Mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) impair retinal angiogenesis in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), a rare type of blinding vascular eye disease. The defective retinal vasculature phenotype in human FEVR patients is recapitulated in Lrp5 knockout (Lrp5(-/-)) mouse with delayed and incomplete development of retinal vessels. In this study we examined gene expression changes in the developing Lrp5(-/-) mouse retina to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of FEVR in humans. Gene expression levels were assessed with an Illumina microarray on total RNA from Lrp5(-/-) and WT retinas isolated on postnatal day (P) 8. Regulated genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. Consistent with a role in vascular development, we identified expression changes in genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, blood vessel morphogenesis and membrane transport in Lrp5(-/-) retina compared to WT retina. In particular, tight junction protein claudin5 and amino acid transporter slc38a5 are both highly down-regulated in Lrp5(-/-) retina. Similarly, several Wnt ligands including Wnt7b show decreased expression levels. Plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (plvap), an endothelial permeability marker, in contrast, is up-regulated consistent with increased permeability in Lrp5(-/-) retinas. Together these data suggest that Lrp5 regulates multiple groups of genes that influence retinal angiogenesis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of FEVR.
PURPOSE: To study sub-basal corneal nerve alterations in patients with acute Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and fungal keratitis (FK), using laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of IVCM (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3/Rostock Cornea Module) images of 10 AK corneas and 4 FK corneas was performed, and the results compared with those of 10 normal and 12 acute herpetic keratitis (HK) corneas. Sub-basal corneal nerves were analyzed with respect to total number of nerves, main nerve trunks, branching pattern and total length of nerves per image, as well as tortuosity. For each variable, results for three frames were averaged and analyzed using analysis of variance. RESULTS: Total corneal nerve length was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced in patients with AK (193.4 ± 124.5 μm) and FK (268.6 ± 257.4 μm) when compared with normal controls (3811.84 ± 911.4 μm). Total nerve counts in patients with AK (3.9 ± 1.2) and FK (3.6 ± 3.2) were significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased in comparison with normal controls (24.7 ± 5.5). The number of main nerve trunks and nerve branching was found to be significantly lower in AK and FK corneas, when compared with controls. There was a statistically significant decrease in the above parameters when compared with HK controls. CONCLUSIONS: The sub-basal corneal nerve plexus is significantly diminished in eyes with AK and FK, as demonstrated by IVCM. These results are more profound than previously reported findings of a diminished nerve plexus in HK.
PURPOSE: To characterize clinical features, diagnostics studies, treatments, and outcomes of patients with histologically proven idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation (ISOI), to define optimal management for this recalcitrant disease, and to determine changes in characterization and management by comparing our results with the last significant literature review. METHODS: A search of the U.S. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health's electronic database for cases and case series in the English literature of biopsy-proven ISOI published between March 1994 and September 2010 was conducted. A cross-literature review was performed to tabulate demographics, clinical findings, studies, treatments, and outcomes, which were compared with the ISOI data published by Rootman et al. (1994). RESULTS: Sixty-one cases, 71 eyes from 17 published reports, met inclusion criteria. No ethnic, sex, or comorbidity predilection was established. Patients typically presented in the fourth decade with proptosis (73%), pain (49%), and normal vision (44%). Orbital imaging and histopathology were sparsely reported. Most common treatments involved systemic corticosteroids either alone (34%) or combined with other modalities (51%). CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of the disease remain unchanged, and best management was not determined due to inconsistent reporting methods across the literature. Collaboration with established groups (i.e., European Group On Graves Orbitopathy (EUGOGO), International Thyroid Eye Disease Society (ITEDS)) or the formation of a new group of physicians and scientists to help develop a systematic approach for future reporting and evaluation was proposed.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obtaining precise postoperative target refraction is of utmost importance in today's modern cataract and refractive surgery. Given the growing number of patients undergoing premium intraocular lens (IOL) implantations, patient expectation continues to rise. In order to meet heightened patient expectations, it is crucial to pay utmost attention to patient selection, accurate keratometry and biometry readings, as well as to the application of correct IOL power formula with optimized lens constants. This article reviews recent advances in the field of clinical biometry and IOL power calculations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently developed low-coherence reflectometry optical biometry is comparable to older ultrasonic biometric and keratometric techniques. In addition, the new IOLMaster software upgrade has improved reproducibility and enhanced signal acquisition. Further, the modern lens power formulas currently determine the effective lens position and the shape of the intraocular lens power prediction curve more accurately. SUMMARY: In order to reach target refraction, precise biometric measurements are imperative. Understanding the strengths and limitations of the currently available biometry devices allows prevention of high variability and inaccuracy, ultimately determining the refractive outcomes.
