PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal subbasal nerve plexus by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) following punctal occlusion in patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with grade 3 or 4 severity of DED based on Delphi Panel dry eye severity grading scheme were enrolled in the study. Permanent inferior punctal occlusion was performed. A comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, including Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival Rose bengal staining, Schirmer's test, and corneal sensation by Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry, were performed at baseline, and 1 and 3 months after punctal occlusion. Furthermore, density and number of corneal subbasal nerves were evaluated by IVCM. RESULTS: Forty-one eyes of 23 patients with a mean age of 46.3 ± 9.0 years were enrolled. Corneal fluorescein staining, Rose bengal staining, and TBUT significantly improved at 3 months following punctal occlusion (p < .015). Corneal esthesiometry significantly increased at both postoperative visits (p < .03), and OSDI scores improved only at 3-month follow-up (p < .005). Nerve density and total number significantly increased 3 months after punctal occlusion (p < .045). Baseline nerve density had significant correlations with TBUT, fluorescein staining, Rose bengal staining (p < .012), but not with esthesiometry, Schirmer scores, or OSDI scores (p > .329). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal subbasal nerve density and total number increased following punctal occlusion in patients with moderate to severe DED. These findings were associated with improvements in corneal sensation, and signs and symptoms of DED. This emphasizes the effect of punctal occlusion in regeneration of corneal subbasal nerve plexus.
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a novel imaging modality for the diagnosis of chorioretinal diseases. A number of FDA-approved OCT-A devices are currently commercially available, each with unique algorithms and scanning protocols. Although several published studies have compared different combinations of OCT-A machines, there is a lack of agreement on the consistency of measurements across OCT-A devices. Therefore, we conducted a prospective quantitative comparison of four available OCT-A platforms. METHODS: Subjects were scanned on four devices: Optovue RTVue-XR, Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 module, Zeiss Plex Elite 9000 Swept-Source OCT, and Topcon DRI-OCT Triton Swept-Source OCT. 3 mm × 3 mm images were utilized for analysis. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area was separately and independently measured by two investigators. Fractal dimension (FD), superficial capillary plexus (SCP), and deep capillary plexus (DCP) vessel densities (VD) were calculated from binarized images using the Fiji image processing software. SCP and DCP VD were further calculated after images were skeletonized. Repeated measures ANOVA, post hoc tests, and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen healthy eyes from sixteen patients were scanned on the four devices. Images of five eyes from the Triton device were excluded due to poor image quality; thus, the authors performed two sets comparisons, one with and one without the Triton machine. FAZ area showed no significant difference across devices with an ICC of > 95%. However, there were statistically significant differences for SCP and DCP VD both before and after skeletonization (p < 0.05). Fractal analysis revealed no significant difference of FD at the SCP; however, a statistically significant difference was found for FD at the DCP layer (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that FAZ measurements were consistent across all four devices, while significant differences in VD and FD measurements existed. Therefore, we suggest that for both clinical follow-up and research studies, FAZ area is a useful parameter for OCT-A image analysis when measurements are made on different machines, while VD and FD show significant variability when measured across devices.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a novel approach to determine the refractive target for patients undergoing cataract surgery who are dependent on therapeutic scleral lenses, to avoid the need for postoperative scleral lens replacement. METHODS: Retrospective single-surgeon case series. The target refraction for intraocular lens selection was determined by considering the effective scleral lens system power. This was calculated by adding the known scleral lens spherical power to the difference between the scleral lens base curve and the average keratometry value. RESULTS: Six eyes from three patients with moderate myopia or emmetropia with ocular graft versus host disease dependent on therapeutic scleral lenses underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens selection based on this method. All six eyes had corrected visual acuities of 20/30 or better while wearing their previous scleral lenses at the postoperative week 1 visit. All six eyes resumed full-time scleral lens use 1 week after phacoemulsification and did not require scleral lens replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Using this method, patients requiring therapeutic scleral lenses can quickly experience optimal vision, comfort, and ocular surface protection 1 week after cataract surgery. These patients can continue to use their existing scleral lenses and avoid the costs and burdens associated with lens replacement.
