PURPOSE: To evaluate the mechanism of tamoxifen-induced cell death in human cultured RPE cells, and to investigate concurrent cell death mechanisms including pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis. METHODS: Human RPE cells were cultured until confluence and treated with tamoxifen; cell death was measured by detecting LDH release. Tamoxifen-induced cell death was further confirmed by 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) and annexin V staining. Lysosomal destabilization was assessed using lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and acridine orange staining. The roles of lysosomal enzymes cathepsin B and L were examined by blocking their activity. Caspase activity was evaluated by caspase-1, -3, -8, and -9 specific inhibition. Cells were primed with IL-1α and treated with tamoxifen; mature IL-1β production was quantified via ELISA. Caspase activity was verified with the fluorochrome-labeled inhibitor of caspases (FLICA) probe specific for each caspase. Regulated cell necrosis or necroptosis was examined with 7-AAD and inhibition of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase using necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). RESULTS: Cell death occurred within 2 hours of tamoxifen treatment of confluent RPE cells and was accompanied by lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Blockade of cathepsin B and L activity led to a significant decrease in cell death, indicating that lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin release occur prior to regulated cell death. Tamoxifen-induced toxicity was shown to occur through both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways. Treatment of RPE cells with caspase inhibitors and Nec-1 resulted in a near complete rescue from cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Tamoxifen-induced cell death occurs through concurrent regulated cell death mechanisms. Simultaneous inhibition of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways is required to protect cells from tamoxifen. Inhibition of upstream activators, such as the cathepsins, may represent a novel approach to block multiple cell death pathways.
Corneal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration are sustained by limbal stem cells (LSCs), and LSC deficiency is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Transplantation is often the only therapeutic option available to patients with LSC deficiency. However, while transplant success depends foremost on LSC frequency within grafts, a gene allowing for prospective LSC enrichment has not been identified so far. Here we show that ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 5 (ABCB5) marks LSCs and is required for LSC maintenance, corneal development and repair. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prospectively isolated human or murine ABCB5-positive LSCs possess the exclusive capacity to fully restore the cornea upon grafting to LSC-deficient mice in xenogeneic or syngeneic transplantation models. ABCB5 is preferentially expressed on label-retaining LSCs in mice and p63α-positive LSCs in humans. Consistent with these findings, ABCB5-positive LSC frequency is reduced in LSC-deficient patients. Abcb5 loss of function in Abcb5 knockout mice causes depletion of quiescent LSCs due to enhanced proliferation and apoptosis, and results in defective corneal differentiation and wound healing. Our results from gene knockout studies, LSC tracing and transplantation models, as well as phenotypic and functional analyses of human biopsy specimens, provide converging lines of evidence that ABCB5 identifies mammalian LSCs. Identification and prospective isolation of molecularly defined LSCs with essential functions in corneal development and repair has important implications for the treatment of corneal disease, particularly corneal blindness due to LSC deficiency.
PURPOSE: To assess the value of diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity as a possible predictive prognostic factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Patients (51) who were initially diagnosed with DR and CKD were enrolled and their medical records were evaluated. The following ophthalmic factors were assessed by fluorescein angiography at the initial visit: area of capillary nonperfusion, presence of neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage, and DR grade. The effect of these factors on CKD progression over the 2-year period of the study, defined as doubling of serum creatinine or the development of end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis or renal transplant, was evaluated. RESULTS: The study included 51 patients with DR and CKD; of these, 11 patients (21.6%) were found to have proliferative DR (PDR) and seven patients (13.7%) had high-risk PDR at baseline. Patients with ischemic DR, who showed extensive capillary nonperfusion (≥ 10 optic disc areas) in the retina, had a greater risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 6.64; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: We found that extensive capillary nonperfusion in the retina greatly increased the risk of progression of CKD in patients with DR. This suggests that the retina and the kidney may have shared risk factors for microvascular disease secondary to diabetes mellitus, and emphasizes the need for a team approach to diabetes care.
