OBJECTIVE: To introduce the Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS) Calculator, an online clinical scoring system for initiating antitubercular therapy (ATT) in patients with ocular tuberculosis (TB). METHOD: The COTS Calculator was derived from COTS Consensus (COTS CON) data, which has previously published consensus guidelines. Using a two-step Delphi method, 81 experts evaluated 486 clinical scenario-based questions, ranking their likelihood of initiating ATT in each specific scenario. Each scenario was a permutation of the results and/or availability of five following components-clinical phenotype, endemicity, two immunological (tuberculin skin test, interferon-γ release assay) and one radiological (chest X-Ray) test results-and a sixth component further stratifying three of the clinical phenotypes. The median scores and interquartile ranges (IQR) of each scenario were tabulated, representing the expert consensus on whether to initiate ATT in that scenario. The consensus table was encoded to develop the COTS Calculator. RESULTS: The COTS Calculator can be accessed online at: https://www.oculartb.net/cots-calc . The attending physician can select the conditions present in the patient, which will generate a median score from 1 to 5. 114 out of 486 scenarios (24%) deliberated had a median score of 5 indicating expert consensus to initiate ATT. CONCLUSION: The COTS Calculator is an efficient, low-cost, evidence and experience-based clinical tool to guide ATT initiation. While it holds substantial promise in improving standard-of-care for ocular-TB patients, future validation studies can help to as certain its clinical utility and reliability.
PURPOSE: Venous thromboembolic complications have been reported in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We raised awareness regarding a potential temporal association between COVID-19 infection and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, nonconsecutive case series. SUBJECTS: Patients presenting with hemi-RVO (HRVO) or central RVO (CRVO) between March 2020 and March 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 infection, were included. The exclusion criteria were as follows: age >50 years, hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, obesity, underlying hypercoagulable states, and those requiring intubation during hospitalization. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, nonconsecutive case series including patients presenting with hemi-RVO (HRVO) or central RVO (CRVO) between March 2020 and March 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 infection. The exclusion criteria were as follows: age >50 years, hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, obesity, underlying hypercoagulable states, and those requiring intubation during hospitalization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ophthalmic findings, including presenting and final visual acuity (VA), imaging findings, and clinical course. RESULTS: Twelve eyes of 12 patients with CRVO (9 of 12) or HRVO (3 of 12) after COVID-19 infection were included. The median age was 32 years (range, 18-50 years). Three patients were hospitalized, but none were intubated. The median time from COVID-19 diagnosis to ophthalmic symptoms was 6.9 weeks. The presenting VA ranged from 20/20 to counting fingers, with over half (7 of 12) having a VA of ≥20/40. OCT revealed macular edema in 42% of the eyes; of these, 80% (4 of 5) were treated with anti-VEGF injections. Ninety-two percent (11 of 12) had partial or complete resolution of ocular findings at final follow-up. Four eyes (33%) had retinal thinning, as determined using OCT, by the end of the study interval. The final VA ranged from 20/20 to 20/60, with 11 of the 12 (92%) eyes achieving a VA of ≥20/40 at a median final follow-up period of 13 weeks (range, 4-52 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: Although we acknowledge the high seroprevalence of COVID-19 and that a causal relationship cannot be established, we reported this series to raise awareness regarding the potential risk of retinal vascular events due to a heightened thromboinflammatory state associated with COVID-19 infection.
Dysfunction of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) contributes to the pathophysiology of several vascular eye diseases, often resulting in retinal edema and subsequent vision loss. The inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) is mainly composed of retinal vascular endothelium with low permeability under physiological conditions. This feature of low permeability is tightly regulated and maintained by low rates of paracellular transport between adjacent retinal microvascular endothelial cells, as well as transcellular transport (transcytosis) through them. The assessment of retinal transcellular barrier permeability may provide fundamental insights into iBRB integrity in health and disease. In this study, we describe an endothelial cell (EC) transcytosis assay, as an in vitro model for evaluating iBRB permeability, using human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). This assay assesses the ability of HRMECs to transport transferrin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in receptor- and caveolae-mediated transcellular transport processes, respectively. Fully confluent HRMECs cultured on porous membrane were incubated with fluorescent-tagged transferrin (clathrin-dependent transcytosis) or HRP (caveolae-mediated transcytosis) to measure the levels of transferrin or HRP transferred to the bottom chamber, indicative of transcytosis levels across the EC monolayer. Wnt signaling, a known pathway regulating iBRB, was modulated to demonstrate the caveolae-mediated HRP-based transcytosis assay method. The EC transcytosis assay described here may provide a useful tool for investigating the molecular regulators of EC permeability and iBRB integrity in vascular pathologies and for screening drug delivery systems.
