July 2022

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Alnahdi MA, Alkharashi M. Ocular manifestations of COVID-19 in the pediatric age group. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;:11206721221116210.Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now known to be associated with several ocular manifestations. The literature thoroughly discussed those that affect adults, with a lesser focus in the pediatric age group. We aim to outline the various pediatric ocular manifestations described in the literature. The manifestations may be divided into isolated events attributed to COVID-19 or occurring in the new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a novel entity associated by COVID-19 infection. Ocular manifestations have virtually affected all ages. They manifested in neonates, infants, children, and adolescents. Episcleritis, conjunctivitis, optic neuritis, cranial nerve palsies, retinal vein occlusion, retinal vasculitis, retinal changes, orbital myositis, orbital cellulitis were reported in the literature with this emerging viral illness. Conjunctivitis was the most common ocular manifestation in MIS-C in nearly half of the patients. Other ocular manifestations in MIS-C were anterior uveitis, corneal epitheliopathy, optic neuritis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and retinitis. The clinical outcome was favorable, and children regain their visual ability with minimal or no deficits in most of the cases. Further follow-up may be warranted to better understand the long-term effects and visual prognosis.
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Bharti K, den Hollander AI, Lakkaraju A, Sinha D, Williams DS, Finnemann SC, Bowes-Rickman C, Malek G, D'Amore PA. Cell culture models to study retinal pigment epithelium-related pathogenesis in age-related macular degeneration. Exp Eye Res 2022;222:109170.Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that affects the macula - the central part of the retina. It is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. AMD onset is marked by the presence of lipid- and protein-rich extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of polarized, pigmented epithelial cells located between the photoreceptors and the choroidal blood supply. Progression of AMD to the late nonexudative "dry" stage of AMD, also called geographic atrophy, is linked to progressive loss of areas of the RPE, photoreceptors, and underlying choriocapillaris leading to a severe decline in patients' vision. Differential susceptibility of macular RPE in AMD and the lack of an anatomical macula in most lab animal models has promoted the use of in vitro models of the RPE. In addition, the need for high throughput platforms to test potential therapies has driven the creation and characterization of in vitro model systems that recapitulate morphologic and functional abnormalities associated with human AMD. These models range from spontaneously formed cell line ARPE19, immortalized cell lines such as hTERT-RPE1, RPE-J, and D407, to primary human (fetal or adult) or animal (mouse and pig) RPE cells, and embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived RPE. Hallmark RPE phenotypes, such as cobblestone morphology, pigmentation, and polarization, vary significantly betweendifferent models and culture conditions used in different labs, which would directly impact their usability for investigating different aspects of AMD biology. Here the AMD Disease Models task group of the Ryan Initiative for Macular Research (RIMR) provides a summary of several currently used in vitro RPE models, historical aspects of their development, RPE phenotypes that are attainable in these models, their ability to model different aspects of AMD pathophysiology, and pros/cons for their use in the RPE and AMD fields. In addition, due to the burgeoning use of iPSC derived RPE cells, the critical need for developing standards for differentiating and rigorously characterizing RPE cell appearance, morphology, and function are discussed.
Bleicher ID, Rossin EJ, Vavvas DG. Reevaluating the Risk of Serious Adverse Events of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(7):745-746.
