June 2022

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Agrawal R, Ludi Z, Betzler BK, Testi I, Mahajan S, Rousellot A, Kempen JH, Smith JR, McCluskey P, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V. The Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS) calculator-a consensus-based decision tool for initiating antitubercular therapy in ocular tuberculosis. Eye (Lond) 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To introduce the Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS) Calculator, an online clinical scoring system for initiating antitubercular therapy (ATT) in patients with ocular tuberculosis (TB). METHOD: The COTS Calculator was derived from COTS Consensus (COTS CON) data, which has previously published consensus guidelines. Using a two-step Delphi method, 81 experts evaluated 486 clinical scenario-based questions, ranking their likelihood of initiating ATT in each specific scenario. Each scenario was a permutation of the results and/or availability of five following components-clinical phenotype, endemicity, two immunological (tuberculin skin test, interferon-γ release assay) and one radiological (chest X-Ray) test results-and a sixth component further stratifying three of the clinical phenotypes. The median scores and interquartile ranges (IQR) of each scenario were tabulated, representing the expert consensus on whether to initiate ATT in that scenario. The consensus table was encoded to develop the COTS Calculator. RESULTS: The COTS Calculator can be accessed online at: https://www.oculartb.net/cots-calc . The attending physician can select the conditions present in the patient, which will generate a median score from 1 to 5. 114 out of 486 scenarios (24%) deliberated had a median score of 5 indicating expert consensus to initiate ATT. CONCLUSION: The COTS Calculator is an efficient, low-cost, evidence and experience-based clinical tool to guide ATT initiation. While it holds substantial promise in improving standard-of-care for ocular-TB patients, future validation studies can help to as certain its clinical utility and reliability.
Aleman TS, Huckfeldt RM, Serrano LW, Pearson DJ, Vergilio GK, McCague S, Marshall KA, Ashtari M, Doan TM, Weigel-DiFranco CA, Biron BS, Wen X-H, Chung DC, Liu E, Ferenchak K, Morgan JIW, Pierce EA, Eliott D, Bennett J, Comander J, Maguire AM. AAV2-hCHM Subretinal Delivery to the Macula in Choroideremia: Two Year Interim Results of an Ongoing Phase I/II Gene Therapy Trial. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the safety of the subretinal delivery of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector carrying a human CHM-encoding cDNA in choroideremia (CHM). DESIGN: Prospective, open-label, non-randomized, dose-escalation, phase 1/2 clinical trial. SUBJECTS, PARTICIPANTS, AND/OR CONTROLS: Fifteen CHM patients (ages 20-57 years at dosing). METHODS, INTERVENTION, OR TESTING: Patients received uniocular subfoveal injections of low dose (up to 5x1010 vector genome (vg) per eye, n=5) or high dose (up to 1x1011 vg per eye, n=10) AAV2-hCHM. Patients were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for two years with ophthalmic examinations, multimodal retinal imaging and psychophysical testing. MAIN OUTCOME: Measures: visual acuity (VA), perimetry (10-2 protocol), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (SW-FAF). RESULTS: We detected no vector-related or systemic toxicities. VA returned to within 15 letters of baseline in all but two patients (one developed acute foveal thinning, another patient, a macular hole); the rest showed no gross changes in foveal structure at two years. There were no significant differences between intervention and control eyes in mean light-adapted sensitivity by perimetry, or in the lateral extent of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) relative preservation by SD-OCT and SW-FAF. Microperimetry showed non-significant (<3SD of the intervisit variability) gains in sensitivity in some locations and participants in the intervention eye. There were no obvious dose-dependent relationships. CONCLUSIONS: VA was within 15 letters of baseline after the subfoveal AAV2-hCHM injections in 13/15 (87%) of the patients. Acute foveal thinning with unchanged perifoveal function in one patient and macular hole in a second suggests foveal vulnerability to the subretinal injections. Longer observation intervals will help establish the significance of the minor differences in sensitivities and rate of disease progression observed between intervention and control eyes.
