The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now known to be associated with several ocular manifestations. The literature thoroughly discussed those that affect adults, with a lesser focus in the pediatric age group. We aim to outline the various pediatric ocular manifestations described in the literature. The manifestations may be divided into isolated events attributed to COVID-19 or occurring in the new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a novel entity associated by COVID-19 infection. Ocular manifestations have virtually affected all ages. They manifested in neonates, infants, children, and adolescents. Episcleritis, conjunctivitis, optic neuritis, cranial nerve palsies, retinal vein occlusion, retinal vasculitis, retinal changes, orbital myositis, orbital cellulitis were reported in the literature with this emerging viral illness. Conjunctivitis was the most common ocular manifestation in MIS-C in nearly half of the patients. Other ocular manifestations in MIS-C were anterior uveitis, corneal epitheliopathy, optic neuritis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and retinitis. The clinical outcome was favorable, and children regain their visual ability with minimal or no deficits in most of the cases. Further follow-up may be warranted to better understand the long-term effects and visual prognosis.
AIMS: To determine the cost-effectiveness of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (pDMEK) versus non-preloaded DMEK (n-pDMEK) for the treatment of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). METHODS: From a societal and healthcare perspective, this retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis analysed a cohort of 58 patients with FECD receiving pDMEK (n=38) or n-pDMEK (n=30) from 2016 to 2018 in the Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Exclusion criteria were previous ocular surgeries (other than uncomplicated cataract surgery), including other keratoplasty procedures, ocular pathological conditions as glaucoma, amblyopia, laser treatments, or any retinal or corneal disease. The main outcome parameters were the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and net monetary benefit (NMB). RESULTS: pDMEK was less costly compared with n-pDMEK (healthcare: $13 886 vs $15 329; societal: $20 805 vs $22 262), with a slighter greater utility (QALY 0.6682 vs QALY 0.6640) over a time horizon of 15 years. pDMEK offered a slightly higher clinical effectiveness (+0.0042 QALY/patient) at a lower cost (healthcare: -$1444 per patient; societal: -$1457 per patient) in improving visual acuity in this cohort of patients with FECD. pDMEK achieved a favourable ICUR and NMB compared with n-pDMEK. Based on sensitivity analyses performed, the economic model was robust. CONCLUSIONS: From the societal and healthcare perspective, pDMEK was less costly and generated comparable utility values relative to n-pDMEK. Therefore, pDMEK appears to be cost-effective and cost saving with respect to n-pDMEK. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.
PURPOSE: To characterize long-term strabismus outcomes in children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: This study was a secondary data analysis of long-term ocular alignment characteristics of children aged 10.5 years who had previously been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating aphakic management after unilateral cataract surgery between 1 and 6 months of age. RESULTS: In the IATS study, 96 of 109 children (88%) developed strabismus through age 10.5 years. Half of the 20 children who were orthophoric at distance through age 5 years maintained orthophoria at distance fixation at 10.5 years. Esotropia was the most common type of strabismus prior to age 5 years (56/109 [51%]), whereas exotropia (49/109 [45%]) was the most common type of strabismus at 10.5 years (esotropia, 21%; isolated hypertropia, 17%). Strabismus surgery had been performed on 52 children (48%), with 18 of these (35%) achieving microtropia <10Δ. Strabismus was equally prevalent in children randomized to contact lens care compared with those randomized to primary intraocular lens implantation (45/54 [83%] vs 45/55 [82%]; P = 0.8). Median visual acuity in the study eye was 0.56 logMAR (20/72) for children with orthotropia or microtropia <10Δ versus 1.30 logMAR (20/400) for strabismus ≥10Δ (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Strabismus-in particular, exotropia-is common irrespective of aphakia management 10 years following infant monocular cataract surgery. The delayed emergence of exotropia with longer follow-up indicates a need for caution in managing early esotropia in these children. Children with better visual acuity at 10 years of age are more likely to have better ocular alignment.
