Femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) offers a level of precision, accuracy and customization that is not possible with manual phacoemulsification (MP). With the increase of patient expectations and premium intraocular lens utilization in the era of refractive cataract surgery, predictability and accuracy has become of utmost importance. FLACS has four main functions: creation of a consistently sized round capsulotomy, treatment of keratometric astigmatism with arcuate incisions, construction of clear corneal incisions, and fragmentation and/or softening of the lens. However, FLACS may have limitations due to suction loss, incomplete capsulotomy or poor pupillary dilation. Patient selection and surgeon experience is critical. This review article will focus on the various platforms available for FLACS, the steps in cataract surgery it can perform, and overall advantages and limitations of the technology.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting predominantly peripheral lesion (PPL) grading, such as qualitative versus quantitative assessment, device type, and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in ultrawide field color images (UWF-CIs). Methods: Patients with DR had UWF-CI qualitatively graded for PPL using standardized techniques and had hemorrhages/microaneurysms (H/Mas) individually annotated for quantitative PPL grading on two different ultrawide field devices. Results: Among 791 eyes of 481 patients, 38.2% had mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 34.7% had moderate NPDR, and 27.1% had severe NPDR to proliferative DR (PDR). The overall agreement between qualitative and quantitative PPL grading was moderate (ĸ = 0.423, P < 0.001). Agreement rates were fair in eyes with mild NPDR (ĸ = 0.336, P < 0.001) but moderate in eyes with moderate NPDR (ĸ = 0.525, P < 0.001) and severe NPDR-PDR (ĸ = 0.409, P < 0.001). Increasing thresholds for quantitative PPL determination improved agreement rates, with peak agreements at H/Ma count differences of six for mild NPDR, five for moderate NPDR, and nine for severe NPDR-PDR. Based on ultrawide field device type (California = 412 eyes vs. 200Tx = 379 eyes), agreement between qualitative and quantitative PPL grading was moderate for all DR severities in both devices (ĸ = 0.369-0.526, P < 0.001) except for mild NPDR on the 200Tx, which had poor agreement (ĸ = 0.055, P = 0.478). Conclusions: Determination of PPL varies between standard qualitative and quantitative grading and is dependent on NPDR severity, device type, and magnitude of lesion differences used for quantitative assessment. Translational Relevance: Prior UWF studies have not accounted for imaging and grading factors that affect PPL, such factors need to be reviewed when assessing thresholds for DR progression rates.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of retinal nonperfusion and diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity with location of vascular caliber measurement using ultrawide field (UWF) imaging. DESIGN: Retrospective image review. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: All images from subjects with same-day UWF fluorescein angiography (FA) and color imaging were evaluated. Predominantly peripheral lesions (PPL) and DR severity were graded from UWF color images. Nonperfusion was quantified using UWF-FA in defined retinal regions [posterior pole (PP), mid-periphery (MP), far-periphery (FP)]. Retinal vessel calibers were measured at an optic disc centered inner and outer zone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nonperfusion index (NPI) in the PP, MP and FP. Mean arteriole and venule diameter in the inner and outer zones. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-five eyes of 193 patients (24.9% mild nonproliferative DR [NPDR], 22.8% moderate NPDR, 37.5% severe NPDR and 14.7% proliferative DR [PDR]) were reviewed. No significant associations between inner zone arteriolar diameter and retinal NPI overall or in any retinal region. In the outer zone, eyes with thinnest arteriolar calibers (quartile 1) were associated with a 1.7- to 2.4-fold nonperfusion increase across all retinal regions compared to the remaining eyes (P = 0.002 [PP] to 0.048 [FP]). In the outer zone, the percentage of eyes in the thinnest quartile of retinal arteriolar diameter increased with worsening DR severity (mild NPDR: 10% vs PDR: 31%, P = 0.007). This association was not observed when measured within the inner zone (P = 0.129). All venular caliber associations were not statistically significant when corrected for potentially confounding factors. Thinner outer zone retinal arteriolar caliber (quartile 1) was more common in eyes with PPL compared to eyes without PPL (34.1% vs 20.8%, P = 0.017) as were thicker outer venular calibers (quartile 4) (33% vs 21.3%, P = 0.036). Presence of PPL was associated with thinner outer zone arteriolar caliber (109.7 ± 26.5μm vs 123.0 ± 29.5μm, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The association of vascular caliber with nonperfusion and DR severity differs based upon the retinal location at which vascular caliber is measured. Peripheral arterial narrowing is associated with increasing nonperfusion, worsening DR severity and presence of PPL. In contrast, inner zone retinal arteriolar caliber is not associated with these findings.