Ashkenazy N, Patel NA, Sridhar J, Yannuzzi NA, Belin PJ, Kaplan R, Kothari N, Benitez Bajandas GA, Kohly RP, Roizenblatt R, Pinhas A, Mundae R, Rosen RB, Ryan EH, Chiang A, Chang LK, Khurana RN, Finn AP. Hemi- and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Associated with COVID-19 Infection in Young Patients without Known Risk Factors. Ophthalmol Retina 2022;6(6):520-530.Abstract
PURPOSE: Venous thromboembolic complications have been reported in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We raised awareness regarding a potential temporal association between COVID-19 infection and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, nonconsecutive case series. SUBJECTS: Patients presenting with hemi-RVO (HRVO) or central RVO (CRVO) between March 2020 and March 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 infection, were included. The exclusion criteria were as follows: age >50 years, hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, obesity, underlying hypercoagulable states, and those requiring intubation during hospitalization. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, nonconsecutive case series including patients presenting with hemi-RVO (HRVO) or central RVO (CRVO) between March 2020 and March 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 infection. The exclusion criteria were as follows: age >50 years, hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, obesity, underlying hypercoagulable states, and those requiring intubation during hospitalization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ophthalmic findings, including presenting and final visual acuity (VA), imaging findings, and clinical course. RESULTS: Twelve eyes of 12 patients with CRVO (9 of 12) or HRVO (3 of 12) after COVID-19 infection were included. The median age was 32 years (range, 18-50 years). Three patients were hospitalized, but none were intubated. The median time from COVID-19 diagnosis to ophthalmic symptoms was 6.9 weeks. The presenting VA ranged from 20/20 to counting fingers, with over half (7 of 12) having a VA of ≥20/40. OCT revealed macular edema in 42% of the eyes; of these, 80% (4 of 5) were treated with anti-VEGF injections. Ninety-two percent (11 of 12) had partial or complete resolution of ocular findings at final follow-up. Four eyes (33%) had retinal thinning, as determined using OCT, by the end of the study interval. The final VA ranged from 20/20 to 20/60, with 11 of the 12 (92%) eyes achieving a VA of ≥20/40 at a median final follow-up period of 13 weeks (range, 4-52 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: Although we acknowledge the high seroprevalence of COVID-19 and that a causal relationship cannot be established, we reported this series to raise awareness regarding the potential risk of retinal vascular events due to a heightened thromboinflammatory state associated with COVID-19 infection.
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Bian Y, Ma KK, Hall NE, Alice Lorch TE, Miller JW, Dana R, Yin J. Neurotrophic Keratopathy in the United States: an IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight) Analysis. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) in the US. DESIGN: Retrospective database study. SUBJECTS: 31,915 eyes from 27,483 patients with a diagnosis of NK. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of visits associated with a diagnosis of NK between 2013 and 2018 using the American Academy of Ophthalmology IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic information, prevalence, visual acuity (VA), concomitant diagnosis and procedure codes, risk factors impacting visual acuity closest after NK onset date. RESULTS: Mean age at initial diagnosis of NK was 68.0 (SD=16.0) years. 58.91% of patients were female (p<0.0001). Presentation was unilateral in 58.14%, bilateral in 16.13%, and unspecified in 25.73%. Average 6-year prevalence of NK in the IRIS Registry was 21.34 cases per 100,000 patients. Mean logMAR VA was 0.60 (SD=0.79) prior to diagnosis, and 0.88 (SD=0.94) after diagnosis (p<0.0001). Most common concomitant diagnoses included herpetic keratitis (33.70%), diabetes (31.59%), and corneal dystrophy (14.28%). Common procedures for NK management included the use of amniotic membrane (29.90%), punctal plugs (29.65%), and bandage contact lenses (22.67%). Age, male sex, Black race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, unilateral involvement, concomitant diagnoses of diabetes, corneal transplant, or herpetic keratitis were significantly associated with worse VA. CONCLUSION: Based on the IRIS Registry, the prevalence of NK is 21.34 cases per 100,000 patients. VA was significantly worse after NK diagnosis compared to other time points. NK was most commonly associated with herpetic keratitis and diabetes. Worse VA in NK patients was associated with several demographic characteristics, history of diabetes, corneal transplant, and herpetic keratitis.