A 50-year-old woman presented with a mass lesion of the inferolateral palpebral conjunctiva similar in appearance to a chalazion, but unusual enough in presentation that excisional biopsy was initially performed. Histopathologic analysis revealed a dermal fibrohistiocytic neoplasm consistent with cellular neurothekeoma. Neurothekeoma is a benign tumor; the cellular variant is rare and of unclear histogenesis. Completely internal eyelid location is particularly rare, with other identifiable case reports of cellular neurothekeoma palpebrae referring to external or unspecified eyelid location. This case provides an example of the chalazion as masquerader and re-emphasizes the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis and high index of suspicion regarding atypically appearing chalazia.
PURPOSE: Fingernail-induced corneal abrasions are one of the most common eye injuries that present to the emergency department, and yet there is little literature available to offer guidelines for management. We analyzed the treatment used in cases of fingernail-induced corneal abrasions that presented to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Emergency Department and studied its relationship to the development of complications such as recurrent erosion syndrome and infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 99 patients who presented to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Emergency Department with fingernail-induced corneal abrasions between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009. We followed the patients for 12 months and documented demographics, nature of the injury, treatment, and complications. RESULTS: The average age was 29.4 (range, 2-89) years. Forty-four percent (n = 44) were female and 56% (n = 55) were male. Of the 99 subjects, 39 had a full 12 month follow-up, and 7 developed a complication from the injury. Compared with the 32 subjects without complications, there was no difference in age or gender. However, there was a significant difference in that adults scratched by another adult were more highly represented in the group with complications (43%, n = 3/7 vs. 3%, n = 1/32; P = 0.0017). There was no significant difference in outcome by treatment used. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest fingernail-induced corneal abrasion study completed to date. Patients are at risk of developing complications, but there is scant evidenced-based literature available for treating this common injury. Prospective trials should be performed to better optimize and standardize treatments.
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of DJ-1 in Nrf2-regulated antioxidant defense in corneal endothelial cells (CECs) at baseline and in response to ultraviolet A (UV-A)-induced oxidative stress. METHODS: DJ-1-deficient CECs were obtained by transfection of an immortalized normal human corneal endothelial cell line (HCECi) with DJ-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or by isolation of CECs from ex vivo corneas of DJ-1 knockout mice. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonyls, Nrf2 subcellular localization, Nrf2 target genes, and protein interaction between Keap1/Nrf2 and Cul3/Nrf2 were compared between normal and DJ-1-deficient CECs. Oxidative stress was induced by irradiating HCECi cells with UV-A, and cell death and levels of activated caspase3 and phospho-p53 were determined. RESULTS: DJ-1 siRNA-treated cells exhibited increased levels of ROS production and protein carbonyls as well as a 2.2-fold decrease in nuclear Nrf2 protein when compared to controls. DJ-1 downregulation led to attenuated gene expression of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1 and NQO1. Similar levels of Nrf2 inhibitor, Keap1, and Cul3/Nrf2 and Keap1/Nrf2 were observed in DJ-1 siRNA-treated cells as compared to controls. Ultraviolet A irradiation resulted in a 3.0-fold increase in cell death and elevated levels of activated caspase3 and phospho-p53 in DJ-1 siRNA-treated cells compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of DJ-1 impairs nuclear translocation of Nrf2, causing decreased antioxidant gene expression and increased oxidative damage. The decline in DJ-1 levels leads to heightened CEC susceptibility to UV-A light by activating p53-dependent apoptosis. Targeting the DJ-1-Nrf2 axis may provide a potential therapeutic approach for enhancing antioxidant defense in corneal endothelial disorders.