Böhm M, Leon P, Wylęgała A, Ong Tone S, Condron T, Jurkunas U. Cost-effectiveness analysis of preloaded versus non-preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty for the treatment of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy in an academic centre. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(7):914-922.Abstract
AIMS: To determine the cost-effectiveness of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (pDMEK) versus non-preloaded DMEK (n-pDMEK) for the treatment of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). METHODS: From a societal and healthcare perspective, this retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis analysed a cohort of 58 patients with FECD receiving pDMEK (n=38) or n-pDMEK (n=30) from 2016 to 2018 in the Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Exclusion criteria were previous ocular surgeries (other than uncomplicated cataract surgery), including other keratoplasty procedures, ocular pathological conditions as glaucoma, amblyopia, laser treatments, or any retinal or corneal disease. The main outcome parameters were the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and net monetary benefit (NMB). RESULTS: pDMEK was less costly compared with n-pDMEK (healthcare: $13 886 vs $15 329; societal: $20 805 vs $22 262), with a slighter greater utility (QALY 0.6682 vs QALY 0.6640) over a time horizon of 15 years. pDMEK offered a slightly higher clinical effectiveness (+0.0042 QALY/patient) at a lower cost (healthcare: -$1444 per patient; societal: -$1457 per patient) in improving visual acuity in this cohort of patients with FECD. pDMEK achieved a favourable ICUR and NMB compared with n-pDMEK. Based on sensitivity analyses performed, the economic model was robust. CONCLUSIONS: From the societal and healthcare perspective, pDMEK was less costly and generated comparable utility values relative to n-pDMEK. Therefore, pDMEK appears to be cost-effective and cost saving with respect to n-pDMEK. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.
Bothun ED, Shainberg MJ, Christiansen SP, VanderVeen DK, Neely DE, Kruger SJ, Cotsonis G, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Long-term strabismus outcomes after unilateral infantile cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize long-term strabismus outcomes in children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: This study was a secondary data analysis of long-term ocular alignment characteristics of children aged 10.5 years who had previously been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating aphakic management after unilateral cataract surgery between 1 and 6 months of age. RESULTS: In the IATS study, 96 of 109 children (88%) developed strabismus through age 10.5 years. Half of the 20 children who were orthophoric at distance through age 5 years maintained orthophoria at distance fixation at 10.5 years. Esotropia was the most common type of strabismus prior to age 5 years (56/109 [51%]), whereas exotropia (49/109 [45%]) was the most common type of strabismus at 10.5 years (esotropia, 21%; isolated hypertropia, 17%). Strabismus surgery had been performed on 52 children (48%), with 18 of these (35%) achieving microtropia <10Δ. Strabismus was equally prevalent in children randomized to contact lens care compared with those randomized to primary intraocular lens implantation (45/54 [83%] vs 45/55 [82%]; P = 0.8). Median visual acuity in the study eye was 0.56 logMAR (20/72) for children with orthotropia or microtropia <10Δ versus 1.30 logMAR (20/400) for strabismus ≥10Δ (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Strabismus-in particular, exotropia-is common irrespective of aphakia management 10 years following infant monocular cataract surgery. The delayed emergence of exotropia with longer follow-up indicates a need for caution in managing early esotropia in these children. Children with better visual acuity at 10 years of age are more likely to have better ocular alignment.
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Chang TC, Celestin L, Hodapp EA, Grajewski AL, Junk A, Rothman AL, Duerr ERH, Swaminathan SS, Gedde SJ, Young TL, Wiggs J, Olivier MMG, Quintanilla R, Arrieta E, Savatovsky EJ, Vanner EA, Parrish RK. Glaucoma Cascade Screening in a High Risk Afro-Caribbean Haitian Population: A Pilot Study. J Glaucoma 2022;31(7):584-589.Abstract
PRCIS: Glaucoma cascade screening in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of young Haitian glaucoma patients had high yield for diagnosing manifest and suspected glaucoma in 30.8% of those screened despite modest participation. PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of glaucoma cascade screening in FDRs (parents, siblings, and offspring) of Haitian juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive index patients (Haitians with JOAG) were identified, and the number/type of FDRs residing in South Florida were recorded. These FDRs were invited for free glaucoma screening, which included a comprehensive ophthalmic exam, gonioscopy, automated visual field testing and optical coherence tomographic analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layers. FDR characteristics and clinical findings from screening are reported. RESULTS: A total of 77 FDRs were invited, 26 (33.8%) agreed to undergo screening (18 females, 9 males), which revealed 2 (7.7%) with manifest glaucoma (mean age 77.5 y; one of whom was previously unaware of his glaucoma diagnosis), 6 (23.1%) with suspected glaucoma (mean age 29.8±18.3 y), and 18 (69.2%) without manifest or suspected glaucoma (mean age 37.2±21.8 y). Siblings of index patients were least likely to participate in cascade glaucoma screening when compared with index patients' parents or offspring. FDR eyes with manifest glaucoma had significantly worse best-corrected visual acuities, higher intraocular pressures, thinner central corneal thicknesses, and thinner circumferential papillary retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses than those without glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma cascade screening of Haitian JOAG patients' FDRs revealed that 30.8% had suspected or manifest glaucoma. Future efforts centered on provider-initiated recruitment and improving public glaucoma awareness and education may increase screening participation.