Bora K, Wang Z, Yemanyi F, Maurya M, Blomfield AK, Tomita Y, Chen J. Endothelial Cell Transcytosis Assay as an In Vitro Model to Evaluate Inner Blood-Retinal Barrier Permeability. J Vis Exp 2022;(184)Abstract
Dysfunction of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) contributes to the pathophysiology of several vascular eye diseases, often resulting in retinal edema and subsequent vision loss. The inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) is mainly composed of retinal vascular endothelium with low permeability under physiological conditions. This feature of low permeability is tightly regulated and maintained by low rates of paracellular transport between adjacent retinal microvascular endothelial cells, as well as transcellular transport (transcytosis) through them. The assessment of retinal transcellular barrier permeability may provide fundamental insights into iBRB integrity in health and disease. In this study, we describe an endothelial cell (EC) transcytosis assay, as an in vitro model for evaluating iBRB permeability, using human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). This assay assesses the ability of HRMECs to transport transferrin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in receptor- and caveolae-mediated transcellular transport processes, respectively. Fully confluent HRMECs cultured on porous membrane were incubated with fluorescent-tagged transferrin (clathrin-dependent transcytosis) or HRP (caveolae-mediated transcytosis) to measure the levels of transferrin or HRP transferred to the bottom chamber, indicative of transcytosis levels across the EC monolayer. Wnt signaling, a known pathway regulating iBRB, was modulated to demonstrate the caveolae-mediated HRP-based transcytosis assay method. The EC transcytosis assay described here may provide a useful tool for investigating the molecular regulators of EC permeability and iBRB integrity in vascular pathologies and for screening drug delivery systems.
Buch KA, Bouffard MA, Kardon RH, Wills A-MA, Privitera CM, Sharma M, Wray SH. Clinical Correlation Between Vertical Gaze Palsy and Midbrain Volume in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. J Neuroophthalmol 2022;42(2):246-250.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Supranuclear vertical gaze palsies and slowed vertical saccades are characteristic clinic features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The "hummingbird sign," reflective of midbrain atrophy, is a classic radiographic sign of PSP. Correlation between eye movement abnormalities and radiographic findings in PSP has been reported previously. However, due to the use of clinical criteria not commonly employed in neuro-ophthalmic practice and neuroimaging techniques that are not widely available, it remains unclear whether correlation between midbrain structure and characteristic ocular-motor disturbances can be helpful to neuro-ophthalmologists seeking to adjudicate difficult or unusual diagnostic cases. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of probable PSP according to Movement Disorders Society criteria were studied retrospectively. A neuroradiologist calculated brainstem volumes in enrolled participants and normal controls. Spearman correlations were used to correlate the extent of eye movement limitation as assessed by 2 neuro-ophthalmologists with brainstem volumes. RESULTS: Fourteen participants with PSP and 15 healthy controls with similar age and gender distribution were enrolled and evaluated retrospectively. All 14 participants with PSP had undergone MRIs. Midbrain atrophy significantly correlated with the PSP rating scale (P < 0.001). PSP patients had significantly reduced volumes in the midbrain (P -0.0026), tegmentum (0.0001), tectum (0.0001), and medulla (P = 0.0024) compared with normal controls. Notes documenting quantified ocular motor function were available in 7 of 14 participants with PSP. Midbrain atrophy significantly correlated with in the extent of upward gaze limitation (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The severity of upward gaze limitation correlates with the severity of midbrain atrophy in patients with PSP. Recognition of this correlation may help to adjudicate diagnostic dilemmas and guide further evaluation.