PRCIS: Glaucoma cascade screening in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of young Haitian glaucoma patients had high yield for diagnosing manifest and suspected glaucoma in 30.8% of those screened despite modest participation. PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of glaucoma cascade screening in FDRs (parents, siblings, and offspring) of Haitian juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive index patients (Haitians with JOAG) were identified, and the number/type of FDRs residing in South Florida were recorded. These FDRs were invited for free glaucoma screening, which included a comprehensive ophthalmic exam, gonioscopy, automated visual field testing and optical coherence tomographic analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layers. FDR characteristics and clinical findings from screening are reported. RESULTS: A total of 77 FDRs were invited, 26 (33.8%) agreed to undergo screening (18 females, 9 males), which revealed 2 (7.7%) with manifest glaucoma (mean age 77.5 y; one of whom was previously unaware of his glaucoma diagnosis), 6 (23.1%) with suspected glaucoma (mean age 29.8±18.3 y), and 18 (69.2%) without manifest or suspected glaucoma (mean age 37.2±21.8 y). Siblings of index patients were least likely to participate in cascade glaucoma screening when compared with index patients' parents or offspring. FDR eyes with manifest glaucoma had significantly worse best-corrected visual acuities, higher intraocular pressures, thinner central corneal thicknesses, and thinner circumferential papillary retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses than those without glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma cascade screening of Haitian JOAG patients' FDRs revealed that 30.8% had suspected or manifest glaucoma. Future efforts centered on provider-initiated recruitment and improving public glaucoma awareness and education may increase screening participation.
The inability of neurons to regenerate long axons within the CNS is a major impediment to improving outcome after spinal cord injury, stroke, and other CNS insults. Recent advances have uncovered an intrinsic program that involves coordinate regulation by multiple transcription factors that can be manipulated to enhance growth in the peripheral nervous system. Here, we use a systems genomics approach to characterize regulatory relationships of regeneration-associated transcription factors, identifying RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor (REST; Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor, NRSF) as a predicted upstream suppressor of a pro-regenerative gene program associated with axon regeneration in the CNS. We validate our predictions using multiple paradigms, showing that mature mice bearing cell type-specific deletions of REST or expressing dominant-negative mutant REST show improved regeneration of the corticospinal tract and optic nerve after spinal cord injury and optic nerve crush, which is accompanied by upregulation of regeneration-associated genes in cortical motor neurons and retinal ganglion cells, respectively. These analyses identify a role for REST as an upstream suppressor of the intrinsic regenerative program in the CNS and demonstrate the utility of a systems biology approach involving integrative genomics and bio-informatics to prioritize hypotheses relevant to CNS repair.
A 13-year-old boy presented with 3 days of left-sided periorbital pain, swelling, mucoid discharge, and fever to 103°F, with onset 1 day after swimming in the ocean. Within 12 hours, he experienced rapid clinical deterioration with formation of a superomedial subperiosteal abscess and an epidural abscess with leptomeningitis despite treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. The patient underwent urgent left orbitotomy with abscess drainage and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Intraoperative cultures grew Shewanella algae and Escherichia coli . The patient showed marked clinical improvement following surgical intervention and tailored antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of orbital abscess with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis due to infection with Shewanella algae .