Cheng Y, Yin Y, Zhang A, Bernstein AM, Kawaguchi R, Gao K, Potter K, Gilbert H-Y, Ao Y, Ou J, Fricano-Kugler CJ, Goldberg JL, He Z, Woolf CJ, Sofroniew MV, Benowitz LI, Geschwind DH. Transcription factor network analysis identifies REST/NRSF as an intrinsic regulator of CNS regeneration in mice. Nat Commun 2022;13(1):4418.Abstract
The inability of neurons to regenerate long axons within the CNS is a major impediment to improving outcome after spinal cord injury, stroke, and other CNS insults. Recent advances have uncovered an intrinsic program that involves coordinate regulation by multiple transcription factors that can be manipulated to enhance growth in the peripheral nervous system. Here, we use a systems genomics approach to characterize regulatory relationships of regeneration-associated transcription factors, identifying RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor (REST; Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor, NRSF) as a predicted upstream suppressor of a pro-regenerative gene program associated with axon regeneration in the CNS. We validate our predictions using multiple paradigms, showing that mature mice bearing cell type-specific deletions of REST or expressing dominant-negative mutant REST show improved regeneration of the corticospinal tract and optic nerve after spinal cord injury and optic nerve crush, which is accompanied by upregulation of regeneration-associated genes in cortical motor neurons and retinal ganglion cells, respectively. These analyses identify a role for REST as an upstream suppressor of the intrinsic regenerative program in the CNS and demonstrate the utility of a systems biology approach involving integrative genomics and bio-informatics to prioritize hypotheses relevant to CNS repair.
Chiou CA, Reshef ER, Yoon MK. Shewanella algae Causing Pediatric Orbital Abscess With Leptomeningitis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;38(4):e101-e104.Abstract
A 13-year-old boy presented with 3 days of left-sided periorbital pain, swelling, mucoid discharge, and fever to 103°F, with onset 1 day after swimming in the ocean. Within 12 hours, he experienced rapid clinical deterioration with formation of a superomedial subperiosteal abscess and an epidural abscess with leptomeningitis despite treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. The patient underwent urgent left orbitotomy with abscess drainage and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Intraoperative cultures grew Shewanella algae and Escherichia coli . The patient showed marked clinical improvement following surgical intervention and tailored antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of orbital abscess with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis due to infection with Shewanella algae .
