The molecular mechanisms involved in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation are poorly understood. The cell death machinery of apoptosis-inducing caspases have been shown to facilitate the process of iPSCs reprogramming. However, the effect of other cell death processes, such as programmed necrosis (necroptosis), on iPSCs induction has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the role of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3), an essential regulator of necroptosis, in reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) into iPSCs. RIP3 was found to be upregulated in iPSCs compared to MEFs. Deletion of RIP3 dramatically suppressed the reprogramming of iPSCs (~82%). RNA-seq analysis and qRT-PCR showed that RIP3 KO MEFs expressed lower levels of genes that control cell cycle progression and cell division and higher levels of extracellular matrix-regulating genes. The growth rate of RIP3 KO MEFs was significantly slower than WT MEFs. These findings can partially explain the inhibitory effects of RIP3 deletion on iPSCs generation and show for the first time that the necroptosis kinase RIP3 plays an important role in iPSC reprogramming. In contrast to RIP3, the kinase and scaffolding functions of RIPK1 appeared to have distinct effects on reprogramming.
Migraine-type photophobia, most commonly described as exacerbation of headache by light, affects nearly 90% of the patients. It is the most bothersome symptom accompanying an attack. Using subjective psychophysical assessments, we showed that migraine patients are more sensitive to all colors of light during ictal than during interictal phase and that control subjects do not experience pain when exposed to different colors of light. Based on these findings, we suggested that color preference is unique to migraineurs (as it was not found in control subjects) rather than migraine phase (as it was found in both phases). To identify the origin of this photophobia in migraineurs, we compared the electrical waveforms that were generated in the retina and visual cortex of 46 interictal migraineurs to those generated in 42 healthy controls using color-based electroretinography and visual-evoked potential paradigms. Unexpectedly, it was the amplitude of the retinal rod-driven b wave, which was consistently larger (by 14%-19% in the light-adapted and 18%-34% in the dark-adapted flash ERG) in the migraineurs than in the controls, rather than the retinal cone-driven a wave or the visual-evoked potentials that differs most strikingly between the 2 groups. Mechanistically, these findings suggest that the inherent hypersensitivity to light among migraine patients may originate in the retinal rods rather than retinal cones or the visual cortex. Clinically, the findings may explain why migraineurs complain that the light is too bright even when it is dim to the extent that nonmigraineurs feel as if they are in a cave.
PURPOSE: To ascertain the incidence of unexpected management changes at the postoperative week 1 visit in asymptomatic patients who have had an uncomplicated cataract surgery and a routine postoperative day 1 examination. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all cases of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens insertion performed by the Comprehensive Ophthalmology Service at Massachusetts Eye and Ear between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The preoperative consultation, operative report, and postoperative day 1 and week 1 (postoperative days 5-14) visits were reviewed. Cases with intraoperative complications, as well as clinical findings at postoperative day 1 requiring close follow-up, were excluded. The main outcome measure was incidence of unexpected management changes at the postoperative week 1 visit after cataract surgery, defined as an unanticipated change in postoperative drops, additional procedures, or urgent referral to a specialty service. RESULTS: Overall, 1938 surgical cases of 1471 patients were reviewed, and 1510 cases (77.9%) underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation with a routine postoperative day 1 examination. Of these 1510 cases, 238 (15.8%) reported symptoms at the postoperative week 1 visit, including flashes, floaters, redness, pain, or decreased vision, which warranted an examination. In total, 1272 cases were asymptomatic, and only 11 of these cases (0.9%) had an unexpected management change at postoperative week 1. Eight of 11 patients were asymptomatic steroid responders requiring alteration of their postoperative drops. Two of these patients had an intraocular pressure >30 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Unexpected management changes at the postoperative week 1 timepoint after cataract surgery are rare in asymptomatic patients who have had uncomplicated cataract surgery and a routine postoperative day 1 examination. Limited data are available to outline an optimal postoperative regimen after cataract surgery. The results of this study suggest that postoperative week 1 examinations could potentially be performed on an as-needed basis in the appropriate subgroup of patients after cataract surgery.