Importance: Results of several small randomized clinical trials have suggested that supplements of marine ω-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in treating signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED). However, randomized clinical trial data to examine whether ω-3 fatty acid supplements can prevent DED are lacking. Objective: To evaluate whether long-term daily supplementation with marine ω-3 fatty acids prevents the development of DED. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified ancillary study of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), a nationwide randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial trial of vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids in the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Participants in this ancillary study were 23 523 US adults (men 50 years and older and women 55 years and older) who at study entry were free of a previous diagnosis of DED and were not experiencing severe dry eye symptoms. Participants were enrolled from November 2011 to March 2014, and treatment and follow-up ended on December 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from January 2020 to August 2021. Interventions: Marine ω-3 fatty acids, 1 g per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was incident clinically diagnosed DED confirmed by review of the medical records. The secondary end point was a composite of all confirmed incident clinically diagnosed DED cases plus all incident reports of severe DED symptoms. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 23 523 participants included in the analysis was 67.0 (7.0) years, and 11 349 participants (48.3%) were women. The cohort included 4610 participants (20.0%) who self-identified as Black, 16 481 (71.6%) who self-identified as non-Hispanic White, and 1927 (8.4%) of other racial or ethnic groups or who declined to respond, consolidated owing to small numbers, including American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Hispanic or Latino, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. During a median (range) 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years of treatment and follow-up, 472 of 23 523 participants (2.0%) experienced a medical record-confirmed diagnosis of DED. There was no difference in diagnosed DED by randomized ω-3 fatty acid assignment (232 of 11 757 participants [2.0%] with end points in the treated group vs 240 of 11 766 [2.0%] with end points in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81-1.16). Similarly, there was no difference between groups for the secondary end point of diagnosed DED plus incident severe DED symptoms (1044 participants [8.9%] with end points in the treated group vs 1074 [9.1%] with end points in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, long-term supplementation with 1 g per day of marine ω-3 fatty acids for a median (range) of 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years did not reduce the incidence of diagnosed DED or a combined end point of diagnosed DED or incident severe DED symptoms. These results do not support recommending marine ω-3 fatty acid supplementation to reduce the incidence of DED. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01880463.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery performed with concurrent phacoemulsification compared to stand-alone procedures. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients in the IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight) who underwent trabeculectomy or GDD from 2013 through 2019. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine reoperation rates. Reoperation was defined as any subsequent glaucoma surgery occurring 1 month to 3 years after the initial procedure. Multivariable cox proportional hazard models were used to determine reoperation risk factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reoperation rate, IOP, visual acuity, reoperation procedure type, postoperative complications, and predictors of surgical failure. RESULTS: A total of 117,697 eyes receiving glaucoma surgery alone and 35,657 eyes receiving surgery with phacoemulsification were included. The cumulative reoperation rate for trabeculectomy alone was 4.9% and 11.5% vs 3.0% and 7.3% for trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. The reoperation rates for GDD alone were 3.8% and 7.8% vs 2.1% and 5.4% for GDD with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. Stand-alone procedures achieved greater IOP reduction by percentage change from baseline (trabeculectomy alone 35.3% vs trabeculectomy with phacoemulsification 23.1%, p<0.001, and GDD alone 36.1% vs GDD with phacoemulsification 29.3%, p<0.001). Visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR (95% CI 0.11 - 0.12) and 0.10 logMAR (0.08 - 0.11) following trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification and declined by 0.15 logMAR (0.14 - 0.15) and 0.12 logMAR (0.11 - 0.12) following stand-alone trabeculectomy and GDD. The overall documented complication rate was 2.9% for GDD and 1.4% for trabeculectomy. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical failure risk. The most common reoperation procedure was GDD. CONCLUSIONS: Reoperation rates within the first three years following trabeculectomy and GDD with and without phacoemulsification were low. Trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification had lower reoperation rates compared to stand-alone procedures. However, stand-alone procedures resulted in greater IOP reduction compared to combined procedures. Postoperative complications were uncommon overall. Patient age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical success.
