data Mart Database (OptumInsight, Eden Prairie, MN). PARTICIPANTS: Eyes newly diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), continuous enrollment, and no prior treatment with PRP or anti-VEGF agents. METHODS: Interrupted time series regression analysis was performed to identify the annual change in treatment rates before and after the publication of Protocol S (November 2015). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual rates of anti-VEGF or PRP treatments per 1000 treated eyes with PDR. RESULTS: From 2012 through 2019, 10 035 PRP or anti-VEGF treatments were administered to 3685 PDR eyes. Of these, 63.6% (n = 6379) were anti-VEGF agents, and 36.4% (n = 3656) were PRP treatments. Throughout treatment, 88.7% of eyes treated with anti-VEGF received the same agent and 7.7% were treated with both PRP and anti-VEGF agents. Panretinal photocoagulation rates declined from 784/1000 treated eyes in 2012 to 566/1000 in 2019 (pre-Protocol S: β = -32 vs. post-Protocol S: -77; P = 0.005), whereas anti-VEGF rates increased from 876/1000 in 2012 to 1583/1000 in 2019 (β = -48 vs. 161, respectively; P = 0.001). Panretinal photocoagulation rates in diabetic macular edema (DME) eyes did not significantly differ from 474/1000 in 2012 to 363/1000 in 2019 (β = -9 vs. -58 respectively; P = 0.091), and anti-VEGF rates increased from 1533/1000 in 2012 to 2096/1000 in 2019 (β = -57 vs. 187; P = 0.043). In eyes without DME, PRP use declined from 1017/1000 in 2012 to 707/1000 in 2019 (β = -31 vs. -111, respectively; P < 0.001), and anti-VEGF use increased from 383/1000 in 2012 to 1226/1000 in 2019 (β = -48 vs. 140, respectively; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Following the publication of Protocol S, PRP rates decreased, while anti-VEGF rates increased. Panretinal photocoagulation rates did not significantly change among eyes with DME. Our findings indicate the impact that randomized controlled trials can have on real-world practice patterns.
AIMS: To determine the cost-effectiveness of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (pDMEK) versus non-preloaded DMEK (n-pDMEK) for the treatment of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). METHODS: From a societal and healthcare perspective, this retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis analysed a cohort of 58 patients with FECD receiving pDMEK (n=38) or n-pDMEK (n=30) from 2016 to 2018 in the Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Exclusion criteria were previous ocular surgeries (other than uncomplicated cataract surgery), including other keratoplasty procedures, ocular pathological conditions as glaucoma, amblyopia, laser treatments, or any retinal or corneal disease. The main outcome parameters were the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and net monetary benefit (NMB). RESULTS: pDMEK was less costly compared with n-pDMEK (healthcare: $13 886 vs $15 329; societal: $20 805 vs $22 262), with a slighter greater utility (QALY 0.6682 vs QALY 0.6640) over a time horizon of 15 years. pDMEK offered a slightly higher clinical effectiveness (+0.0042 QALY/patient) at a lower cost (healthcare: -$1444 per patient; societal: -$1457 per patient) in improving visual acuity in this cohort of patients with FECD. pDMEK achieved a favourable ICUR and NMB compared with n-pDMEK. Based on sensitivity analyses performed, the economic model was robust. CONCLUSIONS: From the societal and healthcare perspective, pDMEK was less costly and generated comparable utility values relative to n-pDMEK. Therefore, pDMEK appears to be cost-effective and cost saving with respect to n-pDMEK. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of bilateral cataract surgery in children aged 7 to 24 months and compare rates of adverse events (AEs) with other Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS) registry outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study at 10 Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) sites. Statistical analyses comparing this cohort with previously reported TAPS registry cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: Children enrolled in the TAPS registry between 2004 and 2010. METHODS: Children underwent bilateral cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) placement at age 7 to 24 months with 5 years of postsurgical follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity (VA), occurrence of strabismus, AEs, and reoperations. RESULTS: A total of 40 children (76 eyes) who underwent bilateral cataract surgery with primary posterior capsulectomy were identified with a median age at cataract surgery of 11 months (7-23); 68% received a primary IOL. Recurrent visual axis opacification (VAO) occurred in 7.5% and was associated only with the use of an IOL (odds ratio, 6.10; P = 0.005). Glaucoma suspect (GS) was diagnosed in 2.5%, but no child developed glaucoma. In this bilateral cohort, AEs (8/40, 20%), including glaucoma or GS and VAO, and reoperations occurred in a similar proportion to that of the published unilateral TAPS cohort. When analyzed with children aged 1 to 7 months at bilateral surgery, the incidence of AEs and glaucoma or GS correlated strongly with age at surgery (P = 0.011/0.004) and glaucoma correlated with microcornea (P = 0.040) but not with IOL insertion (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up to age 5 years after bilateral cataract surgery in children aged 7 to 24 months reveals a low rate of VAO and very rare glaucoma or GS diagnosis compared with infants with cataracts operated at < 7 months of age despite primary IOL implantation in most children in the group aged 7 to 24 months. The use of an IOL increases the risk of VAO irrespective of age at surgery.
