PURPOSE: To report the results of a clinical study designed to evaluate the accuracy of the blinq pediatric vision scanner, which detects amblyopia and strabismus directly by means of retinal polarization scanning, unlike other vision screening devices, which infer possible disease based on detection of refractive risk factors. METHODS: Subjects 1-20 years of age were prospectively enrolled in this cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study with planned enrollment of 200. All enrolled subjects were tested by individuals masked to the diagnosis, followed by complete ophthalmologic examination by pediatric ophthalmologists masked to the screening result. Patients previously treated for amblyopia or strabismus were analyzed separately. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 193 subjects, 53 of whom had been previously treated, leaving 140 treatment-naïve subjects, including 65 (46%) with amblyopia or strabismus, 11 (8%) with risk factors/suspected binocular vision deficit without amblyopia/strabismus, and 64 (46%) controls. Sensitivity was 100%, with all 66 patients with referral-warranted ocular disease referred. Five patients with intermittent strabismus receiving pass results were deemed "acceptable pass" when considering patient risk factors and amblyogenic potential. Specificity was 91%, with 7 incorrect referrals. Subanalysis of children aged 2-8 years (n = 92) provided similar results (sensitivity 100%; specificity 89%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, the blinq showed very high sensitivity and specificity for detecting referral-warranted amblyopia and strabismus. Implementation of the device in vision screening programs could lead to improved rates of disease detection and reduction in false referrals.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate 22-year trends in the prevalence and incidence of scleritis, and the associations of scleritis with infectious and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (I-IMIDs) in the UK. METHODS: The retrospective cross-sectional and population cohort study (1997-2018) included 10,939,823 patients (2,946 incident scleritis cases) in The Health Improvement Network, a nationally representative primary care records database. The case-control and matched cohort study (1995-2019) included 3,005 incident scleritis cases and 12,020 control patients matched by age, sex, region, and Townsend deprivation index. Data were analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression, multivariable logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, Townsend deprivation index, race/ethnicity, smoking status, nation within the UK, and body mass index. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Scleritis incidence rates per 100,000 person-years declined from 4.23 (95% CI 2.16-6.31) to 2.79 (95% CI 2.19-3.39) between 1997 and 2018. The prevalence of scleritis per 100,000 person-years was 93.62 (95% CI 90.17-97.07) in 2018 (61,650 UK patients). Among 2,946 patients with incident scleritis, 1,831 (62.2%) were female, the mean ± SD age was 44.9 ± 17.6 years (range 1-93), and 1,257 (88.8%) were White. Higher risk of incident scleritis was associated with female sex (adjusted IRR 1.53 [95% CI 1.43-1.66], P < 0.001), Black race/ethnicity (adjusted IRR 1.52 [95% CI 1.14-2.01], P = 0.004 compared to White race/ethnicity), or South Asian race/ethnicity (adjusted IRR 1.50 [95% CI 1.19-1.90], P < 0.001 compared to White race/ethnicity), and older age (peak adjusted IRR 4.95 [95% CI 3.99-6.14], P < 0.001 for patients ages 51-60 years versus those ages ≤10 years). Compared to controls, scleritis patients had a 2-fold increased risk of a prior I-IMID diagnosis (17 I-IMIDs, P < 0.001) and significantly increased risk of subsequent diagnosis (13 I-IMIDs). The I-IMIDs most strongly associated with scleritis included granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Behçet's disease, and Sjögren's syndrome. CONCLUSION: From 1997 through 2018, the UK incidence of scleritis declined from 4.23 to 2.79/100,000 person-years. Incident scleritis was associated with 19 I-IMIDs, providing data for rational investigation and cross-specialty engagement.
Graft-versus-host disease is a common complication following allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation that can affect multiple organ systems, including the eyes. Ocular GVHD (oGVHD) is characterized by a T cell-mediated immune response that leads to immune cell infiltration and inflammation of ocular structures, including the lacrimal glands, eyelids, cornea and conjunctiva. oGVHD has a significant negative impact on visual function and quality of life and successful management requires a multi-disciplinary approach with frequent monitoring. Here, we review the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of oGVHD, along with current therapeutic strategies based on our clinical experience and the reported literature.