The conjunctiva can be damaged by numerous diseases with scarring, loss of tissue and dysfunction. Depending on extent of damage, restoration of function may require a conjunctival graft. A wide variety of biological and synthetic substrates have been tested in the search for optimal conditions for ex vivo culture of conjunctival epithelial cells as a route toward tissue grafts. Each substrate has specific advantages but also disadvantages related to their unique physical and biological characteristics, and identification and development of an improved substrate remains a priority. To achieve the goal of mimicking and restoring a biological material, requires information from the material. Specifically, extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from conjunctival tissue. Knowledge of the composition and structure of native ECM and identifying contributions of individual components to its function would enable using or mimicking those components to develop improved biological substrates. ECM is comprised of two components: basement membrane secreted predominantly by epithelial cells containing laminins and type IV collagens, which directly support epithelial and goblet cell adhesion differentiation and growth and, interstitial matrix secreted by fibroblasts in lamina propria, which provides mechanical and structural support. This review presents current knowledge on anatomy, composition of conjunctival ECM and related conjunctival disorders. Requirements of potential substrates for conjunctival tissue engineering and transplantation are discussed. Biological and synthetic substrates and their components are described in an accompanying review.
The conjunctiva is the largest component of the ocular surface. It can be damaged by various pathological processes leading to scarring, loss of tissue and dysfunction. Depending on the amount of damage, restoration of function may require a conjunctival graft. Numerous studies have investigated biological and synthetic substrates in the search for optimal conditions for the ex vivo culture of conjunctival epithelial cells that can be used as tissue grafts for transplantation. These substrates have advantages and disadvantages that are specific to the characteristics of each material; the development of an improved material remains a priority. This review is the second of a two-part review in The Ocular Surface. In the first review, the structure and function of the conjunctiva was evaluated with a focus on the extracellular matrix and the basement membrane, and biological and mechanical characteristics of the ideal substrate with recommendations for further studies. In this review the types of biological and synthetic substrates used for conjunctival transplantation are discussed including substrates based on the extracellular matrix. .
We are currently experiencing a deadly novel viral pandemic with no efficacious, readily available anti-viral therapies to SARS-CoV-2. Viruses will hijack host cellular machinery, including metabolic processes. Here, I provide theory and evidence for targeting the host de novo purine synthetic pathway for broad spectrum anti-viral drug development as well as the pursuit of basic science to mitigate the risks of future novel viral outbreaks.
Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the incidence of CMV retinitis is considered to be lower than the incidence of CMV infection in other organs following allogeneic HSCT. In this study, the incidence and characteristics of CMV retinitis were retrospectively evaluated in recipients of allogeneic HSCT. Ophthalmological screening was performed at the development of ocular symptoms or positive CMV infection using peripheral blood evaluated by pp65 antigenemia or polymerase chain reaction. Of the 514 patients, 13 patients developed CMV retinitis. The median onset of CMV retinitis was day 34 (range, 21-118) post transplant, and the cumulative incidence was 2.5% (95% CI, 1.6-4.2) at 6 months after transplantation. Five patients presented ocular symptoms at the onset. In the remaining eight asymptomatic patients, the diagnosis of CMV retinitis was made by the screening guided by positive CMV infection. All evaluable patients responded to antiviral treatment but three showed incomplete improvement with ocular sequela. Our results suggest that the incidence of CMV retinitis after allogeneic HSCT is not negligible and active ophthalmological screening based not only on symptoms but also positive CMV infection monitoring contributes to the early diagnosis of CMV retinitis.
PURPOSE: To review the published literature assessing the efficacy and safety of in-office probing compared with facility-based probing to treat congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in March 2020 in the PubMed database with no date restrictions and limited to studies published in English and in the Cochrane Library database with no restrictions. The combined searches yielded 281 citations. Of these, 21 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. Four articles were rated level I, 2 articles were rated level II, and 15 articles were rated level III. RESULTS: Treatments consisted of observation, in-office nasolacrimal probing, or facility-based nasolacrimal probing. Success rates and complications or recurrences were recorded from 1 week to 6 months after surgery. Complete resolution of symptoms after surgery ranged from 66% to 95.6% for office-based procedures versus 50% to 97.7% for facility-based procedures. Level I evidence indicated that 66% of cases spontaneously resolved after 6 months of observation in infants between 6 and 10 months of age. Success rates for in-office probing were lower for bilateral than for unilateral NLDO (67% vs. 82%), whereas success rates were high in both unilateral (83%) and bilateral (82%) patients who underwent facility-based probing after 6 months of observation. Cost data did not indicate a definitive cost savings of either treatment method ($562 for in-office vs. $701 for facility-based, depending on cost models predicting spontaneous resolution rates at different ages). No serious adverse events with treatment or anesthesia were reported for either treatment method. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence supports the efficacy and safety of both in-office and facility-based surgery for congenital NLDO. However, treating bilateral NLDO in a facility setting may be better. Because a significant percentage of children achieved resolution spontaneously before 12 months of age, deferring treatment until 12 to 18 months of age is a reasonable option. Additional research may address symptom burden on families and the impact of anesthesia and emotional trauma of nonsedated office probings on patients and may explore further the cost of treatment for each treatment method.