Visual localization during saccadic eye movements is prone to error. Flashes shortly before and after the onset of saccades are usually perceived to shift towards the saccade target, creating a "compression" pattern. Typically, the saccade landing point coincides with a salient saccade target. We investigated whether the mislocalization focus follows the actual saccade landing point or a salient stimulus. Subjects made saccades to either a target or a memorized location without target. In some conditions, another salient marker was presented between the initial fixation and the saccade landing point. The experiments were conducted on both black and picture backgrounds. The results show that: (a) when a saccade target or a marker (spatially separated from the saccade landing point) was present, the compression pattern of mislocalization was significantly stronger than in conditions without them, for both black and picture background conditions, and (b) the mislocalization focus tended towards the salient stimulus regardless of whether it was the saccade target or the marker. Our results suggest that a salient stimulus presented in the scene may have an attracting effect and therefore contribute to the non-uniformity of saccadic mislocalization of a probing flash.
OBJECTIVE: To improve diagnostic assessment in Moebius syndrome by (1) creating more selective diagnostic subgroups and (2) conducting genetic evaluation in a large patient cohort. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Attendees of 3 consecutive Moebius syndrome conferences held in the United States, with a prior diagnosis of Moebius syndrome, were invited to participate. METHODS: Participants underwent standardized ophthalmologic examination for Moebius syndrome minimum diagnostic criteria (MDC) (congenital, nonprogressive facial palsy, and abduction deficit) and genetic testing for HOXA1, HOXB1, and TUBB3 mutations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of patients meeting MDC and the number of patients with confirmed genetic mutation. RESULTS: A total of 112 participants from 107 families enrolled. Nineteen percent of participants (21/112) did not meet accepted MDC for Moebius syndrome because they had abduction deficits without facial palsy or facial palsy with full ocular motility. All 5 families with 2 affected individuals had at least 1 family member in this category, including 2 siblings with comitant strabismus who harbored a HOXB1 mutation. Four unrelated participants, also not meeting MDC, had large-angle exotropia, vertical gaze deficiency, and ptosis consistent with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3 (CFEOM3); 1 patient harbored a novel TUBB3 mutation, and 3 patients harbored previously reported de novo TUBB3 mutations. Three percent of participants (3/112) met MDC but also had restricted vertical gaze. The remaining 88 participants (79%) met MDC and had full vertical gaze. This group had relatively homogeneous findings, and none had a family history of Moebius syndrome. Two previously undescribed phenomena were observed in this category: (1) volitional Bell's phenomenon and (2) intorsion with fixation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the genetic contributors to classic Moebius syndrome remain elusive, accuracy in clinical evaluation will properly subdivide patients to facilitate genetic testing as new candidate genes are identified. Failure to test ocular motility may lead to misdiagnosis of Moebius syndrome, especially in patients who have facial palsy with full ductions. Patients with exotropia, vertical gaze limitation, and ptosis do not have classic Moebius syndrome and may have TUBB3 mutations associated with CFEOM3. To optimize genetic analysis, we propose adding "full vertical motility" to the MDC for Moebius syndrome.
We have developed a low-cost, practical gaze-contingent display in which natural images are presented to the observer with dioptric blur and stereoscopic disparity that are dependent on the three-dimensional structure of natural scenes. Our system simulates a distribution of retinal blur and depth similar to that experienced in real-world viewing conditions by emmetropic observers. We implemented the system using light-field photographs taken with a plenoptic camera which supports digital refocusing anywhere in the images. We coupled this capability with an eye-tracking system and stereoscopic rendering. With this display, we examine how the time course of binocular fusion depends on depth cues from blur and stereoscopic disparity in naturalistic images. Our results show that disparity and peripheral blur interact to modify eye-movement behavior and facilitate binocular fusion, and the greatest benefit was gained by observers who struggled most to achieve fusion. Even though plenoptic images do not replicate an individual’s aberrations, the results demonstrate that a naturalistic distribution of depth-dependent blur may improve 3-D virtual reality, and that interruptions of this pattern (e.g., with intraocular lenses) which flatten the distribution of retinal blur may adversely affect binocular fusion.