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest diurnal patterns of occurrence of some eye conditions. Leveraging new information sources such as web-based search data to learn more about such patterns could improve the understanding of patients' eye-related conditions and well-being, better inform timing of clinical and remote eye care, and improve precision when targeting web-based public health campaigns toward underserved populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate our hypothesis that the public is likely to consistently search about different ophthalmologic conditions at different hours of the day or days of week, we conducted an observational study using search data for terms related to ophthalmologic conditions such as conjunctivitis. We assessed whether search volumes reflected diurnal or day-of-week patterns and if those patterns were distinct from each other. METHODS: We designed a study to analyze and compare hourly search data for eye-related and control search terms, using time series regression models with trend and periodicity terms to remove outliers and then estimate diurnal effects. We planned a Google Trends setting, extracting data from 10 US states for the entire year of 2018. The exposure was internet search, and the participants were populations who searched through Google's search engine using our chosen study terms. Our main outcome measures included cyclical hourly and day-of-week web-based search patterns. For statistical analyses, we considered P<.001 to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Distinct diurnal (P<.001 for all search terms) and day-of-week search patterns for eye-related terms were observed but with differing peak time periods and cyclic strengths. Some diurnal patterns represented those reported from prior clinical studies. Of the eye-related terms, "pink eye" showed the largest diurnal amplitude-to-mean ratios. Stronger signal was restricted to and peaked in mornings, and amplitude was higher on weekdays. By contrast, "dry eyes" had a higher amplitude diurnal pattern on weekends, with stronger signal occurring over a broader evening-to-morning period and peaking in early morning. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of web-based searches for various eye conditions can show cyclic patterns according to time of the day or week. Further studies to understand the reasons for these variations may help supplement the current clinical understanding of ophthalmologic symptom presentation and improve the timeliness of patient messaging and care interventions.
Oculomotor nerve schwannomas are rare benign cranial nerve tumors. There are only a limited number of reports on this pathology in the literature, and there are currently no established management guidelines that aid providers in deciding on surgical versus nonsurgical management. We assess the published literature on the topic to identify indications for treatment as well as outcome measures (e.g., local control rates, survival rates, and complication rates) that have been reported as associated with the various treatment modalities. We attempt to develop an algorithm for evaluation and treatment of oculomotor nerve schwannomas in order to establish consensus on how these tumors should be treated.
PURPOSE: To report long-term results of treatment with intravitreal injections of aflibercept in a newly diagnosed case of Coats disease. METHODS: An 18-year-old man presented to the retina clinic of our hospital complaining of blurred vision in the right eye for the past 3 months. His past medical and ocular history were unremarkable. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundoscopy in the right eye revealed extensive macular edema with a circinate ring of hard exudates in the posterior pole temporally to the macula. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated macular edema with subretinal fluid. Peripheral telangiectasias and light bulb aneurysms in the inferior temporal arcade as well as in the nasal far periphery were found in the right eye in fluorescein angiography, confirming the diagnosis of stage 2B Coats disease. The left eye was normal. RESULTS: The original therapeutic strategy proposed was antivascular endothelial growth factor injections in the right eye, followed by laser photocoagulation. However, the patient did not consent to laser treatment and was treated with aflibercept monotherapy with 8 monthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept, followed by 6 injections every 2 months for a total of 14 injections over a period of 2 years. The best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye improved to 20/25 while optical coherence tomography imaging revealed significant decrease in retinal thickness with resolution of macular edema, and fluorescein angiography demonstrated prominent regression of aneurysms and leakage. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case treated with aflibercept monotherapy, suggesting the significant role of vascular endothelial growth factor in vascular permeability in Coats and supporting the rationale that antivascular endothelial growth factors are a valuable therapeutic option for Coats disease.
Corneal transplantation is the most frequent organ transplantation worldwide. Unfortunately, corneal graft failure is common and endothelial decompensation is considered the major cause. Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) lack the capacity to reproduce, and perioperative and postoperative endothelial cell loss remains a significant challenge associated with corneal graft viability. Therefore, strategies to preserve CEC density are critical to extend graft survival. Activated platelet rich plasma (aPRP), a product extracted from autologous blood, has both antioxidant and regenerative properties. aPRP eye drops have shown effectiveness in the treatment of corneal pathologies such as ulcers, dry eye, and burns. Our purpose is to determine the protective and regenerative effect of aPRP on corneal grafts by evaluating aPRP's effect on the survival and proliferation of human CECs. Human corneal grafts were incubated in aPRP for 15 min to assess the activation of the CEC pAkt survival pathway as measured by ELISA. Evaluation of the protective effect of aPRP was made using an apoptotic model, which simulated oxidative stress conditions. Expression of apoptotic markers was measured using ELISA and endothelial cell viability was determined by optical microscopy. The CEC proliferation rate was measured in vitro with Ki-67 staining. Corneal graft gross structure was evaluated by Hematoxylin & Eosin and Masson trichrome staining. Our results indicate that a short incubation of human corneal grafts in aPRP protects CECs from apoptosis by upregulating the pAkt survival pathway and promoting CEC proliferation. Additionally, aPRP incubation does not induce histological changes in the grafts. A brief pre-treatment of human corneal grafts in aPRP may be beneficial for transplant longevity, as it protects CECs from apoptosis by upregulating intracellular survival pathways and promoting proliferation. In addition, this approach appears to be safe and has the potential to improve surgical outcomes following corneal transplantation.