BACKGROUND: Supranuclear vertical gaze palsies and slowed vertical saccades are characteristic clinic features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The "hummingbird sign," reflective of midbrain atrophy, is a classic radiographic sign of PSP. Correlation between eye movement abnormalities and radiographic findings in PSP has been reported previously. However, due to the use of clinical criteria not commonly employed in neuro-ophthalmic practice and neuroimaging techniques that are not widely available, it remains unclear whether correlation between midbrain structure and characteristic ocular-motor disturbances can be helpful to neuro-ophthalmologists seeking to adjudicate difficult or unusual diagnostic cases. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of probable PSP according to Movement Disorders Society criteria were studied retrospectively. A neuroradiologist calculated brainstem volumes in enrolled participants and normal controls. Spearman correlations were used to correlate the extent of eye movement limitation as assessed by 2 neuro-ophthalmologists with brainstem volumes. RESULTS: Fourteen participants with PSP and 15 healthy controls with similar age and gender distribution were enrolled and evaluated retrospectively. All 14 participants with PSP had undergone MRIs. Midbrain atrophy significantly correlated with the PSP rating scale (P < 0.001). PSP patients had significantly reduced volumes in the midbrain (P -0.0026), tegmentum (0.0001), tectum (0.0001), and medulla (P = 0.0024) compared with normal controls. Notes documenting quantified ocular motor function were available in 7 of 14 participants with PSP. Midbrain atrophy significantly correlated with in the extent of upward gaze limitation (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The severity of upward gaze limitation correlates with the severity of midbrain atrophy in patients with PSP. Recognition of this correlation may help to adjudicate diagnostic dilemmas and guide further evaluation.
BACKGROUND: Variants in RCBTB1 were recently described to cause a retinal dystrophy with only eight families described to date and a predominant phenotype of macular atrophy and peripheral reticular degeneration. Here, we further evaluate the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of biallelic RCBTB1-associated retinal dystrophy in a North American clinic population. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of genetic and clinical features was performed in individuals with biallelic variants in RCBTB1. RESULTS: Three unrelated individuals of French-Canadian descent with rare biallelic RCBTB1 variants were identified. All individuals shared a novel p.(Ser342Leu) missense variant; one patient was homozygous whereas the other two each possessed a second unique novel variant p.(Gln120*) and p.(Pro224Leu). All three had macula-predominant disease with symptom onset in the fifth decade of life. CONCLUSION: This report adds to the genetic diversity of RCBTB1-associated disease. These cases confirm the later-onset, relative to many other retinal dystrophies, and macular focus of disease described in most cases to-date. They are thus a reminder of considering hereditary disease in the differential for later-onset macular atrophy.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and topographic features of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) in children aged 15 years or younger with a long-term follow-up. Retrospective case series. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who were diagnosed with PPCD at Boston Children's Hospital from 1999 to 2020 was performed. Data collected included age at the time of diagnosis, slit lamp findings, cycloplegic refraction, best-corrected visual acuity, central corneal thickness, specular microscopy, and corneal topography findings whenever available. RESULTS: Twenty-seven eyes of 19 patients were included (11 unilateral and 8 bilateral cases). Ten patients were girls (52.6%). Left eye was affected in 14 eyes. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 8.5 ± 3.3 years, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 years. In unilateral cases, there was a statistically significant difference in the endothelial cell density (P = 0.01), coefficient variation (P = 0.03), and hexagonality (P = 0.01) between the affected and the contralateral unaffected eyes. The mean best-corrected visual acuity at initial presentation was 0.8 ± 0.2 compared with 0.9 ± 0.08 in unaffected eyes (P = 0.04). The mean astigmatism was higher in the affected eye (+1.7 diopters) compared with (+1.00) the unaffected eye (P = 0.07). At initial presentation, 7 of 27 eyes had amblyopia, which resolved, either partially or completely, in 5 eyes after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PPCD can present early in children with astigmatism and anisometropic amblyopia. A careful slit lamp examination for children presenting with anisoastigmatism is necessary to diagnose PPCD. Contrary to adults, presentation is often unilateral. Such patients should be followed up regularly with cycloplegic retinoscopy to prevent and treat refractive amblyopia if present.