PURPOSE: To present a protocol for audiologic monitoring in the setting of teprotumumab treatment of thyroid eye disease, motivated by 4 cases of significant hearing loss, and review the relevant literature. METHODS: Cases of hearing loss in the setting of teprotumumab were retrospectively elicited as part of a multi-institutional focus group, including oculoplastic surgeons, a neurotologist and an endocrinologist. A literature review was performed. RESULTS: An aggregate of 4 cases of teprotumumab-associated hearing loss documented by formal audiologic testing were identified among 3 clinicians who had treated 28 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Teprotumumab may cause a spectrum of potentially irreversible hearing loss ranging from mild to severe, likely resulting from the inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor pathway. Due to the novelty of teprotumumab and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of its effect on hearing, the authors endorse prospective investigations of hearing loss in the setting of teprotumumab treatment. Until the results of such studies are available, the authors think it prudent to adopt a surveillance protocol to include an audiogram and tympanometry before, during and after infusion, and when prompted by new symptoms of hearing dysfunction.
PURPOSE: To review the available evidence comparing the effectiveness of extraocular muscle botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) injection with eye muscle surgery for restoring ocular alignment in children and adults with nonparalytic, nonrestrictive horizontal strabismus. METHODS: Literature searches in the PubMed Cochrane Library, and clinical trial databases with no date restrictions, but limited to articles published in English, were conducted last on January 10, 2021. The searches yielded 515 citations, 40 of which were reviewed in full text by the first author. Fourteen articles met the criteria for inclusion (randomized or nonrandomized comparative studies, or case series with a minimum 50 patients; evaluating extraocular muscle BTXA injection for initial or repeat treatment of horizontal, nonparalytic, nonrestrictive strabismus; with at least 6 months of follow-up) and were graded by a methodologist. RESULTS: The 14 included studies consisted of 2 randomized clinical trials, 3 nonrandomized comparative studies, and 9 case series. All 5 comparative studies were graded level II evidence, and the 9 case series were graded level III evidence. Successful motor outcomes after BTXA injection were relatively consistent across 4 of the 5 comparative studies at 60%, when adjustment was made for differential selection bias in 1 of the studies. In the 4 studies, successful motor outcomes after surgery ranged from 66% to 77% with a mean follow-up of 23 to 75 months, and the outcomes were not significantly different from those after BTXA injection. In the fifth level II study, success was significantly higher with BTXA injection than with surgery (94% vs. 72%). The level III BTXA case series demonstrated higher motor success rates of 87% to 89% when children were treated in 2 muscles at a time; rates were lower in adults treated with single-muscle BTXA injection. CONCLUSIONS: Extraocular muscle injection of BTXA achieves a high rate of successful motor alignment, comparable with that achieved after eye muscle surgery for nonparalytic, nonrestrictive horizontal strabismus. Good alignment may require multiple BTXA injections, and it is not yet clear whether sensory outcomes are equivalent for BTXA injections versus eye muscle surgery in young children.
Purpose: Localization of the lacrimal sac is a critical step during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endo-DCR). A "light pipe" can be used to transilluminate the lacrimal sac endonasally. We hypothesized that this may misguide the surgeon learning endo-DCR to create an osteotomy mostly posterior to the maxillary line if only the bone overlying the transillumination was to be removed, as the thinner lacrimal bone will transmit light more readily than the thicker maxillary bone of the frontal process of the maxilla that forms the anterior lacrimal sac fossa.Methods: The charts of 32 patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction in whom a lighted system was used during endo-DCR at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from April 2015 through October 2016 were reviewed. Patients with prior history of lacrimal surgery or trauma directly to the lacrimal sac fossa were excluded. Location of the maximal point of transillumination in relation to the maxillary line was observed and noted intraoperatively.Results: Of a total of 39 endo-DCR surgeries performed, the intraoperative transillumination point was entirely posterior to the maxillary line in 32 instances (82%).Conclusions: Use of an endocanalicular light pipe preferentially illuminates posterior to the maxillary line endonasally. The anterior lacrimal sac fossa (maxillary line and anterior as visualized endonasally) is rarely transilluminated, likely due to thicker bone in that region. Surgeons learning how to perform endo-DCR using a light pipe should be aware of this phenomenon.