After complete spinal cord injuries (SCI), spinal segments below the lesion maintain inter-segmental communication via the intraspinal propriospinal network. However, it is unknown whether selective manipulation of these circuits can restore locomotor function in the absence of brain-derived inputs. By taking advantage of the compromised blood-spinal cord barrier following SCI, we optimized a set of procedures in which AAV9 vectors administered via the tail vein efficiently transduce neurons in lesion-adjacent spinal segments after a thoracic crush injury in adult mice. With this method, we used chemogenetic actuators to alter the excitability of propriospinal neurons in the thoracic cord of the adult mice with a complete thoracic crush injury. We showed that activating these thoracic neurons enables consistent and significant hindlimb stepping improvement, whereas direct manipulations of the neurons in the lumbar spinal cord led to muscle spasms without meaningful locomotion. Strikingly, manipulating either excitatory or inhibitory propriospinal neurons in the thoracic levels leads to distinct behavioural outcomes, with preferential effects on standing or stepping, two key elements of the locomotor function. These results demonstrate a strategy of engaging thoracic propriospinal neurons to improve hindlimb function and provide insights into optimizing neuromodulation-based strategies for treating SCI.
Chan YK, Wang SK, Chu CJ, Copland DA, Letizia AJ, Costa Verdera H, Chiang JJ, Sethi M, Wang MK, Neidermyer WJ, Chan Y, Lim ET, Graveline AR, Sanchez M, Boyd RF, Vihtelic TS, Inciong RGCO, Slain JM, Alphonse PJ, Xue Y, Robinson-McCarthy LR, Tam JM, Jabbar MH, Sahu B, Adeniran JF, Muhuri M, Tai PWL, Xie J, Krause TB, Vernet A, Pezone M, Xiao R, Liu T, Wang W, Kaplan HJ, Gao G, Dick AD, Mingozzi F, McCall MA, Cepko CL, Church GM. Engineering adeno-associated viral vectors to evade innate immune and inflammatory responses. Sci Transl Med 2021;13(580)Abstract
Nucleic acids are used in many therapeutic modalities, including gene therapy, but their ability to trigger host immune responses in vivo can lead to decreased safety and efficacy. In the case of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, studies have shown that the genome of the vector activates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a pattern recognition receptor that senses foreign DNA. Here, we engineered AAV vectors to be intrinsically less immunogenic by incorporating short DNA oligonucleotides that antagonize TLR9 activation directly into the vector genome. The engineered vectors elicited markedly reduced innate immune and T cell responses and enhanced gene expression in clinically relevant mouse and pig models across different tissues, including liver, muscle, and retina. Subretinal administration of higher-dose AAV in pigs resulted in photoreceptor pathology with microglia and T cell infiltration. These adverse findings were avoided in the contralateral eyes of the same animals that were injected with the engineered vectors. However, intravitreal injection of higher-dose AAV in macaques, a more immunogenic route of administration, showed that the engineered vector delayed but did not prevent clinical uveitis, suggesting that other immune factors in addition to TLR9 may contribute to intraocular inflammation in this model. Our results demonstrate that linking specific immunomodulatory noncoding sequences to much longer therapeutic nucleic acids can "cloak" the vector from inducing unwanted immune responses in multiple, but not all, models. This "coupled immunomodulation" strategy may widen the therapeutic window for AAV therapies as well as other DNA-based gene transfer methods.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report the safety and efficacy of pars plana glaucoma drainage devices with pars plana vitrectomy using one of the vitrectomy sclerotomy sites for tube placement in patients with refractory glaucoma. METHODS: Retrospective case series of 28 eyes of 28 patients who underwent combined pars plana glaucoma drainage device and pars plana vitrectomy between November 2016 and September 2019 at Massachusetts Eye and Ear. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medication burden, best corrected visual acuity, and complications. Statistical tests were performed with R and included Kaplan-Meier analyses, Wilcoxon paired signed-rank tests, and Fisher tests. RESULTS: Mean IOP decreased from 22.8 mmHg to 11.8 mmHg at 1.5 years (p = 0.002), and mean medication burden decreased from 4.3 to 2.1 at 1.5 years (p = 0.004). Both IOP and medication burden were significantly lower at all follow-up time points. The probability of achieving 5 < IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with at least 20% IOP reduction from preoperative levels was 86.4% at 1 year and 59.8% at 1.5 years. At their last visit, three eyes (10.7%) achieved complete success with IOP reduction as above without medications, and 14 eyes (50.0%) achieved qualified success with medications. Hypotony was observed in 1 eye (3.6%) prior to 3 months postoperatively and 0 eyes after 3 months. Visual acuity was unchanged or improved in 23 eyes (82.1%) at their last follow-up. Two patients had a visual acuity decrease of > 2 lines. Two eyes required subsequent pars plana vitrectomies for tube obstruction, and one eye had transient hypotony. CONCLUSIONS: The results of pars plana glaucoma drainage device and pars plana vitrectomy using one of the vitrectomy sclerotomy sites for tube placement are promising, resulting in significant IOP and medication-burden reductions through postoperative year 1.5 without additional risk of postoperative complications. Inserting glaucoma drainage devices into an existing vitrectomy sclerotomy site may potentially save surgical time by obviating the need to create another sclerotomy for tube placement and suture one of the vitrectomy ports.
PURPOSE: Delaying cataract surgery is associated with an increased risk of falls, but whether routine preoperative testing delays cataract surgery long enough to cause clinical harm is unknown. We sought to determine whether the use of routine preoperative testing leads to harm in the form of delayed surgery and falls in Medicare beneficiaries awaiting cataract surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study using 2006-2014 Medicare claims. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries 66+ years of age with a Current Procedural Terminology claim for ocular biometry. METHODS: We measured the mean and median number of days between biometry and cataract surgery, calculated the proportion of patients waiting ≥ 30 days or ≥ 90 days for surgery, and determined the odds of sustaining a fall within 90 days of biometry among patients of high-testing physicians (testing performed in ≥ 75% of their patients) compared with patients of low-testing physicians. We also estimated the number of days of delay attributable to high-testing physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of falls occurring between biometry and surgery, odds of falling within 90 days of biometry, and estimated delay associated with physician testing behavior. RESULTS: Of 248 345 beneficiaries, 16.4% were patients of high-testing physicians. More patients of high-testing physicians waited ≥ 30 days and ≥ 90 days to undergo surgery (31.4% and 8.2% vs. 25.0% and 5.5%, respectively; P < 0.0001 for both). Falls before surgery in patients of high-testing physicians increased by 43% within the 90 days after ocular biometry (1.0% vs. 0.7%; P < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio of falling within 90 days of biometry in patients of high-testing physicians versus low-testing physicians was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.19; P = 0.008). After adjusting for surgical wait time, the odds ratio decreased to 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00-1.15; P = 0.06). The delay associated with having a high-testing physician was approximately 8 days (estimate, 7.97 days; 95% CI, 6.40-9.55 days; P < 0.0001). Other factors associated with delayed surgery included patient race (non-White), Northeast region, ophthalmologist ≤ 40 years of age, and low surgical volume. CONCLUSIONS: Overuse of routine preoperative medical testing by high-testing physicians is associated with delayed surgery and increased falls in cataract patients awaiting surgery.