The authors demonstrate a reproducible technique using processed pericardium to seal sclerostomy track during glaucoma shunt revision. The suggested method involves placement of a wedge-shaped processed pericardial graft into the old sclerostomy tract following tube explantation. The graft is trimmed and sutured to the sclera. The tube is reinserted into a new sclerostomy and then sutured in place and covered in the usual fashion. This method allowed relatively easy treatment of three patients with patulous sclerostomy with necrotic edges. A successful tube revision and repositioning of the tube using this technique was performed on three patients with exposed tubes. The intraocular pressure was between 8 and 12 mm Hg from postoperative day 1. The authors suggest the use of pericardium plug to adequately seal the old sclerostomy track during glaucoma shunt revision. The plug allows tube repositioning at a new site without the need to suture the friable sclerostomy edges.
PURPOSE: To report ocular injuries caused by airsoft guns in children. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients who sustained ocular injuries related to airsoft guns between November 2005 and December 2007. Place of trauma, presenting symptoms and signs, surgical interventions performed, and final visual outcome were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with a mean age of 8.8 ± 4.0 years (range: 1.5 to 18 years) were examined; 28 were boys (87.5%). Presenting visual acuity ranged from hand motions to 20/20 and could not be assessed in 2 patients. Hyphema was a common finding that was present in 24 cases, corneal abrasions were present in 10 cases, and raised intraocular pressure was present in 7 cases. Seven patients presented with traumatic cataract, and two had iridodialysis. Immediate surgical intervention was performed in 7 patients and 7 patients were scheduled for elective surgery. The patients presented after an average of 1.9 ± 1.9 days (range: 4 hours to 6 days) after the injury. Average follow-up was 18 days (range: 7 days to 5 months). Final visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in 5 patients, 20/40 or better in 23 patients, and could not be assessed in 2 cases. CONCLUSION: Airsoft guns can cause a variety of serious injuries, sometimes necessitating operative intervention. The long-term morbidity from some of these injuries is significant. Airsoft guns are capable of inflicting serious and permanent ocular damage.
Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disorder of the tears and ocular surface characterized by symptoms of dryness and irritation. Although the pathogenesis of dry eye disease is not fully understood, it is recognized that inflammation has a prominent role in the development and propagation of this debilitating condition. Factors that adversely affect tear film stability and osmolarity can induce ocular surface damage and initiate an inflammatory cascade that generates innate and adaptive immune responses. These immunoinflammatory responses lead to further ocular surface damage and the development of a self-perpetuating inflammatory cycle. Herein, we review the fundamental links between inflammation and dry eye disease and discuss the clinical implications of inflammation in disease management.
Retinal degenerations cause permanent visual loss and affect millions world-wide. Current treatment strategies, such as gene therapy and anti-angiogenic drugs, merely delay disease progression. Research is underway which aims to regenerate the diseased retina by transplanting a variety of cell types, including embryonic stem cells, fetal cells, progenitor cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Initial retinal transplantation studies injected stem and progenitor cells into the vitreous or subretinal space with the hope that these donor cells would migrate to the site of retinal degeneration, integrate within the host retina and restore functional vision. Despite promising outcomes, these studies showed that the bolus injection technique gave rise to poorly localized tissue grafts. Subsequently, retinal tissue engineers have drawn upon the success of bone, cartilage and vasculature tissue engineering by employing a polymeric tissue engineering approach. This review will describe the evolution of retinal tissue engineering to date, with particular emphasis on the types of polymers that have routinely been used in recent investigations. Further, this review will show that the field of retinal tissue engineering will require new types of materials and fabrication techniques that optimize the survival, differentiation and delivery of retinal transplant cells.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common cause of visual impairment after cataract surgery. This article systematically reviews and discusses the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of PCME, with a focus on advances in the past 1-2 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of PCME has declined with the advent of modern surgical techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an important adjunct to biomicroscopy and fluorescein angiography. PCME prophylaxis with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs remains unproven because long-term visual outcomes and comparative effectiveness studies are lacking. Chronic, refractory CME remains a therapeutic challenge, but investigational therapies with potential include corticosteroid intravitreal injections and implants, and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments. Few studies have assessed surgical options. SUMMARY: There is currently a lack of well designed randomized clinical trials to guide the treatment of PCME.