BACKGROUND: Photophobia is commonly associated with migraine, meningitis, concussion, and a variety of ocular diseases. Advances in our ability to trace multiple brain pathways through which light information is processed have paved the way to a better understanding of the neurobiology of photophobia and the complexity of the symptoms triggered by light. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent anatomical and physiological studies on the neurobiology of photophobia with emphasis on migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: Observations made in blind and seeing migraine patients, and in a variety of animal models, have led to the discovery of a novel retino-thalamo-cortical pathway that carries photic signal from melanopsinergic and nonmelanopsinergic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to thalamic neurons. Activity of these neurons is driven by migraine and their axonal projections convey signals about headache and light to multiple cortical areas involved in the generation of common migraine symptoms. Novel projections of RGCs into previously unidentified hypothalamic neurons that regulate parasympathetic and sympathetic functions have also been discovered. Finally, recent work has led to a novel understanding of color preference in migraine-type photophobia and of the roles played by the retina, thalamus, and cortex. SUMMARY: The findings provide a neural substrate for understanding the complexity of aversion to light in patients with migraine and neuro-ophthalmologic other disorders.
PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological spectrum of endophthalmitis after anti-VEGF injections and to compare streptococcal with non-streptococcus-associated cases with regard to baseline characteristics and injection procedure. METHODS: Retrospective, international multicenter study of patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection at 17 different retina referral centers. RESULTS: Eighty-three cases with 87 identified pathogens were included. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (59%) and viridans streptococci (15%) were the most frequent pathogens found. The use of postoperative antibiotics and performance of injections in an operating room setting significantly reduced the rate of streptococcus-induced endophthalmitis cases (p = 0.01 for both). CONCLUSION: We found a statistically significant lower rate of postinjectional local antibiotic therapy and operating room-based procedures among the streptococcus-induced cases compared to cases caused by other organisms.
A yellow cystic lesion of the caruncle in a 23-year-old woman proved to be a solitary steatocystoma, a rare occurrence in that location. While the histopathologic diagnosis was evident from clusters of sebaceous cells within the cyst wall, a panel of immunohistochemical stains further distinguished the lesion from a keratinous cyst. The most useful stains for differentiating the two conditions were carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins 17 and 19, and calretinin. Only three previous cases of caruncular steatocystoma simplex have been reported, none of which included immunohistochemical studies. The current findings support the origin of the cyst from the small duct that connects the unilobular sebaceous gland associated with vellus hairs to the follicular canal.
PURPOSE: To delineate the natural history of visual parameters over time in individuals with biallelic RPE65 mutation-associated inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD); describe the range of causative mutations; determine potential genotype/phenotype relationships; and describe the variety of clinical diagnoses. DESIGN: Global, multicenter, retrospective chart review. METHODS: Study Population: Seventy individuals with biallelic RPE65 mutation-associated IRD. PROCEDURES: Data were extracted from patient charts. MEASUREMENTS: Visual acuity (VA), Goldmann visual field (GVF), optical coherence tomography, color vision testing, light sensitivity testing, and electroretinograms (retinal imaging and fundus photography were collected and analyzed when available). RESULTS: VA decreased with age in a nonlinear, positive-acceleration relationship (P < .001). GVF decreased with age (P < .0001 for both V4e and III4e), with faster GVF decrease for III4e stimulus vs V4e (P = .0114, left eye; P = .0076, right eye). On average, a 1-year increase in age decreased III4e GVF by ∼25 sum total degrees in each eye while V4e GVF decreased by ∼37 sum total degrees in each eye, although individual variability was observed. A total of 78 clinical diagnoses and 56 unique RPE65 mutations were recorded, without discernible RPE65 mutation genotype/phenotype relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The number of clinical diagnoses and lack of a consistent RPE65 mutation-to-phenotype correlation underscore the need for genetic testing. Significant relationships between age and worsening VA and GVF highlight the progressive loss of functional retina over time. These data may have implications for optimal timing of treatment for IRD attributable to biallelic RPE65 mutations.
PURPOSE: Despite extensive knowledge gained over the last 3 decades regarding limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), the disease is not clearly defined, and there is lack of agreement on the diagnostic criteria, staging, and classification system among treating physicians and research scientists working on this field. There is therefore an unmet need to obtain global consensus on the definition, classification, diagnosis, and staging of LSCD. METHODS: A Limbal Stem Cell Working Group was first established by The Cornea Society in 2012. The Working Group was divided into subcommittees. Four face-to-face meetings, frequent email discussions, and teleconferences were conducted since then to obtain agreement on a strategic plan and methodology from all participants after a comprehensive literature search, and final agreement was reached on the definition, classification, diagnosis, and staging of LSCD. A writing group was formed to draft the current manuscript, which has been extensively revised to reflect the consensus of the Working Group. RESULTS: A consensus was reached on the definition, classification, diagnosis, and staging of LSCD. The clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria of LSCD were clarified, and a staging system of LSCD based on clinical presentation was established. CONCLUSIONS: This global consensus provides a comprehensive framework for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and staging of LSCD. The newly established criteria will aid in the correct diagnosis and formulation of an appropriate treatment for different stages of LSCD, which will facilitate a better understanding of the condition and help with clinical management, research, and clinical trials in this area.