Importance: Glaucoma-related adverse events constitute serious complications of cataract removal in infancy, yet long-term data on incidence and visual outcome remain lacking. Objective: To identify and characterize incident cases of glaucoma and glaucoma-related adverse events (glaucoma + glaucoma suspect) among children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) by the age of 10.5 years and to determine whether these diagnoses are associated with optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) assessment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataract who were aged 1 to 6 months at surgery. Data on long-term glaucoma-related status and outcomes were collected when children were 10.5 years old (July 14, 2015, to July 12, 2019) and analyzed from March 30, 2019, to August 6, 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized at cataract surgery to either primary intraocular lens (IOL), or aphakia (contact lens [CL]). Standardized definitions of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect were created for IATS and applied for surveillance and diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of glaucoma and glaucoma + glaucoma suspect in operated-on eyes up to age 10.5 years, plus intraocular pressure, axial length, RNFL (by optical coherence tomography), and ONH photographs. Results: In Kaplan-Meier analysis, for all study eyes combined (n = 114), risk of glaucoma after cataract removal rose from 9% (95% CI, 5%-16%) at 1 year, to 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) at 5 years, to 22% (95% CI, 16%-31%) at 10 years. The risk of glaucoma plus glaucoma suspect diagnosis after cataract removal rose from 12% (95% CI, 7%-20%) at 1 year, to 31% (95% CI, 24%-41%) at 5 years, to 40% (95% CI, 32%-50%) at 10 years. Risk of glaucoma and glaucoma plus glaucoma suspect diagnosis at 10 years was not significantly different between treatment groups. Eyes with glaucoma (compared with eyes with glaucoma suspect or neither) had longer axial length but relatively preserved RNFL and similar ONH appearance and visual acuity at age 10 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Risk of glaucoma-related adverse events continues to increase with longer follow-up of children following unilateral cataract removal in infancy and is not associated with primary IOL implantation. Development of glaucoma (or glaucoma suspect) after removal of unilateral congenital cataract was not associated with worse visual acuity outcomes at 10 years. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00212134.
Gharahkhani P, Jorgenson E, Hysi P, Khawaja AP, Pendergrass S, Han X, Ong JS, Hewitt AW, Segrè AV, Rouhana JM, Hamel AR, Igo RP, Choquet H, Qassim A, Josyula NS, Cooke Bailey JN, Bonnemaijer PWM, Iglesias A, Siggs OM, Young TL, Vitart V, Thiadens AAHJ, Karjalainen J, Uebe S, Melles RB, Nair SK, Luben R, Simcoe M, Amersinghe N, Cree AJ, Hohn R, Poplawski A, Chen LJ, Rong S-S, Aung T, Vithana EN, Vithana EN, Vithana EN, Vithana EN, Vithana EN, and Consortium UKBEV, and Consortium UKBEV, and Consortium UKBEV, Tamiya G, Shiga Y, Yamamoto M, Nakazawa T, Currant H, Birney E, Wang X, Auton A, Lupton MK, Martin NG, Ashaye A, Olawoye O, Williams SE, Akafo S, Ramsay M, Hashimoto K, Kamatani Y, Akiyama M, Momozawa Y, Foster PJ, Khaw PT, Morgan JE, Strouthidis NG, Kraft P, Kang JH, Pang CP, Pasutto F, Mitchell P, Lotery AJ, Palotie A, van Duijn C, Haines JL, Hammond C, Pasquale LR, Klaver CCW, Hauser M, Khor CC, Mackey DA, Kubo M, Cheng C-Y, Craig JE, Macgregor S, Wiggs JL. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 127 open-angle glaucoma loci with consistent effect across ancestries. Nat Commun 2021;12(1):1258.Abstract
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is a heritable common cause of blindness world-wide. To identify risk loci, we conduct a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on a total of 34,179 cases and 349,321 controls, identifying 44 previously unreported risk loci and confirming 83 loci that were previously known. The majority of loci have broadly consistent effects across European, Asian and African ancestries. Cross-ancestry data improve fine-mapping of causal variants for several loci. Integration of multiple lines of genetic evidence support the functional relevance of the identified POAG risk loci and highlight potential contributions of several genes to POAG pathogenesis, including SVEP1, RERE, VCAM1, ZNF638, CLIC5, SLC2A12, YAP1, MXRA5, and SMAD6. Several drug compounds targeting POAG risk genes may be potential glaucoma therapeutic candidates.