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Catomeris AJ, Ballios BG, Sangermano R, Wagner NE, Comander JI, Pierce EA, Place EM, Bujakowska KM, Huckfeldt RM. Novel RCBTB1 variants causing later-onset non-syndromic retinal dystrophy with macular chorioretinal atrophy. Ophthalmic Genet 2022;43(3):332-339.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Variants in RCBTB1 were recently described to cause a retinal dystrophy with only eight families described to date and a predominant phenotype of macular atrophy and peripheral reticular degeneration. Here, we further evaluate the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of biallelic RCBTB1-associated retinal dystrophy in a North American clinic population. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of genetic and clinical features was performed in individuals with biallelic variants in RCBTB1. RESULTS: Three unrelated individuals of French-Canadian descent with rare biallelic RCBTB1 variants were identified. All individuals shared a novel p.(Ser342Leu) missense variant; one patient was homozygous whereas the other two each possessed a second unique novel variant p.(Gln120*) and p.(Pro224Leu). All three had macula-predominant disease with symptom onset in the fifth decade of life. CONCLUSION: This report adds to the genetic diversity of RCBTB1-associated disease. These cases confirm the later-onset, relative to many other retinal dystrophies, and macular focus of disease described in most cases to-date. They are thus a reminder of considering hereditary disease in the differential for later-onset macular atrophy.
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Danford ID, Scruggs BA, Capone A, Trese MT, Drenser KA, Thanos A, Nudleman E, Amphornphruet A, Tipsuriyaporn B, Hubbard BG, Ells A, Harper AC, Goldstein J, Calvo C, Wallace-Carrete C, Berry D, Chang E, Leishman L, Shapiro M, Blair M, Mikhail M, Shields CL, Schwendeman R, Yonekawa Y, Gupta MP, Orlin A, Prakhunhungsit S, Mukai S, Berrocal A, Hartnett EM, Campbell PJ. The Prevalence of Retinal Disease and Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Young Patients with Incontinentia Pigmenti. Ophthalmol Retina 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of retinal disease on fluorescein angiography (FA) in patients with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and to compare the severity of retinal disease in those with and without known central nervous system (CNS) disease. DESIGN: Multi-institutional consecutive retrospective case series SUBJECTS: New patients with a diagnosis of IP seen at the Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Wills Eye Hospital, or Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami from December 2011 to September 2018. METHODS: Detailed ophthalmoscopic examination and FA were recommended to all new patients and performed on every patient who had parental consent. Ophthalmoscopic findings and FA images were graded for severity by two masked graders on a 3-point scale: 0 = no disease, 1 = vascular abnormalities without leakage, 2 = leakage or neovascularization, 3 = retinal detachment. Presence of known CNS disease was documented. Additional cases were obtained from a pediatric retina listserv for examples of phenotypic variation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of eyes noted to have disease on ophthalmoscopy compared with FA. Severity of retinal disease in those with and without known CNS disease. RESULTS: Retinal pathology was detected in 18/35 (51%) by indirect ophthalmoscopy and 26/35 (74%) by FA (p=0.048) in a predominantly pediatric population (median age = 9 months). Ten patients (29%) had known CNS disease at the time of the eye exam. A Wilcoxon ranked sums test indicated that the retinal severity scores for patients with CNS disease (median = 2) were significantly higher than the retinal severity scores for patients without CNS disease (median = 1), z = -2.12, p = 0.034. CONCLUSION: Retinal disease is present in the majority of patients with IP, and the ophthalmoscopic examination is less sensitive than FA for detection of disease. There may be a correlation between the severity of retinal and CNS disease.
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Elhusseiny AM, Saeed HN. Corneal opacification in Sanjad-Sakati syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;26:101503.