PURPOSE: To determine incidence, risk factors for, and outcomes of dropped nucleus (DN) during cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a matched case-control study at the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Out of 184 consecutive DN cases, 171 were included. The case immediately preceding the DN case by the same surgeon served as matched concurrent control. The proportion of cataract surgeries with DN was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 415,487 consecutive cataract surgeries, incidence risk of DN was 0.044% [95% CI 0.038%, 0.051%], or 0.44 per 1,000 surgeries in 52 months. Significant preoperative risk factors were posterior polar cataract (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 21.73, p = .003); suspected loose zonules (aOR 8.85, p < .001); older age (aOR 1.57, p = .001); and presence of diabetes mellitus (aOR 1.79, p = .03). Associated intraoperative complications included zonular dialysis (OR 34.49, p < .001), vitreous disturbance (OR 193.36, p < .001), and posterior capsule rent (OR 384.39, p < .001). Phacoemulsification and manual small incision cataract surgery did not significantly differ in DN incidence. DN most commonly occurred during nucleus removal (35.1%) or during/immediately following hydrodissection (24.0%). Visual outcomes of DN were worse than controls on average, but 51.9% achieved visual acuity 20/40 or better at 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: DN occurred rarely, with low absolute risk even when a strong risk factor was present. Nearly all cases followed posterior capsular rent or zonular dialysis, usually with observed vitreous loss. In spite of increased risk of postoperative complications in the DN group, the majority achieved favorable results.
BACKGROUND: Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tear film and ocular surface. It causes ocular symptoms, reduced quality of life and a considerable economic burden on society. Prolonged use of visual display terminals (VDTs) has been suggested as an important risk factor for DED. PURPOSE: This review aims to study the association between DED and VDT use with an emphasis on the prevalence of DED among VDT users and harmful daily duration of VDT use. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted and yielded 57 relevant articles based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were subclassified according to study design. RESULTS: The far majority of the studies showed an association between VDT use and DED or DED-related signs and symptoms. The prevalence of definite or probable DED in VDT and office workers ranged from 26% to 70%, with as few as 1-2 hr of VDT exposure per day being associated with DED. CONCLUSION: VDT use is strongly associated with DED. VDT-associated DED is prevalent, but the exact prevalence needs to be further elucidated using standardized DED diagnosis criteria. Furthermore, a safe lower limit of daily VDT use has yet to be established. More research is needed on the effect of digitalization and digital transformation, which are particularly high during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.
ABSTRACT: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a life-threatening vasculitis occurring in older adults that can cause blindness by ischemia of the choroid, retina, and optic nerve. We report a case of a patient who presented with "occult" GCA with severe anterior ischemic optic neuropathy affecting both optic nerves, delayed choroidal filling, and a concomitant cilioretinal artery occlusion in the left eye. The retinal territory supplied by the affected cilioretinal artery was hypoperfused, yet this retinal territory at least partially corresponded to the only preserved visual field in that eye. The sector of the optic disc corresponding to the emergence of the cilioretinal artery was the only sector spared by pallid edema. This pattern of sectoral sparing associated with a cilioretinal artery has been observed in other patients with GCA and in animal models of posterior ciliary artery occlusion. This case serves as a clear example of an incompletely understood phenomenon in posterior pole circulation in vascular occlusive disease that deserves further study.