PURPOSE: To review home- and office-based vergence and accommodative therapies for treatment of convergence insufficiency (CI) in children and young adults up to 35 years of age. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted through October 2020 in the PubMed database for English-language studies. The combined searches yielded 359 abstracts, of which 37 were reviewed in full text. Twelve of these were considered appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: Of the 12 studies included in this assessment, 8 were graded as level I evidence, 2 were graded as level II evidence, and 2 were graded as level III evidence. Two of the level I studies included older teenagers and young adults; the remainder of the studies exclusively evaluated children. Two randomized controlled trials found that office-based vergence and accommodative therapies were effective in improving motor outcomes in children with symptomatic CI. However, the studies reported conflicting results on the efficacy of office-based therapy for treating symptoms of CI. Data were inconclusive regarding the effectiveness of home-based therapies (including pencil push-ups and home computer therapy) compared with home placebo. In young adults, office-based vergence and accommodative therapies were not superior to placebo in relieving symptoms of CI. CONCLUSIONS: Level I evidence suggests that office-based vergence and accommodative therapies improve motor outcomes in children with symptomatic CI, although data are inconsistent regarding symptomatic relief. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether home-based therapies are effective.
AIMS: To assess knowledge of diabetes and acceptance of eye care among people with diabetes in rural China, to improve service uptake. METHODS: Population-based study of people in Guangdong, China, with glycosylated haemoglobin A1c≥6.5% and/or known history of diabetes. Between August and November 2014, participants answered a questionnaire (based on Delphi process/previous focus groups) on medical history, demographic characteristics, self-rated health and vision, knowledge about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, quality of local healthcare, barriers to treatment, likely acceptance of eye exams and treatment, and interventions rated most likely to improve service uptake. Presenting visual acuity was assessed, fundus photography performed and images graded by trained graders. Potential predictors of accepting care were evaluated and confounders adjusted for using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 562 people (9.6% (256/5825), mean age 66.2±9.84 years, 207 (36.8%) men) had diabetes, 118 (22.3%) previously diagnosed. 'Very likely' or 'likely' acceptance of laser treatment (140/530=26.4%) was lower than for eye exams (317/530=59.8%, p<0.001). Predictors of accepting both exams and laser included younger age (p<.001) and prior awareness of diabetes diagnosis (p=0.004 and p=0.035, respectively). The leading barrier to receiving diabetes treatment was unawareness of diagnosis (409/454, 97.2%), while interventions rated most likely to improve acceptance of eye exams included reimbursement of travel costs (387/562, 73.0%), video or other health education (359/562, 67.7%) and phone call reminders (346/562, 65.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Improving diagnosis of diabetes, along with incentives, education and communication strategies, is most likely to enhance poor acceptance of diabetic eye care in this setting.
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical relevance of prelaminar wedge defects (PLWDs) detected by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, PLWDs were defined as triangular-shaped defects at the surface of the optic nerve prelaminar tissue, not adjacent to blood vessels, present on cross-sectional SS-OCT scans. Two observers masked to diagnosis independently reviewed scans to detect PLWDs and lamina cribrosa defects. History of disc hemorrhage, occurring within 2 years prior to imaging, was obtained from chart review. One eye per subject was randomly selected. Two-sided t-tests, analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to explore demographic and clinical features associated with PLWDs. RESULTS: 40 POAG and 23 control eyes were included. PLWDS were found in 27.5% of POAG (n = 11) and 4.3% of controls (n = 1, p = .04). Eyes with repeat SS-OCT imaging (7 POAG and 0 controls) had persistent PLWDs. More POAG eyes with PLWDs had a history of disc hemorrhage (45.5%) than POAG eyes without PLWDs (3.4%, p = .004). On multivariable analysis, compared to POAG without PLWDs, POAG with PLWDs had increased odds of observed disc hemorrhage (OR = 21.6, 95% CI, 2.2-589.0, p = .02) after adjusting for age, gender, visual field mean deviation and maximum intraocular pressure (IOP). POAG with PLWDs had more lamina cribrosa defects (45.5%) than POAG without PLWDs (3.4%, p = .01) but did not differ significantly from controls (8.7%, p = .07). Compared to all patients without PLWDs, patients with PLWDs had increased odds of having lamina cribrosa defects (OR = 44.8; 95% CI, 6.3-703.6, p < .001) after adjusting for age, gender, and maximum IOP. CONCLUSIONS: PLWDs were more frequently found in POAG than control eyes and were associated with a history of disc hemorrhage and lamina cribrosa defects. PLWDs may be a useful imaging biomarker of glaucomatous damage.