PURPOSE: To evaluate differences between autorefraction measurements with and without cycloplegia among school-aged individuals and to explore factors associated with significant differences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals between 3 and 22 years of age evaluated at the Illinois College of Optometry from September 2016 through June 2019 who underwent same-day noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction of the right eye. METHODS: Demographic information including age, sex, and race or ethnicity were collected during the eye examination. Autorefraction was performed before and after cycloplegia. Myopia, defined as at least -0.50 diopter (D) spherical equivalent (SE), hyperopia, defined as at least +0.50 D SE, and astigmatism of at least 1.00 D cylinder were determined using noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefractions. Factors associated with at least 1.00 D more myopic SE or at least 0.75 D cylindrical difference by noncycloplegic autorefraction were assessed using logistic regression models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction measurements. RESULTS: The mean age was 10.8 ± 4.0 years for the 11 119 individuals; 52.4% of participants were female. Noncycloplegic SE measured 0.65 ± 1.04 D more myopic than cycloplegic SE. After adjusting for demographic factors and refractive error, individuals with at least 1.00 D of more myopic SE refraction by noncycloplegic autorefraction (25.9%) were more likely to be younger than 5 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.79) and 5 to younger than 10 years (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18-1.48) than those 10 to younger than 15 years. This difference of at least 1.00 D of more myopic SE was more likely to be observed in Hispanic people (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.36) and those with hyperopia (OR range, 4.20-13.31). Individuals with 0.75 D or more of cylindrical difference (5.1%) between refractions were more likely to be younger than 5 years, to be male, and to have mild-moderate-high myopia or moderate-high hyperopia. CONCLUSIONS: Three quarters of school-aged individuals had < 1 D of myopic SE difference using noncycloplegic compared with cycloplegic autorefraction. Understanding measurement differences obtained for refractive error and associated factors may provide useful information for future studies or programs involving refraction in school-aged children.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the long-term surgical and visual outcomes of patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) after big bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (BB-DALK). METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of patients with MPS who underwent BB-DALK at a single academic institution. All patients had corneal clouding secondary to MPS limiting visual acuity for which keratoplasty was indicated. Each patient was evaluated and underwent surgery by a single surgeon. Reported data included age at keratoplasty, sex, MPS type, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, change in pachymetry, ocular comorbidities, surgical complications, and MPS-related medication use. RESULTS: Outcomes of 12 eyes from 7 patients with MPS type I (Hurler, Scheie, and Hurler-Scheie) are reported using the newest nomenclature. The mean follow-up was 5.58 years (range: 1-10 years). All cases underwent BB-DALK with a type 1 big bubble during the surgery. Two cases (16.6%) required rebubbling because of partial Descemet membrane detachment. One case was complicated by a suture abscess and required a penetrating keratoplasty. No episodes of rejection occurred. Statistically significant improvement in the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (from a mean 0.85-0.33 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, P = logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution 0.0054) and pachymetry (mean reduction of -145.4 μm, P = 0.0018) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: BB-DALK seems to be an acceptable long-term surgical option in patients with MPS. Our findings suggest that this technique is reproducible and can achieve clear corneal grafts with good visual results on a long-term follow-up.