Purpose: To study the wider field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA) metrics, especially non-perfusion area (NPA), in the diagnosing and staging of DR. Design: Cross-sectional observational study (November 2018-September 2020). Participants: 473 eyes of 286 patients (69 eyes of 49 control patients and 404 eyes of 237 diabetic patients). Methods: We imaged using 6mm×6mm and 12mm×12mm angiograms on WF SS-OCTA. Images were analyzed using the ARI Network and FIJI ImageJ. Mixed effects multiple regression models and receiver operator characteristic analysis was used for statistical analyses. Main Outcome Measures: Quantitative metrics such as vessel density (VD); vessel skeletonized density (VSD); foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, circularity, and perimeter; and NPA in DR and their relative performance for its diagnosis and grading. Results: Among patients with diabetes (median age 59 years), 51 eyes had no DR, 185 eyes (88 mild, 97 moderate-severe) had non-proliferative DR (NPDR); and 168 eyes had proliferative DR (PDR). Trend analysis revealed a progressive decline in superficial capillary plexus (SCP) VD and VSD, and increased NPA with increasing DR severity. Additionally, there was a significant reduction in deep capillary plexus (DCP) VD and VSD in early DR (mild NPDR), but the progressive reduction in advanced DR stages was not significant. NPA was the best parameter to diagnose DR (AUC:0.96), whereas all parameters combined on both angiograms efficiently diagnosed (AUC:0.97) and differentiated between DR stages (AUC range:0.83-0.97). The presence of diabetic macular edema was associated with reduced SCP and DCP VD and VSD within mild NPDR eyes, whereas an increased VD and VSD in SCP among moderate-severe NPDR group. Conclusions: Our work highlights the importance of NPA, which can be more readily and easily measured with WF SS-OCTA compared to fluorescein angiography. It is additionally quick and non-invasive, and hence can be an important adjunct for DR diagnosis and management. In our study, a combination of all OCTA metrics on both 6mm×6mm and 12mm×12mm angiograms had the best diagnostic accuracy for DR and its severity. Further longitudinal studies are needed to assess NPA as a biomarker for progression or regression of DR severity.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) in paediatric anterior uveitis. METHODS: Chart review of all patients ≤ 18 years treated for anterior uveitis using a stepladder approach during a 10-year period. The type and duration of IMT were noted. The data were analysed depending on chronicity, aetiology, and type of IMT using appropriate statistical tests. The outcome measures included ocular complications, the need for surgical intervention, and visual outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients (191 eyes) were analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 7 years (interquartile range (IQR): 7.5 years). The median follow-up was 4 years (IQR: 6 years). The most common causes of anterior uveitis were Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (64 patients, 47.8%) and undifferentiated (33 patients, 24.6%). All patients were started on topical steroids and cycloplegics. 94 (70%) patients required IMT. 92 (68.6%) were started on Methotrexate as the first agent, of which 21 (22%) were switched to a different agent owing to side effects. Biologic agent was added in 55 (41%) patients. 21 (16%) required switch to a second biologic agent, 5 (3.7%) to third, and 1 (0.8%) to fourth biologic agent. At the last exam, 11 (8%) had persistent inflammation. 55 (41%) had ocular complications, and 113 (84%) had a best corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/40. CONCLUSION: Early introduction of IMT and switch to different agents may be required to control anterior uveitis and reduce the complications in children. IMT is safe and effective in treating paediatric anterior uveitis.
Development of an artificial cornea can potentially fulfil the demand of donor corneas for transplantation as the number of donors is far less than needed to treat corneal blindness. Collagen-based artificial corneas stand out as a regenerative option, having promising clinical outcomes. Collagen crosslinked with chemical crosslinkers which modify the parent functional groups of collagen. However, crosslinkers are usually cytotoxic, so crosslinkers need to be removed from implants completely before application in humans. In addition, crosslinked products are mechanically weak and susceptible to enzymatic degradation. We developed a crosslinker free supramolecular gelation strategy using pyrene conjugated dipeptide amphiphile (PyKC) consisting of lysine and cysteine; in which collagen molecules are intertwined inside the PyKC network without any functional group modification of the collagen. The newly developed collagen implants (Coll-PyKC) are optically transparent and can effectively block UV light, are mechanically and enzymatically stable, and can be sutured. The Coll-PyKC implants support the growth and function of all corneal cells, trigger anti-inflammatory differentiation while suppressing the pro-inflammatory differentiation of human monocytes. Coll-PyKC implants can restrict human adenovirus propagation. Therefore, this crosslinker-free strategy can be used for the repair, healing, and regeneration of the cornea, and potentially other damaged organs of the body.