INTRODUCTION: Thrombocytopenia has been identified as an independent risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), although underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, the association of platelet count and serum platelet-derived factors with ROP was investigated. METHODS: Data for 78 infants born at gestational age (GA) <28 weeks were included. Infants were classified as having no/mild ROP or severe ROP. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A, platelet-derived growth factor BB, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were measured in serum samples collected from birth until postmenstrual age (PMA) 40 weeks. Platelet counts were obtained from samples taken for clinical indication. RESULTS: Postnatal platelet counts and serum concentrations of the 3 growth factors followed the same postnatal pattern, with lower levels in infants developing severe ROP at PMA 32 and 36 weeks (p < 0.05-0.001). With adjustment for GA, low platelet counts and low serum concentrations of all 3 factors at PMA 32 weeks were significantly associated with severe ROP. Serum concentrations of all 3 factors also strongly correlated with platelet count (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this article, we show that ROP, platelet counts, and specific pro-angiogenic factors correlate. These data suggest that platelet-released factors might be involved in the regulation of retinal and systemic angiogenesis after extremely preterm birth. Further investigations are needed.
21q22 contains several dosage sensitive genes that are important in neurocognitive development. Determining impacts of gene dosage alterations in this region can be useful in establishing contributions of these genes to human development and disease. We describe a 15-month-old girl with a 1,140 kb homozygous deletion in the Down Syndrome Critical Region at 21q22.2 including 4 genes; B3GALT5, IGSF5, PCP4, DSCAM, and a microRNA (MIR4760). Clinical singleton genome sequencing did not report any candidate gene variants for the patient's phenotype. She presented with hypotonia, global developmental delay, cortical visual impairment, and mild facial dysmorphism. Ophthalmological exam was suggestive of retinopathy. We propose that the absence of DSCAM and PCP4 may contribute to the patient's neurological and retinal phenotype, while the role of absent B3GALT5 and IGSF5 in her presentation remain unclear at this time.
PURPOSE: To quantitatively compare retinal vascular characteristics over time in eyes eventually treated versus not treated for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), using ROPtool analysis of narrow-field retinal images. METHODS: This longitudinal study used prospectively collected narrow-field retinal images of infants screened for ROP, prior to treatment, if needed. Images were analyzed using a methodology that combines quadrant-level measures from several images of the same eye. For the longitudinal analysis, one examination per postmenstrual age (PMA) was included per eye. We compared the following ROPtool indices and their change per week between eyes eventually treated versus not treated for ROP: tortuosity index (TI), dilation index (DI), sum of adjusted indices (SAI), and tortuosity-weighted plus (TWP). Analysis was performed on three levels: eye (mean value/eye), quadrant (highest quadrant value/eye), and blood vessel (highest blood vessel value/eye). RESULTS: Of 832 examinations (99 infants), 745 images (89.5%) had 3-4 quadrants analyzable by ROPtool. On the eye level, ROPtool indices differed between eyes eventually treated versus not treated at PMA of 33-35 and 37 weeks for TI, SAI, and TWP, and at PMA of 33-34 and 37 weeks for DI (P ≤ 0.0014), and change per week differed between eyes eventually treated versus not treated only for SAI at PMA of 32 weeks (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analysis of retinal vascular characteristics using ROPtool can help predict eventual need for treatment for ROP as early as 32 weeks PMA. ROPtool index values were more useful than change in these indices to predict eyes that would eventually need treatment for ROP.
AIM: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the modified skin re-draping epicanthoplasty procedure for correction of recurrent lower lid epiblepharon in Chinese children. METHODS: From 2016 to 2018, 18 children (10 males and 8 females, average age 6.2±1.7y; 30 eyes) with recurrent epiblepharon who attended Beijing Children's Hospital were included in the study. All the children had undergone lower eyelid surgery for epiblepharon. Surgical design included using an additional incision along the upper palpebral margin, to avoid vertical scarring on the upper lid. The re-draping method was used to correct recurrent epiblepharon. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 24mo. Postoperative surgical outcomes, complications, and subjective satisfaction were evaluated. RESULTS: Complete correction of cilia touching the cornea was observed in all patients during an average follow-up of 7.1mo. No "dog ears" or obvious scars were formed after surgery. All parents were satisfied with the cosmetic results and none complained. Mean astigmatism decreased from 2.39±0.79 diopter (D) preoperatively to 2.19±0.79 D at 6mo after surgery; however, the difference was not significant. Best-corrected visual acuity improved, although the change in mean visual acuity was not significant. No recurrence occurred during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: This surgical modified skin re-draping technique is effective and highly satisfactory for correction of recurrent epiblepharon. The approach is characterized by a simple design, a straightforward procedure, inconspicuous scarring, and good postoperative appearance.