Christen WG, Cook NR, Manson JAE, Buring JE, Lee I-M, Bubes V, Friedenberg G, Dushkes R, Smith D, Schaumberg DA, Schaumberg DA. Efficacy of Marine ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation vs Placebo in Reducing Incidence of Dry Eye Disease in Healthy US Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(7):707-714.Abstract
Importance: Results of several small randomized clinical trials have suggested that supplements of marine ω-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in treating signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED). However, randomized clinical trial data to examine whether ω-3 fatty acid supplements can prevent DED are lacking. Objective: To evaluate whether long-term daily supplementation with marine ω-3 fatty acids prevents the development of DED. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified ancillary study of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), a nationwide randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial trial of vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids in the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Participants in this ancillary study were 23 523 US adults (men 50 years and older and women 55 years and older) who at study entry were free of a previous diagnosis of DED and were not experiencing severe dry eye symptoms. Participants were enrolled from November 2011 to March 2014, and treatment and follow-up ended on December 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from January 2020 to August 2021. Interventions: Marine ω-3 fatty acids, 1 g per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was incident clinically diagnosed DED confirmed by review of the medical records. The secondary end point was a composite of all confirmed incident clinically diagnosed DED cases plus all incident reports of severe DED symptoms. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 23 523 participants included in the analysis was 67.0 (7.0) years, and 11 349 participants (48.3%) were women. The cohort included 4610 participants (20.0%) who self-identified as Black, 16 481 (71.6%) who self-identified as non-Hispanic White, and 1927 (8.4%) of other racial or ethnic groups or who declined to respond, consolidated owing to small numbers, including American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Hispanic or Latino, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. During a median (range) 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years of treatment and follow-up, 472 of 23 523 participants (2.0%) experienced a medical record-confirmed diagnosis of DED. There was no difference in diagnosed DED by randomized ω-3 fatty acid assignment (232 of 11 757 participants [2.0%] with end points in the treated group vs 240 of 11 766 [2.0%] with end points in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81-1.16). Similarly, there was no difference between groups for the secondary end point of diagnosed DED plus incident severe DED symptoms (1044 participants [8.9%] with end points in the treated group vs 1074 [9.1%] with end points in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, long-term supplementation with 1 g per day of marine ω-3 fatty acids for a median (range) of 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years did not reduce the incidence of diagnosed DED or a combined end point of diagnosed DED or incident severe DED symptoms. These results do not support recommending marine ω-3 fatty acid supplementation to reduce the incidence of DED. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01880463.
Ciociola EC, Yang S-A, Hall N, Lorch AC, Miller JW, Friedman DS, Boland MV, Elze T, Zebardast N, Zebardast N. Effectiveness of Trabeculectomy and Tube Shunt With Versus Without Concurrent Phacoemulsification: IRIS Registry Longitudinal Analysis. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery performed with concurrent phacoemulsification compared to stand-alone procedures. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients in the IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight) who underwent trabeculectomy or GDD from 2013 through 2019. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine reoperation rates. Reoperation was defined as any subsequent glaucoma surgery occurring 1 month to 3 years after the initial procedure. Multivariable cox proportional hazard models were used to determine reoperation risk factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reoperation rate, IOP, visual acuity, reoperation procedure type, postoperative complications, and predictors of surgical failure. RESULTS: A total of 117,697 eyes receiving glaucoma surgery alone and 35,657 eyes receiving surgery with phacoemulsification were included. The cumulative reoperation rate for trabeculectomy alone was 4.9% and 11.5% vs 3.0% and 7.3% for trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. The reoperation rates for GDD alone were 3.8% and 7.8% vs 2.1% and 5.4% for GDD with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. Stand-alone procedures achieved greater IOP reduction by percentage change from baseline (trabeculectomy alone 35.3% vs trabeculectomy with phacoemulsification 23.1%, p<0.001, and GDD alone 36.1% vs GDD with phacoemulsification 29.3%, p<0.001). Visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR (95% CI 0.11 - 0.12) and 0.10 logMAR (0.08 - 0.11) following trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification and declined by 0.15 logMAR (0.14 - 0.15) and 0.12 logMAR (0.11 - 0.12) following stand-alone trabeculectomy and GDD. The overall documented complication rate was 2.9% for GDD and 1.4% for trabeculectomy. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical failure risk. The most common reoperation procedure was GDD. CONCLUSIONS: Reoperation rates within the first three years following trabeculectomy and GDD with and without phacoemulsification were low. Trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification had lower reoperation rates compared to stand-alone procedures. However, stand-alone procedures resulted in greater IOP reduction compared to combined procedures. Postoperative complications were uncommon overall. Patient age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical success.