Elhusseiny AM, Saeed HN. Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy in a Pediatric Population. Cornea 2022;41(6):734-739.Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and topographic features of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) in children aged 15 years or younger with a long-term follow-up. Retrospective case series. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who were diagnosed with PPCD at Boston Children's Hospital from 1999 to 2020 was performed. Data collected included age at the time of diagnosis, slit lamp findings, cycloplegic refraction, best-corrected visual acuity, central corneal thickness, specular microscopy, and corneal topography findings whenever available. RESULTS: Twenty-seven eyes of 19 patients were included (11 unilateral and 8 bilateral cases). Ten patients were girls (52.6%). Left eye was affected in 14 eyes. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 8.5 ± 3.3 years, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 years. In unilateral cases, there was a statistically significant difference in the endothelial cell density (P = 0.01), coefficient variation (P = 0.03), and hexagonality (P = 0.01) between the affected and the contralateral unaffected eyes. The mean best-corrected visual acuity at initial presentation was 0.8 ± 0.2 compared with 0.9 ± 0.08 in unaffected eyes (P = 0.04). The mean astigmatism was higher in the affected eye (+1.7 diopters) compared with (+1.00) the unaffected eye (P = 0.07). At initial presentation, 7 of 27 eyes had amblyopia, which resolved, either partially or completely, in 5 eyes after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PPCD can present early in children with astigmatism and anisometropic amblyopia. A careful slit lamp examination for children presenting with anisoastigmatism is necessary to diagnose PPCD. Contrary to adults, presentation is often unilateral. Such patients should be followed up regularly with cycloplegic retinoscopy to prevent and treat refractive amblyopia if present.
Engelhard SB, Haripriya A, Namburar S, Pistilli M, Daniel E, Kempen JH. Dropped Nucleus during Cataract Surgery in South India: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2022;29(3):271-278.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine incidence, risk factors for, and outcomes of dropped nucleus (DN) during cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a matched case-control study at the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Out of 184 consecutive DN cases, 171 were included. The case immediately preceding the DN case by the same surgeon served as matched concurrent control. The proportion of cataract surgeries with DN was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 415,487 consecutive cataract surgeries, incidence risk of DN was 0.044% [95% CI 0.038%, 0.051%], or 0.44 per 1,000 surgeries in 52 months. Significant preoperative risk factors were posterior polar cataract (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 21.73, p = .003); suspected loose zonules (aOR 8.85, p < .001); older age (aOR 1.57, p = .001); and presence of diabetes mellitus (aOR 1.79, p = .03). Associated intraoperative complications included zonular dialysis (OR 34.49, p < .001), vitreous disturbance (OR 193.36, p < .001), and posterior capsule rent (OR 384.39, p < .001). Phacoemulsification and manual small incision cataract surgery did not significantly differ in DN incidence. DN most commonly occurred during nucleus removal (35.1%) or during/immediately following hydrodissection (24.0%). Visual outcomes of DN were worse than controls on average, but 51.9% achieved visual acuity 20/40 or better at 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: DN occurred rarely, with low absolute risk even when a strong risk factor was present. Nearly all cases followed posterior capsular rent or zonular dialysis, usually with observed vitreous loss. In spite of increased risk of postoperative complications in the DN group, the majority achieved favorable results.
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Fjaervoll H, Fjaervoll K, Magno M, Moschowits E, Vehof J, Dartt DA, Utheim TP. The association between visual display terminal use and dry eye: a review. Acta Ophthalmol 2022;100(4):357-375.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tear film and ocular surface. It causes ocular symptoms, reduced quality of life and a considerable economic burden on society. Prolonged use of visual display terminals (VDTs) has been suggested as an important risk factor for DED. PURPOSE: This review aims to study the association between DED and VDT use with an emphasis on the prevalence of DED among VDT users and harmful daily duration of VDT use. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted and yielded 57 relevant articles based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were subclassified according to study design. RESULTS: The far majority of the studies showed an association between VDT use and DED or DED-related signs and symptoms. The prevalence of definite or probable DED in VDT and office workers ranged from 26% to 70%, with as few as 1-2 hr of VDT exposure per day being associated with DED. CONCLUSION: VDT use is strongly associated with DED. VDT-associated DED is prevalent, but the exact prevalence needs to be further elucidated using standardized DED diagnosis criteria. Furthermore, a safe lower limit of daily VDT use has yet to be established. More research is needed on the effect of digitalization and digital transformation, which are particularly high during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Gaier ED, Rasool N, Rizzo JF. Sectoral Sparing Associated With a Cilioretinal Artery in Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol 2022;42(2):e514-e516.Abstract
ABSTRACT: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a life-threatening vasculitis occurring in older adults that can cause blindness by ischemia of the choroid, retina, and optic nerve. We report a case of a patient who presented with "occult" GCA with severe anterior ischemic optic neuropathy affecting both optic nerves, delayed choroidal filling, and a concomitant cilioretinal artery occlusion in the left eye. The retinal territory supplied by the affected cilioretinal artery was hypoperfused, yet this retinal territory at least partially corresponded to the only preserved visual field in that eye. The sector of the optic disc corresponding to the emergence of the cilioretinal artery was the only sector spared by pallid edema. This pattern of sectoral sparing associated with a cilioretinal artery has been observed in other patients with GCA and in animal models of posterior ciliary artery occlusion. This case serves as a clear example of an incompletely understood phenomenon in posterior pole circulation in vascular occlusive disease that deserves further study.