As intracellular parasites, viruses exploit cellular proteins at every stage of infection. Adenovirus outbreaks are associated with severe acute respiratory illnesses and conjunctivitis, with no specific antiviral therapy available. An adenoviral vaccine based on human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) is currently in use for COVID-19. Herein, we investigate host interactions of HAdV-D type 37 (HAdV-D37) protein IIIa (pIIIa), identified by affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) screens. We demonstrate that viral pIIIa interacts with ubiquitin-specific protease 9x (USP9x) and Ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2). USP9x binding did not invoke its signature deubiquitination function but rather deregulated pIIIa-RANBP2 interactions. In USP9x-knockout cells, viral genome replication and viral protein expression increased compared to wild type cells, supporting a host-favored mechanism for USP9x. Conversely, RANBP2-knock down reduced pIIIa transport to the nucleus, viral genome replication, and viral protein expression. Also, RANBP2-siRNA pretreated cells appeared to contain fewer mature viral particles. Transmission electron microscopy of USP9x-siRNA pretreated, virus-infected cells revealed larger than typical paracrystalline viral arrays. RANBP2-siRNA pretreatment led to the accumulation of defective assembly products at an early maturation stage. CRM1 nuclear export blockade by leptomycin B led to the retention of pIIIa within cell nuclei and hindered pIIIa-RANBP2 interactions. In-vitro binding analyses indicated that USP9x and RANBP2 bind to C-terminus of pIIIa amino acids 386-563 and 386-510, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance testing showed direct pIIIa interaction with recombinant USP9x and RANBP2 proteins, without competition. Using an alternative and genetically disparate adenovirus type (HAdV-C5), we show that the demonstrated pIIIa interaction is also important for a severe respiratory pathogen. Together, our results suggest that pIIIa hijacks RANBP2 for nuclear import and subsequent virion assembly. USP9x counteracts this interaction and negatively regulates virion synthesis. This analysis extends the scope of known adenovirus-host interactions and has potential implications in designing new antiviral therapeutics.
Filipino-Americans are the third largest Asian-American population, with a median age of 44. However, there is limited literature focusing on the group's ophthalmic care engagement. Timely eye examinations and outreach are necessary to reduce visual impairment in this older community. To assess eye care knowledge, attitudes, and practices, we conducted a cross-sectional study surveying Filipino-Americans within the nine San Francisco Bay Area counties. Associations between primary outcomes and sociodemographic factors were analyzed using chi-squared analysis and student's T-test. In our convenience sample of 256 surveys, a majority of participants are receiving appropriate eye care; those that lacked health and eye insurance, immigrated and are lower income did not receive optimal eye care. Study participants also demonstrated a lack of awareness of eye diseases and risk factors. Our results suggest that culturally sensitive eye health education materials are lacking and should be made accessible for this large and rapidly growing population.
PURPOSE: Dry eye disease (DED) is a common age-related ocular surface disease. However, it is unknown how aging influences the ocular surface microenvironment. This systematic review aims to investigate how the aging process changes the ocular surface microenvironment and impacts the development of DED. METHODS: An article search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. 44 studies reporting on age-related ocular changes and 14 large epidemiological studies involving the prevalence of DED were identified. 8 out of 14 epidemiological studies were further analyzed with meta-analysis. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines were followed. Study-specific estimates (impact of aging on the prevalence of DED) were combined using one-group meta-analysis in a random-effects model. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed the prevalence of DED in the elderly aged 60 years old or older was 5519 of 60107 (9.2%) and the odds ratio of aging compared to younger age was 1.313 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.107, 1.557). With increasing age, the integrity of the ocular surface and tear film stability decreased. Various inflammatory cells, including senescent-associated T-cells, infiltrated the ocular surface epithelium, lacrimal gland, and meibomian gland, accompanied by senescence-related changes, including accumulation of 8-OHdG and lipofuscin-like inclusions, increased expression of p53 and apoptosis-related genes, and decreased Ki67 positive cells. CONCLUSIONS: The aging process greatly impacts the ocular surface microenvironment, consequently leading to DED.
PURPOSE: To explore stakeholders' perceptions of a school-based vision programme (SBVP). METHODS: We conducted 20 focus groups with 105 parents and teachers at schools in Baltimore, MD, that participated in a SBVP. Facilitators used a semi-structured interview guide to discuss participants' perceptions of the SBVP. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participant perceptions fell into three categories: benefits of school-based eye care, limitations of school-based eye care, and observation of impact. The majority of participants had positive comments about the programme; benefits included convenience (location, time, and cost), the comprehensive nature of the programme, the quality of the eyeglasses and ability to receive replacements, and a positive screening/exam experience. Limitations of programme impact were related to communication and organisation, the time to receive the glasses, missed instructional time, and uncertainty about screenings. Observations of impact included academic and classroom improvements, as well as visual and other health improvements. CONCLUSION: Parents and teachers reported mostly positive perceptions regarding the SBVP. Their appreciation for the convenience underscores that location, cost, time, and comprehensive services are crucial aspects for implementing a successful programme. To maximize impact, programs must also implement robust communication campaigns that integrate into the schools' workflow to help parents and teachers stay engaged in the process from start to finish.