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Dave TV, Nair AG, Joseph J, Freitag SK. Immunopathology of COVID-19 and its implications in the development of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis: a major review. Orbit 2022;:1-10.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present a literature review on various immunopathologic dysfunctions following COVID-19 infection and their potential implications in development of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). METHODS: A literature search was performed via Google Scholar and PubMed with subsequent review of the accompanying references. Analogies were drawn between the immune and physiologic deviations caused by COVID-19 and the tendency of the same to predispose to ROCM. RESULTS: Sixty-two articles were reviewed. SARS-CoV-2 virus infection leads to disruption of epithelial integrity in the respiratory passages, which may be a potential entry point for the ubiquitous Mucorales to become invasive. COVID-19 related GRP78 protein upregulation may aid in spore germination and hyphal invasion by Mucorales. COVID-19 causes interference in macrophage functioning by direct infection, a tendency for hyperglycemia, and creation of neutrophil extracellular traps. This affects innate immunity against Mucorales. Thrombocytopenia and reduction in the number of natural killer (NK) cells and infected dendritic cells is seen in COVID-19. This reduces the host immune response to pathogenic invasion by Mucorales. Cytokines released in COVID-19 cause mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which cause oxidative damage to the leucocytes. Hyperferritinemia also occurs in COVID-19 resulting in suppression of the hematopoietic proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has a role in the occurrence of ROCM due to its effects at the entry point of the fungus in the respiratory mucosa, effects of the innate immune system, creation of an environment of iron overload, propagation of hyperglycemia, and effects on the adaptive immune system.
Deiner MS, Kaur G, McLeod SD, Schallhorn JM, Chodosh J, Hwang DH, Lietman TM, Porco TC. A Google Trends Approach to Identify Distinct Diurnal and Day-of-Week Web-Based Search Patterns Related to Conjunctivitis and Other Common Eye Conditions: Infodemiology Study. J Med Internet Res 2022;24(7):e27310.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest diurnal patterns of occurrence of some eye conditions. Leveraging new information sources such as web-based search data to learn more about such patterns could improve the understanding of patients' eye-related conditions and well-being, better inform timing of clinical and remote eye care, and improve precision when targeting web-based public health campaigns toward underserved populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate our hypothesis that the public is likely to consistently search about different ophthalmologic conditions at different hours of the day or days of week, we conducted an observational study using search data for terms related to ophthalmologic conditions such as conjunctivitis. We assessed whether search volumes reflected diurnal or day-of-week patterns and if those patterns were distinct from each other. METHODS: We designed a study to analyze and compare hourly search data for eye-related and control search terms, using time series regression models with trend and periodicity terms to remove outliers and then estimate diurnal effects. We planned a Google Trends setting, extracting data from 10 US states for the entire year of 2018. The exposure was internet search, and the participants were populations who searched through Google's search engine using our chosen study terms. Our main outcome measures included cyclical hourly and day-of-week web-based search patterns. For statistical analyses, we considered P<.001 to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Distinct diurnal (P<.001 for all search terms) and day-of-week search patterns for eye-related terms were observed but with differing peak time periods and cyclic strengths. Some diurnal patterns represented those reported from prior clinical studies. Of the eye-related terms, "pink eye" showed the largest diurnal amplitude-to-mean ratios. Stronger signal was restricted to and peaked in mornings, and amplitude was higher on weekdays. By contrast, "dry eyes" had a higher amplitude diurnal pattern on weekends, with stronger signal occurring over a broader evening-to-morning period and peaking in early morning. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of web-based searches for various eye conditions can show cyclic patterns according to time of the day or week. Further studies to understand the reasons for these variations may help supplement the current clinical understanding of ophthalmologic symptom presentation and improve the timeliness of patient messaging and care interventions.