PURPOSE: To describe the 6.5-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a coastal town of central Portugal. METHODS: Population-based cohort study. Participants underwent standardized interviews and ophthalmological examination. Color fundus photographs were graded according to the International Classification and Grading System for AMD and ARM. The crude and age-standardized incidence of early and late AMD was calculated, and progression was analyzed. RESULTS: The 6.5-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 10.7%, and of late AMD it was 0.8%. The incidence of early AMD was 7.2, 13.1 and 17.7% for participants aged 55-64, 65-74 and 75-84 years (p < 0.001). The late AMD incidence was 0.3, 0.9 and 2.8% for the corresponding age groups (p = 0.003). The age-standardized incidence was 10.8% (95% CI, 10.74-10.80%) for early and 1.0% (95% CI, 1.00-1.02%) for late AMD. The incidence of both neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy was 0.4%. Progression occurred in 17.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: The early AMD incidence in a coastal town of central Portugal was found to be similar to that of major epidemiological studies of European-descent populations; however, the incidence of late AMD was lower, and further analysis on risk factors will be conducted.
Purpose: Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects ~20% of the population worldwide. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of iodixanol nasal solution (Nasapaque) for AR treatment, using the Allergen BioCube (ABC), an environmental exposure unit. Iodixanol is a commonly used contrast media agent that shows efficacy on the signs and symptoms of AR. Patients and methods: Seventy-three adult subjects with AR were randomized to iodixanol or placebo treatment in a double-masked efficacy and safety study conducted outside of ragweed pollen season. In-office treatment was administered after BioCube ragweed pollen exposure, and again 8 days later prior to ragweed exposure. Nasal and ocular efficacy and safety assessments were conducted before and after treatment. Results: Iodixanol treatment resulted in statistically significantly lower total nasal symptom scores as compared to placebo at several time points post-treatment and ABC exposure. Individual nasal and ocular symptoms, notably nasal itching and ocular itching, showed evidence of lower scores in the iodixanol group. Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) improved (9%-16%) with iodixanol from baseline as compared to PNIF in the placebo group which ranged from 3% worsening to improvement of 2%. Few (9) adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Iodixanol nasal solution demonstrated efficacy for relief of several nasal and ocular allergic rhinoconjunctivitis signs and symptoms, and was safe and well tolerated in this early Phase II exploratory trial. Further studies with iodixanol are warranted. Allergy challenge models such as the ABC provide valuable assessments of allergen exposures and drug efficacies. Study Identification Number: NCT02377895.
BACKGROUND: A growing amount of data suggests that n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may modify the genetic association with weight change. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively test interactions of habitual consumption of n-3 PUFAs or fish, the major food source, with overall genetic susceptibility on long-term weight change. DESIGN: Gene-diet interactions were examined in 11,330 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 6773 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), and 6254 women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). RESULTS: In the NHS and HPFS cohorts, food-sourced long-chain n-3 PUFA intake showed directionally consistent interactions with genetic risk score on long-term changes in BMI (P-interaction = 0.01 in the HPFS, 0.15 in the NHS, and 0.01 in both cohorts combined). Such interactions were successfully replicated in the WHI, an independent cohort (P-interaction = 0.02 in the WHI and 0.01 in the combined 3 cohorts). The genetic associations with changes in BMI (in kg/m2) consistently decreased (0.15, 0.10, 0.07, and -0.14 per 10 BMI-increasing alleles) across the quartiles of long-chain n-3 PUFAs in the combined cohorts. In addition, high fish intake also attenuated the genetic associations with long-term changes in BMI in the HPFS (P-interaction = 0.01), NHS (P-interaction = 0.03), WHI (P-interaction = 0.10), and the combined cohorts (P-interaction = 0.01); and the differences in BMI changes per 10 BMI-increasing alleles were 0.16, 0.06, -0.08, and -0.18, respectively, across the categories (≤1, 1∼4, 4∼6, and ≥7 servings/wk) of total fish intake. Similar interactions on body weight were observed for fish intake (P-interaction = 0.003) and long-chain n-3 PUFA intake (P-interaction = 0.12). CONCLUSION: Our study provides replicable evidence to show that high intakes of fish and long-chain n-3 PUFAs are associated with an attenuation of the genetic association with long-term weight gain based on results from 3 prospective cohorts of Caucasians.