Conjunctival papillomas are common tumors that exhibit an exophytic growth pattern, comprised of multiple filiform fronds of squamous epithelium that contain fibrovascular cores. The inverted (endophytic) variety of papilloma, often termed "Schneiderian," rarely occurs on the conjunctiva, with only 15 cases reported to date. Endophytic and exophytic papillomas are well described arising in the sinonasal Schneiderian epithelium where a low rate of malignant transformation may occur in the endophytic type; malignant transformation in exophytic sinonasal papillomas is exceedingly rare. The authors describe 2 cases of exophytic conjunctival papillomas with the morphology of a sinonasal or Schneiderian-type papilloma. Both were pink, sessile acquired growths in women in the sixth decade of life involving the inferior conjunctival fornix or nasal limbus. Nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium along with numerous goblet cells, intraepithelial mucinous cysts, and microabscesses were present. Immunohistochemistry showed reactivity for cytokeratin 7 and wild-type staining for p16 and p53, paralleling the findings in common conjunctival papillomas; both were also driven by low-risk human papillomavirus.
Objective: Gastric adenocarcinoma originates from the glands in the superficial layer or mucosa of the stomach. It is prone to metastases, of which ocular metastasis (OM) is rare, but once it occurs the disease is considered more serious. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for OM in gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were recruited to this study between June 2003 and July 2019. Demographic data and serological indicators (SI) were compared between patients with and without OM, and binary logistic regression was used to explore whether the relevant SI may be risk factors for OM of gastric adenocarcinoma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze different SIs for OM in gastric cancer patients. Results: Chi-square tests showed significant between-groups difference in gender composition (P < 0.05), but not in age or histological grade (P > 0.05). t-test results showed that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and carbohydrate antigen-724 (CA724) were significantly higher in patients with than without OM (P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that LDL was an independent risk factor for OM (P < 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that the areas under the curves (AUC) for LDL and CA724 were 0.903 and 0.913 respectively, with higher AUC for combined LDL and CA724 (0.934; P < 0.001). Conclusion: LDL and CA724 have value as predictors for OM in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, with higher predictive value when these factors are combined.
PURPOSE: To model the global test-retest variability of visual fields (VFs) in glaucoma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Test-retest VFs from 4044 eyes of 4044 participants. METHODS: We selected 2 reliable VFs per eye measured with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive threshold algorithm 24-2) within 30 days of each other. Each VF had fixation losses (FLs) of 33% or less, false-negative results (FNRs) of 20% or less, and false-positive results (FPRs) of 20% or less. Stepwise linear regression was applied to select the model best predicting the global test-retest variability from 3 categories of features of the first VF: (1) base parameters (age, mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, glaucoma hemifield test results, FPR, FNR, and FL); (2) total deviation (TD) at each location; and (3) computationally derived archetype VF loss patterns. The global test-retest variability was defined as root mean square deviation (RMSD) of TD values at all 52 VF locations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Archetype models to predict the global test-retest variability. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of the root mean square deviation was 4.39 ± 2.55 dB. Between the 2 VF tests, TD values were correlated more strongly in central than in peripheral VF locations (intraclass coefficient, 0.66-0.89; P < 0.001). Compared with the model using base parameters alone (adjusted R2 = 0.45), adding TD values improved prediction accuracy of the global variability (adjusted R2 = 0.53; P < 0.001; Bayesian information criterion [BIC] decrease of 527; change of >6 represents strong improvement). Lower TD sensitivity in the outermost peripheral VF locations was predictive of higher global variability. Adding archetypes to the base model improved model performance with an adjusted R2 of 0.53 (P < 0.001) and lowering of BIC by 583. Greater variability was associated with concentric peripheral defect, temporal hemianopia, inferotemporal defect, near total loss, superior peripheral defect, and central scotoma (listed in order of decreasing statistical significance), and less normal VF results and superior paracentral defect. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of archetype VF loss patterns and TD values based on first VF improved the prediction of the global test-retest variability than using traditional global VF indices alone.
Purpose: A larger display at the same viewing distance provides relative-size magnification for individuals with central vision loss (CVL). However, the resulting large visible area of the display is expected to result in more head rotation, which may cause discomfort. We created a zoom magnification technique that placed the center of interest (COI) in the center of the display to reduce the need for head rotation. Methods: In a 2 × 2 within-subject study design, 23 participants with CVL viewed video clips from 1.5 m (4.9 feet) shown with or without zoom magnification, and with a large (208 cm/82" diagonal, 69°) or a typical (84 cm/33", 31°) screen. Head position was tracked and a custom questionnaire was used to measure discomfort. Results: Video comprehension was better with the large screen (P < 0.001) and slightly worse with zoom magnification (P = 0.03). Oddly, head movements did not vary with screen size (P = 0.63), yet were greater with zoom magnification (P = 0.001). This finding was unexpected, because the COI remains in the center with zoom magnification, but moves widely with a large screen and no magnification. Conclusions: This initial attempt to implement the zoom magnification method had flaws that may have decreased its effectiveness. In the future, we propose alternative implementations for zoom magnification, such as variable magnification. Translational Relevance: We present the first explicit demonstration that relative-size magnification improves the video comprehension of people with CVL when viewing video.