Dohlman C. The Boston Keratoprosthesis-The First 50 Years: Some Reminiscences. Annu Rev Vis Sci 2022;Abstract
Millions of people worldwide are bilaterally blind due to corneal diseases including infectious etiologies, trauma, and chemical injuries. While corneal transplantation can successfully restore sight in many, corneal graft survival decreases in eyes with chronic inflammation and corneal vascularization. Additionally, the availability of donor cornea material can be limited, especially in underdeveloped countries where corneal blindness may also be highly prevalent. Development of methods to create and implant an artificial cornea (keratoprosthesis)may be the only option for patients whose eye disease is not suitable for corneal transplantation or who live in regions where corneal transplantation is not possible. The Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) is the most commonly implanted keratoprosthesis worldwide, having restored vision in thousands of patients. This article describes the initial design of the B-KPro and the modifications that have been made over many years. Additionally, some of the complications of surgical implantation and long-term care challenges, particularly complicating inflammation and glaucoma, are discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Vision Science, Volume 8 is September 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Dong L, Han H, Huang X, Ma G, Fang D, Qi H, Han Z, Wang L, Tian J, Vanhaesebroeck B, Zhang G, Zhang S, Lei H. Idelalisib inhibits experimental proliferative vitroretinopathy. Lab Invest 2022;Abstract
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a fibrotic eye disease that develops after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery and open-globe traumatic injury. Idelalisib is a specific inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ. While PI3Kδ is primarily expressed in leukocytes, its expression is also considerably high in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which play a crucial part in the PVR pathogenesis. Herein we show that GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiling uncovered strong expression of fibronectin in RPE cells within epiretinal membranes from patients with PVR, and that idelalisib (10 μM) inhibited Akt activation, fibronectin expression and collagen gel contraction induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 in human RPE cells. Furthermore, we discovered that idelalisib at a vitreal concentration of 10 μM, a non-toxic dose to the retina, prevented experimental PVR induced by intravitreally injected RPE cells in rabbits assessed by experienced ophthalmologists using an indirect ophthalmoscope plus a + 30 D fundus lens, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography and histological analysis. These data suggested idelalisib could be harnessed for preventing patients from PVR.
Douglas VP, Flores C, Douglas KA, Strominger MB, Kasper E, Torun N. Oculomotor nerve schwannoma: case series and literature review. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(4):1160-1174.Abstract
Oculomotor nerve schwannomas are rare benign cranial nerve tumors. There are only a limited number of reports on this pathology in the literature, and there are currently no established management guidelines that aid providers in deciding on surgical versus nonsurgical management. We assess the published literature on the topic to identify indications for treatment as well as outcome measures (e.g., local control rates, survival rates, and complication rates) that have been reported as associated with the various treatment modalities. We attempt to develop an algorithm for evaluation and treatment of oculomotor nerve schwannomas in order to establish consensus on how these tumors should be treated.
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Feldman RM, Chuang AZ, Mansberger SL, Tanna AP, Blieden LS, Bell NP, Gross RL, Pasquale LR, Greenfield DS, Liebmann JM, Weinreb RN, Weinreb RN. Outcomes of the Second Aqueous Shunt Implant Versus Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation Treatment Study: A Randomized Comparative Trial. J Glaucoma 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device (SGDD) and transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) in eyes with inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP), despite the presence of a preexisting glaucoma drainage device (GDD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with inadequately controlled IOP, despite medical therapy and a preexisting glaucoma drainage device, were enrolled at 14 clinical centers and randomly assigned to treatment with a SGDD or CPC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical failure was defined as: (1) IOP ≤5 mmHg or >18 mmHg or less than 20% reduction below baseline on maximum tolerated topical ocular hypotensive therapy; (2) reoperation for glaucoma; or (3) loss of light perception. The primary outcome measure was overall success with or without adjunctive medical therapy. RESULTS: Forty-two eyes of 42 participants were randomized to SGDD (n=22) or CPC (n=20). Mean duration of follow-up was 18.6 (±12.1, range 1.1 to 38.6) months. The cumulative success rate was 79% for SGDD and 88% for CPC at 1 year (P=0.63). Although the study was underpowered, no significant differences in IOP, postoperative number of IOP-lowering medications, or adverse events were observed. The number of additional glaucoma surgeries (P=0.003), office visits during the first 3 months (P<0.001), and office visits per month after month 3 (P<0.001) were greater in the SGDD group. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term overall success rates were high with either SGDD or CPC. However, SGDD was associated with more clinic visits and an increased risk of additional glaucoma surgery.