BACKGROUND: Addison disease, corticosteroid withdrawal, and taking synthetic growth hormone have been linked with development of intracranial hypertension, but there is still debate on whether administration of other exogenous hormones plays a role in precipitating elevated pressure. The growing use of hormonal therapy for gender affirmation provides an opportunity to explore this possibility. METHODS: All transgender patients taking exogenous hormones for female-to-male (FTM) and male-to-female (MTF) transitions who were diagnosed with intracranial hypertension at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Massachusetts General Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between August 2014 and November 2018 were included in a retrospective review. Visual acuity, type, and dose of exogenous hormone, visual field testing, clinical exam, results of neuroimaging and lumbar puncture, and treatment modalities were catalogued and analyzed. RESULTS: Six transgender individuals were identified. Five were FTM, with an average hormone treatment time of 18.4 months, and one was MTF who had been treated with hormones for 4 years. The average age of all patients was 23.5 years. The average time between onset of symptoms and presentation was 5 months. Fifty percent of the patients reported pulse-synchronous tinnitus, 83% reported positional headache, 33% reported transient visual obscurations, and 16% reported diplopia. Lumbar punctures performed on 4 of the patients revealed elevated opening pressures and normal cerebrospinal fluid constituents. MRI findings consistent with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) were present in the other 2 patients in whom lumbar puncture was unsuccessful. Four patients were treated with acetazolamide and one was treated with topiramate, with an average follow-up time of 15.7 months. All patients demonstrated bilateral optic disc swelling, and all maintained normal acuity and color vision. Performance on visual field testing was not significantly affected in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest reported series to date of gender-transitioning patients with intracranial hypertension, including one novel MTF conversion. These observations warrant further investigation into the possible link of exogenous hormonal therapy and elevated ICP and any mechanisms or confounders underlying this potential association.
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) on retinal function using dark adaptation in a human subject, and to follow it through resolution of the disease. Patients: Single patient, 50 years old male patient, with acute CSCR in one eye and resolved old CSCR in the other eye. Observations: Observational study in patient with CSCR followed through resolution of the subretinal fluid (52 days). Dark adaptation was assessed using the AdaptDx® (Maculogix Inc.) measured by Rod Intercept time (RIT) in minutes. A normal retinal locus of the same eye on the opposite side of the fovea was used as control. Retinal separation (microns) was measured using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography (Spectralis®, HRA + OCT, Heidelberg engineering). Change in time to dark adapt, were correlated with retinal separation measured in microns, during the course of CSCR.The Rod Intercept time was delayed in the area of detached retina compared to the normal region (control) on presentation with retinal separation (RS) of 104 μm. The Rod Intercept time returned to normal as the retinal separation from retinal pigment epithelium decreased and eventually resolved. Conclusions: This case shows that delay in dark adaptation is proportional to the amount of separation of neurosensory retina from retinal pigment epithelium in CSCR, this may offer a potential of using DA to characterize visual function in CSCR. The association of dark adaptation response with the state of retinal pigment epithelial function and its ability to predict the recurrence of CSCR needs further evaluation.
Optic neuropathies, including glaucoma, are a group of neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. While previous studies demonstrated the potential to replace RGCs with primary neurons from developing mouse retinas, their use is limited clinically. We demonstrate successful transplantation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell (miPSC)/mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived RGCs into healthy and glaucomatous mouse retinas, at a success rate exceeding 65% and a donor cell survival window of up to 12 months. Transplanted Thy1-GFP+ RGCs were able to polarize within the host retina and formed axonal processes that followed host axons along the retinal surface and entered the optic nerve head. RNA sequencing of donor RGCs re-isolated from host retinas at 24 h and 1 week post-transplantation showed upregulation of cellular pathways mediating axonal outgrowth, extension, and guidance. Additionally, we provide evidence of subtype-specific diversity within miPSC-derived RGCs prior to transplantation.