PURPOSE: People with central vision loss (CVL) watch television, videos and movies, but often report difficulty and have reduced video comprehension. An approach to assist viewing videos is electronic magnification of the video itself, such as Bubble Magnification. METHODS: We created a Bubble Magnification technique that displayed a magnified segment around the centre of interest (COI) as determined by the gaze of participants with normal vision. The 15 participants with CVL viewed video clips shown with 2× and 3× Bubble Magnification, and unedited. We measured video comprehension and gaze coherence. RESULTS: Video comprehension was significantly worse with both 2× (p = 0.01) and 3× Bubble Magnification (p < 0.001) than the unedited video. There was no difference in gaze coherence across conditions (p ≥ 0.58). This was unexpected because we expected a benefit in both video comprehension and gaze coherence. This initial attempt to implement the Bubble Magnification method had flaws that probably reduced its effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: In the future, we propose alternative implementations of Bubble Magnification, such as variable magnification and bubble size. This study is a first step in the development of an intelligent-magnification approach to providing a vision rehabilitation aid to assist people with CVL.
PURPOSE: Rule-based approaches to determining glaucoma progression from visual fields (VFs) alone are discordant and have tradeoffs. To detect better when glaucoma progression is occurring, we used a longitudinal data set of merged VF and clinical data to assess the performance of a convolutional long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of longitudinal clinical and VF data. PARTICIPANTS: From 2 initial datasets of 672 123 VF results from 213 254 eyes and 350 437 samples of clinical data, persons at the intersection of both datasets with 4 or more VF results and corresponding baseline clinical data (cup-to-disc ratio, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure) were included. After exclusion criteria-specifically the removal of VFs with high false-positive and false-negative rates and entries with missing data-were applied to ensure reliable data, 11 242 eyes remained. METHODS: Three commonly used glaucoma progression algorithms (VF index slope, mean deviation slope, and pointwise linear regression) were used to define eyes as stable or progressing. Two machine learning models, one exclusively trained on VF data and another trained on both VF and clinical data, were tested. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) calculated on a held-out test set and mean accuracies from threefold cross-validation were used to compare the performance of the machine learning models. RESULTS: The convolutional LSTM network demonstrated 91% to 93% accuracy with respect to the different conventional glaucoma progression algorithms given 4 consecutive VF results for each participant. The model that was trained on both VF and clinical data (AUC, 0.89-0.93) showed better diagnostic ability than a model exclusively trained on VF results (AUC, 0.79-0.82; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A convolutional LSTM architecture can capture local and global trends in VFs over time. It is well suited to assessing glaucoma progression because of its ability to extract spatiotemporal features that other algorithms cannot. Supplementing VF results with clinical data improves the model's ability to assess glaucoma progression and better reflects the way clinicians manage data when managing glaucoma.
Purpose: Determine the risk of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) for COVID-19 infection morbidity.Method: A telemedicine survey on patients of a referral uveitis clinic was performed. Signs of infection, habits, and hospitalizations during the 7 months of the COVID-19 pandemic prior to the study date were recorded. Suggestive findings in chest CT scan and/or positive RT-PCR were considered as confirmed COVID-19 infection while those with only suggestive symptoms were considered as suspected cases. Risk factors including sanitary measures and IMT were compared between patients with confirmed cases and patients without infection.Result: 694 patients were included. Eight patients were identified as confirmed cases and 22 patients as suspected cases of COVID-19 infection. Close contact with infected persons was the only significant risk factor for contracting COVID-19.Conclusion: Using IMT did not affect hospitalization and/or ICU admission and can thus be continued during the pandemic, provided that instructions for preventive measures are followed.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the best-corrected visual acuity and stereoacuity gains in children >7 years of age and adults with unilateral amblyopia treated with a prototype virtual reality-based binocular amblyopia therapy. METHODS: In this randomized, double masked, cross-in clinical trial, patients at Boston Children's Hospital with unilateral anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia and history of prior amblyopia treatment failure were randomized to either a full-treatment group (8 weeks of binocular treatment using therapeutic software application in virtual reality headset) or a sham-crossover group (4 weeks of sham treatment followed by 4 weeks of binocular treatment). Amblyopic eye visual acuity and stereoacuity were evaluated at 4, 8, and 16 weeks' follow-up. RESULTS: The study cohort included 20 participants (10 females), with a median age of 9 years (range, 7-38 years). In the full-treatment group (11 patients), the mean amblyopic eye logMAR visual acuity at 16 weeks was 0.49 ± 0.26, compared with 0.47 ± 0.20 at baseline. In the sham-crossover group, it was 0.51 ± 0.18 at 16 weeks, compared with 0.53 ± 0.21 at baseline. Stereoacuity (log arcsec) was significantly improved, from 7.3 ± 2 at baseline to 6.6 ± 2.3 at 8 weeks (P < 0.001) and 6.7 ± 2.6 at 16 weeks (P < 0.001). No significant adverse events (diplopia, asthenopia, or worsening strabismus) were noted in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Although the virtual reality-based prototype for binocular amblyopia therapy did not significantly improve visual acuity in the amblyopic eyes of older children and adults, stereoacuity did significantly improve compared with baseline; improvements were clinically minute. However, larger studies are required to confirm the results.
PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of Ahmed clear path (ACP) valveless glaucoma drainage device in childhood glaucoma. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients 16 years or below with childhood glaucoma who had ACP implantation at Boston Children's Hospital from December 2019 to June 2020 with at least 6 months follow-up period. RESULTS: The study included 7 eyes of 5 patients implanted by a single surgeon. The median follow-up was 12 months. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was reduced from 36±3.5 mm Hg on a mean of 2.7±0.6 glaucoma medications preoperatively to a mean IOP of 12.4±2.8 mm Hg (P<0.001) on a mean of 0.7±0.8 medications postoperatively at final follow-up (P=0.0009). Complete success was achieved in 4 eyes while qualified success was achieved in 3 eyes. CONCLUSION: The ACP glaucoma drainage device provided good short-term IOP control and technical advantages for implantation for pediatric eyes were observed.
Pathologic angiogenesis causes blindness in many eye diseases. Crespo-Garcia, Tsuruda, and Dejda et al. employed bioinformatics to characterize cell senescence as a primary factor in the common pathogenesis of retinopathies. They validated their findings using human and mouse retina with proliferative retinopathy. Clearance of senescent cells suppressed neovessel growth.
Animal models of the Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 (KPro) are needed to study glaucoma damage after KPro implantation to control for confounding comorbidities common in human KPro recipients. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of establishing a reproducible mouse model of glaucoma after KPro surgery, specifically that of a miniaturized mouse model of KPro (mKPro). In the present study, a total of 20 corneas of donor C57BL/6 mice (n = 10) were implanted in one eye of each recipient BALB/C mouse (n = 20), assembled as part of the mKPro, either with or without intraoperative lensectomy. Main feasibility outcomes consisted in incidence rates of loss of tone, capsule nicking, and lens extrusion, as well as acquisition of posterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. With lensectomy (n = 10), loss of ocular tone and retinal detachment occurred in 100% of mice. Without lensectomy (n = 10), capsule nicking and opening, as well as lens extrusion, occurred in 80% of mice. Causes of these complications included the large proportion of intraocular volume occupied by the lens, the shallow anterior chamber, and thus the lack of available intraocular volume to implant the KPro if the lens remains present. Successful mouse KPro surgery may require a great deal of practice to be useful as a reproducible model. Animal KPro models ought to be pursued further by research teams in future studies.
Importance: Although there were no differences in mean visual acuity (VA) over 24 weeks after vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) vs aflibercept in a randomized clinical trial among eyes with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), post hoc analyses may influence treatment choices. Objective: To compare exploratory outcomes between treatment groups that may affect treatment choices for patients with vitreous hemorrhage due to PDR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted at 39 DRCR Retina Network sites included adults with vision loss due to PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage for whom vitrectomy was considered. Data were collected from November 2016 to January 2020. Interventions: Random assignment to 4 monthly injections of aflibercept vs vitrectomy with PRP. Both groups could receive aflibercept or vitrectomy during follow-up based on protocol-specific criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Visual acuity area under the curve (adjusted for baseline VA) and clearance of vitreous hemorrhage. Results: A total of 205 eyes were included in the analysis (115 male [56%] and 90 [44%] female participants; mean [SD] age, 57  years). Among 89 eyes with a baseline VA of 20/32 to 20/160 (47 receiving aflibercept, including 4 [9%] that had undergone vitrectomy; 42 undergoing vitrectomy, including 3 [7%] that had received aflibercept), the adjusted mean difference in VA letter score over 24 weeks between the aflibercept and vitrectomy groups was -4.3 (95% CI, -10.6 to 1.9) compared with -16.7 (95% CI, -24.4 to -9.1) among 59 eyes with baseline VA worse than 20/800 (P = .02 for interaction; 26 in the aflibercept group, including 6 [23%] that had undergone vitrectomy; 33 in the vitrectomy group, including 8 [24%] that had received aflibercept). In the full cohort, the median time to clearance of the initial vitreous hemorrhage was 36 (interquartile range [IQR], 24-52) weeks in the aflibercept group vs 4 (IQR, 4-4) weeks in the vitrectomy group (difference, 32 [95% CI, 20-32] weeks; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Both initial aflibercept and vitrectomy with PRP are viable treatment approaches for PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage. Although this study did not find a significant difference between groups in the primary outcome of mean VA over 24 weeks of follow-up, eyes receiving initial vitrectomy with PRP had faster recovery of vision over 24 weeks when baseline VA was worse than 20/800 and faster vitreous hemorrhage clearance. Approximately one-third of the eyes in each group received the alternative treatment (aflibercept or vitrectomy with PRP). These factors may influence treatment decisions for patients initiating therapy for PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02858076.