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) are two distinct pathologies of retinal angiogenesis with overlapping clinical features. METHODS: Examination, multimodal imaging, and genetic testing were used to guide diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: We report a combined phenotype of X-linked FEVR and ROP in a 4-month-old girl with mosaic Turner syndrome with ring X chromosome born at 26 weeks gestational age. She was initially diagnosed with atypical ROP with a vitreous band causing a localized traction retinal detachment, inferotemporal to the macula in the right eye, vessels to posterior zone 2 with no clear ridge temporally in the left eye, and fluorescein leakage in both eyes. Due to the suspicion of concurrent FEVR, genetic testing using a vitreoretinopathy panel was performed which revealed a mosaic Turner syndrome associated with 45,X/46,X,r(X), subsequently confirmed by chromosome analysis. The deleted region in the ring X chromosome included the NDP and RS1 genes. The patient was treated with laser photocoagulation of the peripheral avascular retina and sub-Tenon's triamcinolone injection in both eyes, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the left eye, and pars plicata vitrectomy in the right eye. CONCLUSIONS: In premature neonates with atypical ROP, a clinical suspicion of concurrent FEVR or similar vasculopathy is important and genetic testing may elucidate a genetic etiology, which could influence management and prognosis. Turner syndrome can be connected with co-occurring Mendelian gene disorders, particularly in individuals with mosaicism. The concurrence of FEVR and ROP appears to result in atypical and possibly more severe phenotypes.
Jacobs DS. Knowledge. Eye Contact Lens 2022;48(7):277.
PURPOSE: To validate the fundus image grading results by a trained grader (Non-ophthalmologist) and an ophthalmologist grader for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO) against fundus examination by a retina specialist (gold standard). METHODS: A prospective diagnostic accuracy study was conducted using 2002 non-mydriatic colour fundus images from 1001 patients aged ≥40 years. Using the Aravind Diabetic Retinopathy Evaluation Software (ADRES) images were graded by both a trained non-ophthalmologist grader (grader-1) and an ophthalmologist (grader-2). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated for grader-1 and grader-2 against the grading results by an independent retina specialist who performed dilated fundus examination for every study participant. RESULTS: Out of 1001 patients included, 42% were women and the mean ± (SD) age was 55.8 (8.39) years. For moderate or worse DR, the sensitivity and specificity for grading by grader-1 with respect to the gold standard was 66.9% and 91.0% respectively and the same for the ophthalmologist was 83.6% and 80.3% respectively. For referable DMO, grader-1 and grader-2 had a sensitivity of 74.6% and 85.6% respectively and a specificity of 83.7% and 79.8% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate good level of accuracy for the fundus image grading performed by a trained non-ophthalmologist which was comparable with the grading by an ophthalmologist. Engaging trained non-ophthalmologists potentially can enhance the efficiency of DR diagnosis using fundus images. Further study with multiple non-ophthalmologist graders is needed to verify the results and strategies to improve agreement for DMO diagnosis are needed.
Purpose: We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) defined by machine-learning-derived regional visual field (VF) loss patterns. Methods: Participants (N = 209,036) from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1980-2018), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2; 1989-2019), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1986-2018) who were ≥40 years of age and free of glaucoma were followed biennially. Incident POAG cases (n = 1946) with reproducible VF loss were confirmed with medical records. Total deviation information from the earliest reliable glaucomatous VF for each POAG eye (n = 2564) was extracted, and machine learning analyses were used to identify optimal solutions ("archetypes") for regional VF loss patterns. Each POAG eye was assigned a VF archetype based on the highest weighting coefficient. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using per-eye Cox proportional hazards models. Results: We identified 14 archetypes: four representing advanced loss patterns, nine of early loss, and one of no VF loss. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, black participants had higher risk of early VF loss archetypes (HR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.48-2.66) and even higher risk for advanced loss archetypes (HR = 6.17; 95% CI, 3.69-10.32; P-contrast = 0.0002); no differences were observed for Asians or Hispanic whites. Hispanic white participants had significantly higher risks of POAG with paracentral defects and advanced superior loss; black participants had significantly higher risks of all advanced loss archetypes and three early loss patterns, including paracentral defects. Conclusions: Blacks, compared to non-Hispanic whites, had higher risks of POAG with early central and advanced VF loss. Translational Relevance: In POAG, risks of VF loss regional patterns derived from machine learning algorithms showed racial differences.