Purpose: To report two cases of thyroid eye disease (TED) associated compressive optic neuropathy (CON) that resolved after treatment with teprotumumab. Observation: Two patients presented with active TED resulting in mild CON with the typical corresponding visual field (VF) defects. Both patients were initiated on intravenous (IV) corticosteroid therapy but despite treatment had persistent VF defects. Both patients were then treated with teprotumumab and demonstrated marked clinical improvement and complete resolution of TED-CON VF defects early in their infusion course. Conclusions and importance: These cases suggest that teprotumumab can be a rapid and effective treatment for TED-CON, and raises the question of whether it may be superior to IV corticosteroid therapy.
BACKGROUND: Photophobia is a potentially debilitating symptom often found in dry eye disease (DE), migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We conducted a review of the literature via a PubMed search of English language articles with a focus on how photophobia may relate to a shared pathophysiology across DE, migraine and TBI. RESULTS: DE, migraine and TBI are common conditions in the general population, are often comorbid, and share photophobia as a symptom. Across the three conditions, neural dysregulation of peripheral and central nervous system components is implicated in photophobia in various animal models and in humans. Enhanced activity of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is closely linked to photophobia. Current therapies for photophobia include glasses which shield the eyes from specific wavelengths, botulinum toxin, and inhibition of CGRP and its receptor. Many individuals have persistent photophobia despite the use of these therapies, and thus, development of new therapies is needed. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of photophobia in DE, migraine and TBI suggests shared trigeminothalamic pathophysiologic mechanisms, as explained by central neuroplasticity and hypersensitivity mediated by neuropeptide CGRP. Treatment strategies which target neural pathways (ie, oral neuromodulators, transcutaneous nerve stimulation) should be considered in patients with persistent photophobia, specifically in individuals with DE whose symptoms are not controlled with traditional therapies.
Background: To describe genetic molecular findings in individuals with congenital nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia, and subnormal vision, with normal ocular pigmentation (absence of diffuse transillumination or transparent retinal pigment typical for albinism).Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter study of ophthalmic, systemic, and genetic features, as collected from medical records of patients diagnosed with infantile nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia. Ophthalmic findings include best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), biomicroscopic examination, cycloplegic refraction, retinal examination, macular optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. Genetic information was retrieved from the participating genetic clinics and included ethnicity and molecular diagnosis.Results: Thirty-one individuals met the inclusion criteria and had a secure molecular diagnosis. Mutations in two genes predominated, constituting 77.4% of all the represented genes: SLC38A8 (45.1%) and PAX6 (32.3%). Seventy-eight percent of the subjects who had a measurable BCVA had moderate and severe visual impairment (range 20/80 to 20/270). Most patients with a mutation in SLC38A8 had mild to moderate astigmatism, while most patients with PAX6 mutation had moderate and severe myopia. Patients in the PAX6 group had variable degrees of anterior segment manifestations.Conclusion: In our cohort, the main causative genes for congenital nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia in normally pigmented eyes were SLC38A8 and PAX6. A mild phenotype in PAX6 mutations may be an under-diagnosed cause of nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia. Reaching an accurate genetic diagnosis is essential for both the patients and their family members. This enables predicting disease prognosis, tailoring correct follow-up, and providing genetic counseling and family planning to affected families.