Abnormal cholesterol/lipid homeostasis is linked to neurodegenerative conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly. The most prevalent form, termed "dry" AMD, is characterized by pathological cholesterol accumulation beneath the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer and inflammation-linked degeneration in the retina. We show here that the cholesterol-regulating microRNA miR-33 was elevated in the RPE of aging mice. Expression of the miR-33 target ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1), a cholesterol efflux pump genetically linked to AMD, declined reciprocally in the RPE with age. In accord, miR-33 modulated ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in human RPE cells. Subcutaneous delivery of miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) to aging mice and non-human primates fed a Western-type high fat/cholesterol diet resulted in increased ABCA1 expression, decreased cholesterol accumulation, and reduced immune cell infiltration in the RPE cell layer, accompanied by decreased pathological changes to RPE morphology. These findings suggest that miR-33 targeting may decrease cholesterol deposition and ameliorate AMD initiation and progression.
Following preterm birth, serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) decrease compared to corresponding in utero levels. A recent clinical trial indicated that supplementation with recombinant human (rh) IGF-1/rhIGF-binding protein 3 (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) prevents severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in extremely preterm infants. In a preterm rabbit pup model, we characterized endogenous serum and hepatic IGF-1, along with brain distribution of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R). We then evaluated the effects of rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 on gene expression of regulators of cerebrovascular maturation and structure. Similar to preterm infants, serum IGF-1 concentrations decreased rapidly after preterm birth in the rabbit pup. Administration of rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 restored in utero serum levels but was rapidly eliminated. Immunolabeled IGF1R was widely distributed in multiple brain regions, displaying an abundant density in the choroid plexus and sub-ependymal germinal zones. Increased IGF-1 immunoreactivity, distributed as IGF1R, was detected 4 h after rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 administration. The rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 treatment led to upregulation of choroid plexus genes involved in vascular maturation and structure, with corresponding protein translation for most of these genes. The preterm rabbit pup model is well suited for evaluation of IGF-1-based prevention of IVH. Administration of rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 affects cerebrovascular maturation, suggesting a role for it in preventing preterm IVH.
PURPOSE: To report refractive error findings in Baltimore City schoolchildren who failed school-based vision screenings. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, students pre-kindergarten through 8th grade who failed screenings during school years 2016-2019 received an eye examination, including non-cycloplegic autorefraction and visual acuity (VA) measurements. Refractive error was identified when there was at least: -0.50 diopter (D) spherical equivalent (SE) myopia, +0.50D SE hyperopia, 1.00D astigmatism, or 1.00D anisometropia in either eye. Generalized estimating equation models were used to identify factors associated with clinically significant refractive error, defined as decreased VA and more severe refractive error. RESULTS: Of 7520 students who failed screening, 6627 (88%) were analyzed. Clinically significant refractive error and any refractive error were found in 2352 (35.5%) and 5952 (89.8%) students, respectively. Mild myopia (45%, -0.50 D to <-3.00 D SE) and low astigmatism (47%, 1.00 D to <3.00 D cylinder) were the most prevalent types of refractive error. Proportions of students with myopia increased with higher grade levels (Ptrend<0.001). Myopia and astigmatism were more common in black and Latinx. Risk factors for clinically significant refractive error included higher grades (odds ratios [OR] ranged from 1.30 to 2.19 compared with 1st grade, P < .05) and Latinx ethnicity (OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.08-1.59). CONCLUSION: A Baltimore school-based vision program identified a substantial number of students with refractive error in a high-poverty urban community. Over 1/3 students who failed vision screening had clinically significant refractive error, with black and Latinx students at higher risk of having myopia and astigmatism.