Garg I, Uwakwe C, Le R, Lu ES, Cui Y, Wai KM, Katz R, Zhu Y, Moon JY, Li CY, Laíns I, Eliott D, Elze T, Kim LA, Wu DM, Miller JW, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Miller JB. Nonperfusion Area and Other Vascular Metrics by Wider Field Swept-Source OCT Angiography as Biomarkers of Diabetic Retinopathy Severity. Ophthalmol Sci 2022;2(2)Abstract
Purpose: To study the wider field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA) metrics, especially non-perfusion area (NPA), in the diagnosing and staging of DR. Design: Cross-sectional observational study (November 2018-September 2020). Participants: 473 eyes of 286 patients (69 eyes of 49 control patients and 404 eyes of 237 diabetic patients). Methods: We imaged using 6mm×6mm and 12mm×12mm angiograms on WF SS-OCTA. Images were analyzed using the ARI Network and FIJI ImageJ. Mixed effects multiple regression models and receiver operator characteristic analysis was used for statistical analyses. Main Outcome Measures: Quantitative metrics such as vessel density (VD); vessel skeletonized density (VSD); foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, circularity, and perimeter; and NPA in DR and their relative performance for its diagnosis and grading. Results: Among patients with diabetes (median age 59 years), 51 eyes had no DR, 185 eyes (88 mild, 97 moderate-severe) had non-proliferative DR (NPDR); and 168 eyes had proliferative DR (PDR). Trend analysis revealed a progressive decline in superficial capillary plexus (SCP) VD and VSD, and increased NPA with increasing DR severity. Additionally, there was a significant reduction in deep capillary plexus (DCP) VD and VSD in early DR (mild NPDR), but the progressive reduction in advanced DR stages was not significant. NPA was the best parameter to diagnose DR (AUC:0.96), whereas all parameters combined on both angiograms efficiently diagnosed (AUC:0.97) and differentiated between DR stages (AUC range:0.83-0.97). The presence of diabetic macular edema was associated with reduced SCP and DCP VD and VSD within mild NPDR eyes, whereas an increased VD and VSD in SCP among moderate-severe NPDR group. Conclusions: Our work highlights the importance of NPA, which can be more readily and easily measured with WF SS-OCTA compared to fluorescein angiography. It is additionally quick and non-invasive, and hence can be an important adjunct for DR diagnosis and management. In our study, a combination of all OCTA metrics on both 6mm×6mm and 12mm×12mm angiograms had the best diagnostic accuracy for DR and its severity. Further longitudinal studies are needed to assess NPA as a biomarker for progression or regression of DR severity.