Fickweiler W, Park H, Park K, Mitzner MG, Chokshi T, Boumenna T, Gautier J, Zaitsu Y, Wu I-H, Cavallerano J, Aiello LP, Sun JK, King GL. Elevated Retinol Binding Protein 3 Concentrations Are Associated With Decreased Vitreous Inflammatory Cytokines, VEGF, and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes Care 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To correlate inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitreous and plasma with vitreous retinol binding protein 3 (RBP3), diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity, and DR worsening in a population with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: RBP3, VEGF, and inflammatory cytokines were measured in plasma and vitreous samples (n = 205) from subjects of the Joslin Medalist Study and Beetham Eye Institute. RESULTS: Higher vitreous RBP3 concentrations were associated with less severe DR (P < 0.0001) and a reduced risk of developing proliferative DR (PDR) (P < 0.0001). Higher RBP3 correlated with increased photoreceptor segment thickness and lower vitreous interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and TNF-β (P < 0.05). PDR was associated with lower vitreous interferon-γ and IL-10 and higher VEGF, IL-6, and IL-15 (P < 0.05), but was not associated with their plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Higher vitreous RBP3 concentrations are associated with less severe DR and slower rates of progression to PDR, supporting its potential as a biomarker and therapeutic agent for preventing DR worsening, possibly by lowering retinal VEGF and inflammatory cytokines.
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Galetta K, Ryan S, Manzano G, Chibnik LB, Balaban D, Prasad S, Chwalisz BK, Salazar-Camelo A, Conway S, Levy M, Matiello M. Treatment outcomes of first-ever episode of severe optic neuritis. Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022;66:104020.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Severe optic neuritis (ON) is an acute inflammatory attack of the optic nerve(s) leading to severe visual loss that may occur in isolation or as part of a relapsing neuroinflammatory disease, such neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD), or more rarely multiple sclerosis (MS). In cases of first-ever severe ON of uncertain etiology best treatment strategies remain unclear. METHODS: We reviewed records of all patients with a documented diagnosis of ON between 2004 and 2019 at Mass General Brigham (MGB) and Johns Hopkins University (JHU) hospitals. Out of 381 patients identified, 90 (23.6%) satisfied the study criteria for severe ON with visual acuity (VA) equal to or worse than 20/200 (logMAR=1) at nadir in the affected eye and had sufficient follow-up data. Treatment strategies with corticosteroids only or treatment escalation with therapeutic plasma exchange (PLEX) after steroids were compared and evaluated for differences in visual outcomes at follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients with severe optic neuritis, 71(78.9%) received corticosteroids only, and 19 (17.0%) underwent PLEX following corticosteroids. Of the 71 patients who received steroids without escalation to PLEX, 30 patients (42.2%) achieved complete recovery (VA 20/20 on the affected eye), whereas 35 (49.3%) had a partial recovery and 6 (8.4%) had no recovery. Among the 19 corticosteroid non-responders patients who underwent escalation treatment, 13 (68.4%) made complete recovery, 6 (31.6%) had partial visual recoveries (p=0.0434). The median delta logMAR of patients who underwent escalation of care was -1.2 compared with 2.0 for the ones who did not (p=0.0208). A change of delta logmar 2.0 is equivalent of going from hand motion to light perception and the positive delta value refers to intra-attack worsening. Other than not responding to steroids, patients who underwent PLEX tended to have more severe ON with significantly worse nadir visual acuity compared with those who received corticosteroids alone (logMAR 3.12 (min 2.0 - max 5.0) vs. 2.17 (min 1.3 - max 3.0); p=0.004). CONCLUSION: In our cohort of first-ever severe optic neuritis of unknown etiology, patients that did not respond adequately to corticosteroids benefited from treatment escalation to PLEX, followed in most cases by Rituximab, regardless of final etiology. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the best treatment strategies.