Dynamic modulation of the physical contacts between neighboring cells is integral to epithelial processes such as tissue repair and cancer dissemination. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity contributes to the disassembly of intercellular junctions and the degradation of the extracellular matrix, thus mitigating the physical constraint to cell movement. Using the cornea as a model, we show here that a carbohydrate-binding protein, galectin-3, promotes cell-cell detachment and redistribution of the tight junction protein occludin through its N-terminal polymerizing domain. Notably, we demonstrate that galectin-3 initiates cell-cell disassembly by inducing matrix metalloproteinase expression in a manner that is dependent on the interaction with and clustering of the matrix metalloproteinase inducer CD147 (also known as EMMPRIN and basigin) on the cell surface. Using galectin-3-knockout mice in an in vivo model of wound healing, we further show that increased synthesis of MMP9 at the leading edge of migrating epithelium is regulated by galectin-3. These findings establish a new galectin-3-mediated regulatory mechanism for induction of metalloproteinase expression and disruption of cell-cell contacts required for cell motility in migrating epithelia.
INTRODUCTION: Orbital lymphatic malformations (OLMs) are a unique subset of head and neck low flow vascular malformations, located either in the periorbital region or in the closed orbital cavity. We discuss our experience of minimally invasive strategies of treatment using advanced imaging and Bleomycin sclerotherapy to effectively treat these malformations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2013, we have treated 54 cases of orbital low flow vascular malformations including 22 cases of OLMs of which 16 were treated using Bleomycin. This retrospective analysis was performed from patient charts, operative reports, operative images, pre-operative, and post-operative MR imaging. Bleomycin was used for sclerotherapy in all the cases with a maximum dose per session of treatment limited to 15 mgs. DIRECT PUNCTURE SCLEROTHERAPY TECHNIQUE: OLMs target was determined using pre-procedure MR imaging and direct puncture either per-cutaneous or per-conjunctival was achieved using ultrasound or i-guide guidance. In most lymphatic fluid was drained else the position confirmed with constrast injection under fluoroscopy. Bleomycin was used either undiluted or in various concentrations mixed with saline, or contrast material and recently we favor the use of Bleofoam mixed with 25% Human albumin and air. Microcystic LMs, were treated using gravity technique, the needle track was sealed with Surgiflo or Floseal. In cases of intra cystic or intra ocular haemorrhage with elevated orbital pressure, lateral canthotomy was performed to prevent permanent damage to vision and the contents of the orbit. Postoperatively, the patients recover in ICU and monitored for vision and orbital swelling. Bleomycin skin precautions were followed for 72 h in order to avoid skin hyperpigmentation. Optimal results were obtained at 6 to 8 weeks and assessed using follow-up MRI and ophthalmologic evaluation. RESULTS: The patient's age ranged from 1 to 45 years, with equal male to female ratio. Most cases (13/16) (80%) presented non acutely while three patients (20%) presented acutely with proptosis, visual disturbance and double vision due to haemorrhage within the malformation. Treatment completed in 14, one lost to follow up and the other is yet to be followed. The follow up period ranged from 6weeks to 6 months. 65% (9/14) needed less than three procedures while the remaining five patients needed between 3-5 procedures. All patients had improvement in proptosis; vision either remained stable or improved; volume reduction of more than 80% was noted in 57% (8/14), while the remaining patients 43% had volume reduction of 50-79%. One patient had transient mydriasis post procedure that completely recovered at three months. Another developed haemorrhage within the malformation immediate post sclerotherapy requiring lateral canthotomy, drainage and redo sclerotherapy. None of our patients developed skin pigmentation or pulmonary complication related to bleomycin usage. CONCLUSION: Bleomycin sclerotherapy combined with appropriate image guidance for precise target localization is an effective and safe treatment for OLMs. Bleomycin is a preferred sclerosant as it induces minimal inflammation and post procedure swelling. Standard precautions must be instituted to prevent cutaneous pigmentation and pulmonary fibrosis. DISCLOSURES: S. Paramasivam: None. A. Fay: None. J. Fifi: None. A. Berenstein: None.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this report was to describe a case of spontaneous resolution of a large postvitrectomy macular hole retinal detachment. METHODS: Case report and optical coherence tomography imaging. RESULTS: A 64-year-old man with history of macula-off retinal detachment and 4 previous vitrectomies in the left eye developed a macular hole and associated retinal detachment 3 months after his last vitreoretinal surgery. Two months later, examination revealed that the macular hole had spontaneously closed, and the retinal detachment had resolved. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous resolution of macular hole-associated retinal detachment in a previously vitrectomized eye has not been reported previously. Changes in tangential traction by the associated epiretinal membrane, improvement of the cystoid changes noted at the edge of the macular hole, and/or proliferation of glial tissue to bridge the hole, along with the absorption of the subretinal fluid by the retinal pigment epithelium pump contributed to this rare event have been hyphothesized.