Gotti G, Stevenson K, Kay-Green S, Blonquist TM, Mantagos JS, Silverman LB, Place AE. Reply to: Comment on: [Ocular abnormalities at diagnosis and after the completion of treatment in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia]. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022;:e29833.Abstract
Not applicable, as this is a letter to the editor This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Huynh E, Elhusseiny AM, Nihalani BR. Paediatric anterior uveitis management in the USA: a single-centre, 10-year retrospective chart review exploring the efficacy and safety of systemic immunomodulatory therapy. Eye (Lond) 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) in paediatric anterior uveitis. METHODS: Chart review of all patients ≤ 18 years treated for anterior uveitis using a stepladder approach during a 10-year period. The type and duration of IMT were noted. The data were analysed depending on chronicity, aetiology, and type of IMT using appropriate statistical tests. The outcome measures included ocular complications, the need for surgical intervention, and visual outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients (191 eyes) were analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 7 years (interquartile range (IQR): 7.5 years). The median follow-up was 4 years (IQR: 6 years). The most common causes of anterior uveitis were Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (64 patients, 47.8%) and undifferentiated (33 patients, 24.6%). All patients were started on topical steroids and cycloplegics. 94 (70%) patients required IMT. 92 (68.6%) were started on Methotrexate as the first agent, of which 21 (22%) were switched to a different agent owing to side effects. Biologic agent was added in 55 (41%) patients. 21 (16%) required switch to a second biologic agent, 5 (3.7%) to third, and 1 (0.8%) to fourth biologic agent. At the last exam, 11 (8%) had persistent inflammation. 55 (41%) had ocular complications, and 113 (84%) had a best corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/40. CONCLUSION: Early introduction of IMT and switch to different agents may be required to control anterior uveitis and reduce the complications in children. IMT is safe and effective in treating paediatric anterior uveitis.
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Islam MM, Chivu A, AbuSamra DB, Saha A, Chowdhuri S, Pramanik B, Dohlman CH, Das D, Argüeso P, Rajaiya J, Patra HK, Chodosh J. Crosslinker-free collagen gelation for corneal regeneration. Sci Rep 2022;12(1):9108.Abstract
Development of an artificial cornea can potentially fulfil the demand of donor corneas for transplantation as the number of donors is far less than needed to treat corneal blindness. Collagen-based artificial corneas stand out as a regenerative option, having promising clinical outcomes. Collagen crosslinked with chemical crosslinkers which modify the parent functional groups of collagen. However, crosslinkers are usually cytotoxic, so crosslinkers need to be removed from implants completely before application in humans. In addition, crosslinked products are mechanically weak and susceptible to enzymatic degradation. We developed a crosslinker free supramolecular gelation strategy using pyrene conjugated dipeptide amphiphile (PyKC) consisting of lysine and cysteine; in which collagen molecules are intertwined inside the PyKC network without any functional group modification of the collagen. The newly developed collagen implants (Coll-PyKC) are optically transparent and can effectively block UV light, are mechanically and enzymatically stable, and can be sutured. The Coll-PyKC implants support the growth and function of all corneal cells, trigger anti-inflammatory differentiation while suppressing the pro-inflammatory differentiation of human monocytes. Coll-PyKC implants can restrict human adenovirus propagation. Therefore, this crosslinker-free strategy can be used for the repair, healing, and regeneration of the cornea, and potentially other damaged organs of the body.