Georgakopoulos CD, Tsapardoni FN, Makri OE, Vavvas D. TWO-YEAR RESULTS OF INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS OF AFLIBERCEPT IN COATS DISEASE: A CASE REPORT. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2022;16(4):473-478.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report long-term results of treatment with intravitreal injections of aflibercept in a newly diagnosed case of Coats disease. METHODS: An 18-year-old man presented to the retina clinic of our hospital complaining of blurred vision in the right eye for the past 3 months. His past medical and ocular history were unremarkable. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundoscopy in the right eye revealed extensive macular edema with a circinate ring of hard exudates in the posterior pole temporally to the macula. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated macular edema with subretinal fluid. Peripheral telangiectasias and light bulb aneurysms in the inferior temporal arcade as well as in the nasal far periphery were found in the right eye in fluorescein angiography, confirming the diagnosis of stage 2B Coats disease. The left eye was normal. RESULTS: The original therapeutic strategy proposed was antivascular endothelial growth factor injections in the right eye, followed by laser photocoagulation. However, the patient did not consent to laser treatment and was treated with aflibercept monotherapy with 8 monthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept, followed by 6 injections every 2 months for a total of 14 injections over a period of 2 years. The best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye improved to 20/25 while optical coherence tomography imaging revealed significant decrease in retinal thickness with resolution of macular edema, and fluorescein angiography demonstrated prominent regression of aneurysms and leakage. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case treated with aflibercept monotherapy, suggesting the significant role of vascular endothelial growth factor in vascular permeability in Coats and supporting the rationale that antivascular endothelial growth factors are a valuable therapeutic option for Coats disease.
Gomez A, Mercado C, Venkateswaran N, de la Sen-Corcuera B, Miller D, Dubovy S, Salero E, Sabater AL. Brief incubation of corneal grafts in activated platelet rich plasma enhances corneal endothelial cell survival and regeneration. Exp Eye Res 2022;220:109100.Abstract
Corneal transplantation is the most frequent organ transplantation worldwide. Unfortunately, corneal graft failure is common and endothelial decompensation is considered the major cause. Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) lack the capacity to reproduce, and perioperative and postoperative endothelial cell loss remains a significant challenge associated with corneal graft viability. Therefore, strategies to preserve CEC density are critical to extend graft survival. Activated platelet rich plasma (aPRP), a product extracted from autologous blood, has both antioxidant and regenerative properties. aPRP eye drops have shown effectiveness in the treatment of corneal pathologies such as ulcers, dry eye, and burns. Our purpose is to determine the protective and regenerative effect of aPRP on corneal grafts by evaluating aPRP's effect on the survival and proliferation of human CECs. Human corneal grafts were incubated in aPRP for 15 min to assess the activation of the CEC pAkt survival pathway as measured by ELISA. Evaluation of the protective effect of aPRP was made using an apoptotic model, which simulated oxidative stress conditions. Expression of apoptotic markers was measured using ELISA and endothelial cell viability was determined by optical microscopy. The CEC proliferation rate was measured in vitro with Ki-67 staining. Corneal graft gross structure was evaluated by Hematoxylin & Eosin and Masson trichrome staining. Our results indicate that a short incubation of human corneal grafts in aPRP protects CECs from apoptosis by upregulating the pAkt survival pathway and promoting CEC proliferation. Additionally, aPRP incubation does not induce histological changes in the grafts. A brief pre-treatment of human corneal grafts in aPRP may be beneficial for transplant longevity, as it protects CECs from apoptosis by upregulating intracellular survival pathways and promoting proliferation. In addition, this approach appears to be safe and has the potential to improve surgical outcomes following corneal transplantation.

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