RATIONALE: Metastasis of neoplasms to the eye is quite uncommon. In this case report, we describe a patient where primary esophageal cancer was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of an iris tumor. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-year-old male complained of redness and discomfort in the right eye. DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTIONS: The patient's right eye was diagnosed as idiopathic uveitis, and a topical steroid was administered. As vitreous opacities were observed even after topical therapy, oral prednisolone was administered. On slit-lamp examination of the right eye, an iris mass with neovascularization was seen in the anterior chamber. A metastatic tumor was suspected, and FNAB was performed. Histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Systemic workup revealed esophageal cancer with several metastases. Best-corrected visual acuity decreased to 20/400, and intraocular pressure was 40 mmHg in the right eye. Two iris tumors with neovascularization were present extending into the anterior chamber with posterior iris synechiae and 360 degree peripheral anterior synechiae. Intraocular pressure in the right eye was medically managed with hypotensive eye drops and oral acetazolamide. Iris metastases were treated with 40 Gray of radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy. OUTCOMES: The tumor regressed, but intraocular pressure was refractory to treatment because of 360 degree goniosynechial closure. The right eye lost light perception six months after treatment commenced, and the patient died 9 months after the onset of therapy due to multiple systemic metastases. LESSONS: This is a rare case of masquerade syndrome without systemic symptoms in which FNAB of an iris tumor led to a diagnosis of metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Although the patient lost his sight due to uncontrollable ocular hypertension, systemic chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were initially effective in the treatment of the metastatic iris tumor. As the prognosis of patients with metastatic iris tumors is poor, it is important for ophthalmologists to consider such diagnoses and conduct systemic investigations when necessary.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotypic spectrum of ophthalmic findings in patients with Alagille syndrome. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational, multicenter, study on 46 eyes of 23 subjects with Alagille syndrome. We reviewed systemic and ophthalmologic data extracted from medical records, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, visual fields, electrophysiological assessments, and molecular genetic findings. Results: Cardiovascular abnormalities were found in 83% of all cases (of those, 74% had cardiac murmur), whereas 61% had a positive history of hepatobiliary issues, and musculoskeletal anomalies were present in 61% of all patients. Dysmorphic facies were present in 16 patients, with a broad forehead being the most frequent feature. Ocular symptoms were found in 91%, with peripheral vision loss being the most frequent complaint. Median (range) Snellen visual acuity of all eyes was 20/25 (20/20 to hand motion [HM]). Anterior segment abnormalities were present in 74% of the patients; of those, posterior embryotoxon was the most frequent finding. Abnormalities of the optic disc were found in 52%, and peripheral retinal abnormalities were the most frequent ocular finding in this series, found in 96% of all patients. Fifteen JAG1 mutations were identified in 16 individuals; of those, 6 were novel. Conclusions: This study reports a cohort of patients with Alagille syndrome in which peripheral chorioretinal changes were more frequent than posterior embryotoxon, the most frequent ocular finding according to a number of previous studies. We propose that these peripheral chorioretinal changes are a new hallmark to help diagnose this syndrome.
Purpose: To develop and test machine learning classifiers (MLCs) for determining visual field progression. Methods: In total, 90,713 visual fields from 13,156 eyes were included. Six different progression algorithms (linear regression of mean deviation, linear regression of the visual field index, Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study algorithm, Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study algorithm, pointwise linear regression [PLR], and permutation of PLR) were applied to classify each eye as progressing or stable. Six MLCs were applied (logistic regression, random forest, extreme gradient boosting, support vector classifier, convolutional neural network, fully connected neural network) using a training and testing set. For MLC input, visual fields for a given eye were divided into the first and second half and each location averaged over time within each half. Each algorithm was tested for accuracy, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and class bias with a subset of visual fields labeled by a panel of three experts from 161 eyes. Results: MLCs had similar performance metrics as some of the conventional algorithms and ranged from 87% to 91% accurate with sensitivity ranging from 0.83 to 0.88 and specificity from 0.92 to 0.96. All conventional algorithms showed significant class bias, meaning each individual algorithm was more likely to grade uncertain cases as either progressing or stable (P ≤ 0.01). Conversely, all MLCs were balanced, meaning they were equally likely to grade uncertain cases as either progressing or stable (P ≥ 0.08). Conclusions: MLCs showed a moderate to high level of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and were more balanced than conventional algorithms. Translational Relevance: MLCs may help to determine visual field progression.
Pathogenic variants in INPP5E cause Joubert syndrome (JBTS), a ciliopathy with retinal involvement. However, despite sporadic cases in large cohort sequencing studies, a clear association with non-syndromic inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs) has not been made. We validate this association by reporting 16 non-syndromic IRD patients from ten families with bi-allelic mutations in INPP5E. Additional two patients showed early onset IRD with limited JBTS features. Detailed phenotypic description for all probands is presented. We report 14 rare INPP5E variants, 12 of which have not been reported in previous studies. We present tertiary protein modeling and analyze all INPP5E variants for deleteriousness and phenotypic correlation. We observe that the combined impact of INPP5E variants in JBTS and non-syndromic IRD patients does not reveal a clear genotype-phenotype correlation, suggesting the involvement of genetic modifiers. Our study cements the wide phenotypic spectrum of INPP5E disease, adding proof that sequence defects in this gene can lead to early-onset non-syndromic IRD.