Ismail AM, Saha A, Lee JS, Painter DF, Chen Y, Singh G, Condezo GN, Chodosh J, San Martín C, Rajaiya J. RANBP2 and USP9x regulate nuclear import of adenovirus minor coat protein IIIa. PLoS Pathog 2022;18(6):e1010588.Abstract
As intracellular parasites, viruses exploit cellular proteins at every stage of infection. Adenovirus outbreaks are associated with severe acute respiratory illnesses and conjunctivitis, with no specific antiviral therapy available. An adenoviral vaccine based on human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) is currently in use for COVID-19. Herein, we investigate host interactions of HAdV-D type 37 (HAdV-D37) protein IIIa (pIIIa), identified by affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) screens. We demonstrate that viral pIIIa interacts with ubiquitin-specific protease 9x (USP9x) and Ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2). USP9x binding did not invoke its signature deubiquitination function but rather deregulated pIIIa-RANBP2 interactions. In USP9x-knockout cells, viral genome replication and viral protein expression increased compared to wild type cells, supporting a host-favored mechanism for USP9x. Conversely, RANBP2-knock down reduced pIIIa transport to the nucleus, viral genome replication, and viral protein expression. Also, RANBP2-siRNA pretreated cells appeared to contain fewer mature viral particles. Transmission electron microscopy of USP9x-siRNA pretreated, virus-infected cells revealed larger than typical paracrystalline viral arrays. RANBP2-siRNA pretreatment led to the accumulation of defective assembly products at an early maturation stage. CRM1 nuclear export blockade by leptomycin B led to the retention of pIIIa within cell nuclei and hindered pIIIa-RANBP2 interactions. In-vitro binding analyses indicated that USP9x and RANBP2 bind to C-terminus of pIIIa amino acids 386-563 and 386-510, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance testing showed direct pIIIa interaction with recombinant USP9x and RANBP2 proteins, without competition. Using an alternative and genetically disparate adenovirus type (HAdV-C5), we show that the demonstrated pIIIa interaction is also important for a severe respiratory pathogen. Together, our results suggest that pIIIa hijacks RANBP2 for nuclear import and subsequent virion assembly. USP9x counteracts this interaction and negatively regulates virion synthesis. This analysis extends the scope of known adenovirus-host interactions and has potential implications in designing new antiviral therapeutics.
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Jiro MC, Sigua M, Ivey SL, Maus M, Hennein L, Dio M, Cocohoba J. Ang Ating Mata: Disparities in Eye Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among Older Adult Filipino-Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area Counties. J Immigr Minor Health 2022;Abstract
Filipino-Americans are the third largest Asian-American population, with a median age of 44. However, there is limited literature focusing on the group's ophthalmic care engagement. Timely eye examinations and outreach are necessary to reduce visual impairment in this older community. To assess eye care knowledge, attitudes, and practices, we conducted a cross-sectional study surveying Filipino-Americans within the nine San Francisco Bay Area counties. Associations between primary outcomes and sociodemographic factors were analyzed using chi-squared analysis and student's T-test. In our convenience sample of 256 surveys, a majority of participants are receiving appropriate eye care; those that lacked health and eye insurance, immigrated and are lower income did not receive optimal eye care. Study participants also demonstrated a lack of awareness of eye diseases and risk factors. Our results suggest that culturally sensitive eye health education materials are lacking and should be made accessible for this large and rapidly growing population.
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Kitazawa K, Inotmata T, Shih K, Hughes J-WB, Bozza N, Tomioka Y, Numa K, Yokoi N, Campisi J, Dana R, Sotozono C. Impact of aging on the pathophysiology of dry eye disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ocul Surf 2022;25:108-118.Abstract
PURPOSE: Dry eye disease (DED) is a common age-related ocular surface disease. However, it is unknown how aging influences the ocular surface microenvironment. This systematic review aims to investigate how the aging process changes the ocular surface microenvironment and impacts the development of DED. METHODS: An article search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. 44 studies reporting on age-related ocular changes and 14 large epidemiological studies involving the prevalence of DED were identified. 8 out of 14 epidemiological studies were further analyzed with meta-analysis. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines were followed. Study-specific estimates (impact of aging on the prevalence of DED) were combined using one-group meta-analysis in a random-effects model. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed the prevalence of DED in the elderly aged 60 years old or older was 5519 of 60107 (9.2%) and the odds ratio of aging compared to younger age was 1.313 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.107, 1.557). With increasing age, the integrity of the ocular surface and tear film stability decreased. Various inflammatory cells, including senescent-associated T-cells, infiltrated the ocular surface epithelium, lacrimal gland, and meibomian gland, accompanied by senescence-related changes, including accumulation of 8-OHdG and lipofuscin-like inclusions, increased expression of p53 and apoptosis-related genes, and decreased Ki67 positive cells. CONCLUSIONS: The aging process greatly impacts the ocular surface microenvironment, consequently leading to DED.

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