Reversal of optic nerve head (ONH) cupping has been considered an important clinical observation that signals surgical success and control of intraocular pressure (IOP) in childhood glaucoma. Many theories based on elasticity of pediatric eyes have been proposed, including anterior movement of the elastic lamina cribrosa or shrinkage of the scleral canal. The relationship between these factors and axonal loss is unclear when reversal of cupping has been observed. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) optical coherence tomography (OCT) can help to clarify this. We present a case series of 4 pediatric patients with secondary glaucoma that demonstrated ONH cupping reversal with pre- and postoperative clinical images and RNFL OCT.
PURPOSE: To report a case of 16-month-old boy with a novel variant TSPAN12 gene-presenting as unilateral myopia, pediatric cataract, and heterochromia in a patient with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. OBSERVATION: A 16-month-old otherwise healthy boy was referred to Boston Children's Hospital for evaluation of strabismus. Ocular examination revealed intermittent esotropia, left hypotropia, and limited left eye elevation in both adduction and abduction. Full cycloplegic hyperopic correction of +3.50 diopters (D) over both eyes was given to the patient. Over several months, refraction of the right eye showed progressive myopia (-6.00 D) with new onset iris heterochromia. Fundus examination showed there was a large area of chorioretinal atrophy with abrupt ending of the blood vessels; anterior to the ora serrata there were diffuse vitreous bands and veils that reached the lens anteriorly in direct contact with the lenticular opacity. A novel heterozygous nonsense likely pathogenic variant was identified in the TSPAN12 gene (NM_012338.3) c.315T>A (p.Cys105Ter) confirming the diagnosis of FEVR. CONCLUSION AND IMPORTANCE: Asymmetric FEVR rarely present with unilateral axial myopia however association with acquired heterochromia and cataract has never been reported. We report a case of FEVR caused by a novel TSPAN12 likely pathogenic nonsense variant presenting as unilateral progressive myopia, acquired heterochromia, and pediatric cataract.
Freitag SK, Yen MT. Reply. Ophthalmology 2021;128(6):e29-e30.
Conventional eye drops have several limitations, including the need for multiple applications per dose, hourly based dosage regiments, and suboptimal ocular bioavailability (<5%). The efficacy of topical ophthalmic medications can be significantly improved by controlling their contact time with the adherent mucin layer and by inducing sustained release properties, thus allowing for a prolonged contact time of the drug with the ocular tissues, which eventually will lead to improved drug bioavailability and a significant decrease in the frequency of eyedrop instillation. In this review, we critically highlight recent and innovative nanodrug delivery platforms, with a primary focus on the integration of nanotechnology, biomaterials, and polymer chemistry to facilitate precise spatial and temporal control over sustained drug release to the cornea.
Purpose: To present a case of adult onset asthma with periocular xanthogranuloma (AAPOX), and discuss existing literature on adult orbital xanthogranulomatous diseases (AOXGDs) and their treatment. Observations: A 63 year old male presented with progressive bilateral eyelid swelling with overlying yellow plaques associated with asthma. CT scan showed periorbital swelling with enlargement of the superior and lateral rectus muscles bilaterally. Biopsy demonstrated orbital xanthogranulomatous disease with increased IgG4 plasma cells. The patient was treated with intralesional triamcinolone, oral prednisone, and cyclophosphamide without significant improvement. Surgical debulking was eventually performed which improved his external symptoms until he was lost to follow up 15 months later. Conclusions and Importance: AOXGDs are a group of rare infiltrative diseases of the eyelids and orbit that can be associated with significant systemic morbidities. While they all have similar underlying histopathologic features, appreciating the clinical difference between these diseases is important in understanding patient prognosis and ensuring appropriate clinical monitoring. There is also growing research demonstrating that AAPOX, along with other AOXGDs, may represent part of a continuum of IgG4 related disease, similar to what is seen in this case. There is currently no reliably effective treatment for AOXGDs, and additional research into the management of these diseases is necessary.
We report the sensitivity and specificity of van Herick (VH) grading in detecting gonioscopically-defined primary angle closure suspects (PACS) among subjects screened for participation in a population-based trial in southern China. A cut-off of VH≤25% was found to have sensitivity and specificity rates of 98.2% and 25.9%, respectively. Rates were adjusted for missing gonioscopy data, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 92.5% and 61.5%, respectively.