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors increase the risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. OBJECTIVE: Studying individuals with autosomal dominant mutations leading to the early onset of dementia, this study examines the effect of the global cardiovascular risk profile on early cognitive and neuroimaging features of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. METHODS: We studied 85 non-demented and stroke-free individuals, including 20 subjects with Presenilin1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation leading to the early onset of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD), 20 subjects with NOTCH3 mutations leading to cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and to the early onset of vascular dementia, and 45 non-affected family members (non-carriers). All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations and an MRI. The global cardiovascular risk profile was estimated using the office-based Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Profile (FCRP) score. RESULTS: In individuals with CADASIL, a higher FCRP score was associated with a reduced hippocampal volume (B = -0.06, p < 0.05) and an increased severity of cerebral microbleeds (B = 0.13, p < 0.001), lacunes (B = 0.30, p < 0.001), and perivascular space enlargement in the basal ganglia (B = 0.50, p < 0.05). There was no significant association between the FCRP score and neuroimaging measures in ADAD or non-carrier subjects. While the FCRP score was related to performance in executive function in non-carrier subjects (B = 0.06, p < 0.05), it was not significantly associated with cognitive performance in individuals with CADASIL or ADAD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that individuals with CADASIL and other forms of vascular cognitive impairment might particularly benefit from early interventions aimed at controlling cardiovascular risks.
PURPOSE: To characterize diphtheroid corneal infections in eyes in the chronic phase of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). METHODS: Observational case series. RESULTS: Four eyes of 3 patients were included in this review. Each eye presented with persistent corneal epithelial defect with corneal thinning in the chronic phase of SJS/TEN. None of the epithelial defects were associated with stromal infiltration. The corneas were cultured at the time of workup of persistent epithelial defect (3 eyes) or at time of tectonic penetrating keratoplasty after perforation (1 eye). Cultures yielded abundant growth of Corynebacterium spp., including Corynebacterium jeikeium (n = 2), Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum (n = 1), and a multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum isolate (n = 1). The ocular surface was stabilized with surgical intervention (1 eye) or with introduction of fortified topical antibiotic based on laboratory identification and susceptibility testing of the isolated organisms (3 eyes). Numerous risk factors for microbial keratitis were present in all 4 eyes. CONCLUSIONS: In eyes with a persistent corneal epithelial defect in the chronic phase of SJS/TEN, even in the absence of an infiltrate, corneal culture should be undertaken. Recognition and treatment of Corynebacterium spp. as opportunistic pathogens may lead to favorable outcomes in cases of clinically sterile ulceration during the chronic phase of SJS/TEN.
Purpose: To assess microvascular beds in the optic nerve head (ONH), peripapillary tissue, and the nailfold in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) versus controls. Methods: Patients with POAG (n = 22) and controls (n = 12) underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography of ophthalmic microvasculature and nailfold video capillaroscopy of the hand. The main outcomes were vessel density (VD) and blood flow of the ONH, the peripapillary and the nailfold microvasculatures. Results: Patients with POAG were younger than controls (63.5 ± 9.4 vs. 69.9 ± 6.5 years, P = 0.03). Deep ONH VD and blood flow were lower in patients with POAG than controls (39.1% ± 3.5% vs. 43.8% ± 5.7%; 37.8% ± 5.3% vs. 46.0% ± 7.8%, respectively, P < 0.02 for both); similar results were observed with peripapillary VD (37.9 ± 2.6%, 43.4 ± 7.6%, respectively, P = 0.03). Nailfold capillary density and blood flow were lower in patients with POAG than controls (8.8 ± 1.0 vs. 9.8 ± 0.9 capillaries/mm; 19.9 ± 9.4 vs. 33.7 ± 9.8 pL/s, respectively; P < 0.009 for both). After adjusting for age and gender, deep ONH VD and blood flow, peripapillary VD, and nailfold capillary blood flow were lower in POAG than controls (β = -0.04, -0.07, -0.05, -13.19, respectively, P ≤ 0.046 for all). Among all participants, there were positive correlations between deep ONH and nailfold capillary blood flow (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.42, P = 0.02), peripapillary and nailfold capillary density (r = 0.43, P = 0.03), and peripapillary and nailfold capillary blood flow (r = 0.49, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with POAG demonstrated morphologic and hemodynamic alterations in both ophthalmic and nailfold microvascular beds compared to controls. Translational Relevance: The concomitant abnormalities in nailfold capillaries and relevant ocular vascular beds in POAG suggest that the microvasculature may be a target for POAG treatment.