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in the distribution and morphology of intraretinal microexudates and hard exudates (HEs) during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with persistent diabetic macular edema after photocoagulation were investigated in this prospective cohort study. Each eye was assigned to a loading dose of three anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments at monthly intervals. Additional single treatments were performed if diabetic macular edema persisted or recurred. Intraretinal exudates were analyzed over 6 months using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus photography. RESULTS: Before treatment, microexudates were detected by SD-OCT as hyperreflective foci in 24 eyes, whereas HEs were seen in 22 eyes. During therapy, HE increased significantly in number and size. This was accompanied by accumulation of microexudates in the outer retina. Enlargement of hyperreflective structures in SD-OCT was accompanied by enlargement of HE at corresponding fundus locations. A rapid reduction in diabetic macular edema was seen in all patients, but to varying degrees. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels <7% and serum cholesterol <200 mg/dL formed fewer HEs and featured more edema reduction and visual acuity gain. CONCLUSION: Diabetic macular edema reduction during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy was accompanied by dynamic rearrangement of intraretinal exudates at corresponding locations in fundus photography and SD-OCT. Intraretinal aggregates of microexudates detectable as hyperreflective foci by SD-OCT may compose and precede HE before they become clinically visible.
Researchers have proposed that estrogen deficiency will lead to a Sjögren's syndrome (SjS)-like lacrimal gland inflammation, aqueous tear deficiency and dry eye. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this proposal is correct. Lacrimal glands were obtained from adult, age-matched wild type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice, in which estrogen synthesis is completely eliminated. Tissues were also obtained from autoimmune MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice as inflammation controls. Tear volumes in WT and ArKO mice were measured and glands were processed for molecular biological and histological evaluation. Our results demonstrate that estrogen absence does not lead to a SjS-like inflammation in lacrimal tissue or to an aqueous-deficient dry eye. There was no upregulation of genes associated with inflammatory pathways in lacrimal glands of male or female ArKO mice. Such inflammatory activity was prominent in autoimmune MRL/lpr tissues. We also found no evidence of inflammation in lacrimal gland tissue sections of estrogen-deficient mice, and tear volumes of ArKO males were actually increased as compared to those WT controls. Interestingly, our study did show that estrogen absence influences the expression of thousands of lacrimal gland genes, and that this impact is sex- and genotype-specific. Our findings demonstrate that estrogen absence is not a risk factor for the development of SjS-like lacrimal gland inflammation or for aqueous-deficient dry eye in mice.
PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate whether the antiinflammatory and antiproliferative activity of oral and intravitreal methotrexate (MTX) suppresses intraocular inflammation in patients with presumed latent syphilitic uveitis and presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis. METHODS: Interventional prospective study including three cases with presumed latent syphilitic uveitis treated with intravenous penicillin and oral MTX, and two cases with presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis treated with standard antituberculosis therapy and intravitreal MTX injections. Treatment efficacy of all cases was assessed by best-corrected visual acuity, fundus fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Four eyes of 3 patients with presumed latent syphilitic uveitis had improved best-corrected visual acuity, suppression of intraocular inflammation, and resolution of cystoid macular edema in 6 months with oral MTX therapy. No recurrence of intraocular inflammation was observed in 6 months to 18 months of follow-up period after cessation of MTX. Two eyes of two patients with presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis showed improved best-corrected visual acuity, suppression of intraocular inflammation, and resolution of cystoid macular edema after intravitreal injections of MTX. No recurrence of intraocular inflammation was observed in 6 months to 8 months of follow-up period after cessation of antituberculous therapy. CONCLUSION: For the first time in the treatment of presumed latent syphilitic uveitis and presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis, we believe that MTX might have an adjunctive role to suppress intraocular inflammation, reduce uveitic macular edema, and prevent the recurrences of the diseases.
Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, or lubricin) is a lubricating mucin-like glycoprotein recently discovered at the ocular surface, where it functions as a boundary lubricant and appears to play a protective role. Recent technological advances have enabled abundant expression of full-length recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4). The objectives of this study were to 1) biochemically characterize the gross structure and glycosylations of full-length rhPRG4, and 2) assess the ocular surface boundary lubricating ability of rhPRG4 at both human cornea-eyelid and human cornea-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) biointerfaces. rhPRG4 expressed by a Chinese hamster ovary cell line was characterized and compared to native bovine PRG4 by SDS-PAGE western blotting, and protein identity was assessed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Human corneas were articulated against PDMS or human eyelids, at effective sliding velocities of 0.3-30 mm/s under physiological loads of ∼15 kPa, to assess and compare the ocular lubricating ability of rhPRG4 to PRG4. Samples were tested serially in PRG4, rhPRG4 (both 300 μg/ml), then saline. Western blotting indicated that rhPRG4 had immunoreactivity at the appropriate apparent molecular weight, and possessed O-linked glycosylation consistent with that of PRG4. rhPRG4 protein identity was confirmed by MS/MS. Both PRG4 and rhPRG4 significantly, and similarly, reduced friction compared to saline at both human cornea - PDMS and human cornea-eyelid biointerfaces. In conclusion, the rhPRG4 studied here demonstrated appropriate higher order structure, O-linked glycosylations, and ocular surface boundary lubricating. Purified rhPRG4 may have clinical utility as a topical treatment of dry eye disease or contact lens biomaterial coating to promote more comfortable wear.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the benefits and complications of periocular depot corticosteroid injections in patients with ocular inflammatory disorders. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 914 patients (1192 eyes) who had received ≥ 1 periocular corticosteroid injection at 5 tertiary uveitis clinics in the United States. METHODS: Patients were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained at every visit via medical record review by trained reviewers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Control of inflammation, improvement of visual acuity (VA) to ≥ 20/40, improvement of VA loss attributed to macular edema (ME), incident cataract affecting VA, cataract surgery, ocular hypertension, and glaucoma surgery. RESULTS: Among 914 patients (1192 eyes) who received ≥ 1 periocular injection during follow-up, 286 (31.3%) were classified as having anterior uveitis, 303 (33.3%) as intermediate uveitis, and 324 (35.4%) as posterior or panuveitis. Cumulatively by ≤ 6 months, 72.7% (95% CI, 69.1-76.3) of the eyes achieved complete control of inflammation and 49.7% (95% CI, 45.5-54.1) showed an improvement in VA from <20/40 to ≥ 20/40. Among the subset with VA <20/40 attributed to ME, 33.1% (95% CI, 25.2-42.7) improved to ≥ 20/40. By 12 months, the cumulative incidence of ≥ 1 visits with an intraocular pressure of ≥ 24 mmHg and ≥ 30 mmHg was 34.0% (95% CI, 24.8-45.4) and 15.0% (95% CI, 11.8-19.1) respectively; glaucoma surgery was performed in 2.4% of eyes (95% CI, 1.4-3.9). Within 12 months, among phakic eyes initially ≥ 20/40, the incidence of a reduction in VA to <20/40 attributed to cataract was 20.2% (95% CI, 15.9-25.6); cataract surgery was performed within 12 months in 13.8% of the initially phakic eyes (95% CI, 11.1-17.2). CONCLUSIONS: Periocular injections were effective in treating active intraocular inflammation and in improving reduced VA attributed to ME in a majority of patients. The response pattern was similar across anatomic locations of uveitis. Overall, VA improved in one half of the patients at some point within 6 months. However, cataract and ocular hypertension occurred in a substantial minority.