Kuht HJ, Maconachie GDE, Han J, Kessel L, van Genderen MM, McLean RJ, Hisaund M, Tu Z, Hertle RW, Gronskov K, Bai D, Wei A, Li W, Jiao Y, Smirnov V, Choi J-H, Tobin MD, Sheth V, Purohit R, Dawar B, Girach A, Strul S, May L, Chen FK, Heath Jeffery RC, Aamir A, Sano R, Jin J, Brooks BP, Kohl S, Arveiler B, Montoliu L, Engle EC, Proudlock FA, Nishad G, Pani P, Varma G, Gottlob I, Thomas MG. Genotypic and Phenotypic Spectrum of Foveal Hypoplasia: A Multicenter Study. Ophthalmology 2022;129(6):708-718.Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of foveal hypoplasia (FH). DESIGN: Multicenter, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 907 patients with a confirmed molecular diagnosis of albinism, PAX6, SLC38A8, FRMD7, AHR, or achromatopsia from 12 centers in 9 countries (n = 523) or extracted from publicly available datasets from previously reported literature (n = 384). METHODS: Individuals with a confirmed molecular diagnosis and availability of foveal OCT scans were identified from 12 centers or from the literature between January 2011 and March 2021. A genetic diagnosis was confirmed by sequence analysis. Grading of FH was derived from OCT scans. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Grade of FH, presence or absence of photoreceptor specialization (PRS+ vs. PRS-), molecular diagnosis, and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: The most common genetic etiology for typical FH in our cohort was albinism (67.5%), followed by PAX6 (21.8%), SLC38A8 (6.8%), and FRMD7 (3.5%) variants. AHR variants were rare (0.4%). Atypical FH was seen in 67.4% of achromatopsia cases. Atypical FH in achromatopsia had significantly worse VA than typical FH (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in the spectrum of FH grades based on the molecular diagnosis (chi-square = 60.4, P < 0.0001). All SLC38A8 cases were PRS- (P = 0.003), whereas all FRMD7 cases were PRS+ (P < 0.0001). Analysis of albinism subtypes revealed a significant difference in the grade of FH (chi-square = 31.4, P < 0.0001) and VA (P = 0.0003) between oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) compared with ocular albinism (OA) and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). Ocular albinism and HPS demonstrated higher grades of FH and worse VA than OCA. There was a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in VA between FRMD7 variants compared with other diagnoses associated with FH. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of FH. Atypical FH is associated with a worse prognosis than all other forms of FH. In typical FH, our data suggest that arrested retinal development occurs earlier in SLC38A8, OA, HPS, and AHR variants and later in FRMD7 variants. The defined time period of foveal developmental arrest for OCA and PAX6 variants seems to demonstrate more variability. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into disorders associated with FH and have significant prognostic and diagnostic value.
ABSTRACT: A 75-year-old man presented with 3 days of progressive left retro-orbital pain, eyelid swelling, tearing, and pain with extraocular movement. His medical history was significant for type II diabetes mellitus and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, stable on no therapy since diagnosis 8 years prior. The initial examination was significant for diffuse restriction of left ocular motility, marked lid edema, and mild dyschromatopsia. Computed tomography demonstrated asymmetric left periorbital soft tissue swelling and intraconal fat stranding with an irregular left optic nerve sheath complex and clear paranasal sinuses. He was hospitalized for orbital cellulitis and treated empirically with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, but his visual acuity declined over the ensuing 2 days. Subsequent MRI demonstrated left-greater-than-right circumferential optic nerve sheath enhancement, and leptomeningeal enhancement. An orbital biopsy demonstrated monoclonal B-cell lymphocyte aggregation, whereas a lumbar puncture was positive for Cryptococcus antigen with subsequent demonstration of abundant Cryptococcus by Papanicolaou stain. The final diagnosis was optic perineuritis secondary to cryptococcal meningitis presenting with orbital inflammation. Although his clinical course was complicated by immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, symptoms and signs of optic neuropathy ultimately resolved after 1 month of intensive antifungal therapy.