Gene transfer has long been a compelling yet elusive therapeutic modality. First mainly considered for rare inherited disorders, gene therapy may open treatment opportunities for more challenging and complex diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Today, examples of striking clinical proof of concept, the first gene therapy drugs coming onto the market, and the emergence of powerful new molecular tools have broadened the number of avenues to target neurological disorders but have also highlighted safety concerns and technology gaps. The vector of choice for many nervous system targets currently is the adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector due to its desirable safety profile and strong neuronal tropism. In aggregate, the clinical success, the preclinical potential, and the technological innovation have made therapeutic AAV drug development a reality, particularly for nervous system disorders. Here, we discuss the rationale, opportunities, limitations, and progress in clinical AAV gene therapy.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of digital devices, reading habits and the prevalence of eyestrain among urban Indian school children, aged 11-17 years. METHODS: The study included 576 adolescents attending urban schools who were surveyed regarding their electronic device usage. Additional information on the factors that may have an effect on ocular symptoms was collected. RESULTS: Twenty percent of students aged 11 in the study population use digital devices on a daily basis, in comparison with 50% of students aged 17. In addition to using these devices as homework aids, one third of study participants reported using digital devices for reading instead of conventional textbooks. The majority of students preferred sitting on a chair while reading (77%; 445 students), with only 21% (123 students) preferring to lie on the bed and 8 students alternating between chair and bed. There was a significant association between the students who preferred to lie down and those who experienced eyestrain, as reported by a little over one fourth of the student population (27%). Out of 576 students, 18% (103) experienced eyestrain at the end of the day after working on digital devices. CONCLUSIONS: The increased use of digital devices by adolescents brings a new challenge of digital eyestrain at an early age. Our study reports the patterns of electronic device usage by school children, evaluates factors associated with eyestrain and highlights the need for further investigation of these issues.
PURPOSE: With the advent of gene therapies for inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs), genetic diagnostics will have an increasing role in clinical decision-making. Yet the genetic cause of disease cannot be identified using exon-based sequencing for a significant portion of patients. We hypothesized that noncoding pathogenic variants contribute significantly to the genetic causality of IRDs and evaluated patients with single coding pathogenic variants in RPGRIP1 to test this hypothesis. METHODS: IRD families underwent targeted panel sequencing. Unsolved cases were explored by exome and genome sequencing looking for additional pathogenic variants. Candidate pathogenic variants were then validated by Sanger sequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro splicing assays in two cell lines analyzed through amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: Among 1722 families, 3 had biallelic loss-of-function pathogenic variants in RPGRIP1 while 7 had a single disruptive coding pathogenic variants. Exome and genome sequencing revealed potential noncoding pathogenic variants in these 7 families. In 6, the noncoding pathogenic variants were shown to lead to loss of function in vitro. CONCLUSION: Noncoding pathogenic variants were identified in 6 of 7 families with single coding pathogenic variants in RPGRIP1. The results suggest that noncoding pathogenic variants contribute significantly to the genetic causality of IRDs and RPGRIP1-mediated IRDs are more common than previously thought.
PURPOSE: To identify interactions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the pro-resolving mediator receptors for RvD1 and RvE1 to stimulate an increase in intracellular [Ca] ([Ca]) and mucin secretion from cultured human and rat conjunctival goblet cells. METHODS: Goblet cells from human and rat conjunctiva were grown in culture using RPMI media. Cultured goblet cells were pre-incubated with inhibitors, and then stimulated with RvD1, RvE1, EGF or the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cch). Increase in [Ca] was measured using fura-2/AM. Goblet cell secretion was measured using an enzyme-linked lectin assay with UEA-1. Western blot analysis was performed with antibodies against AKT and ERK 1/2. RESULTS: In cultured human conjunctival goblet cells RvE1 -stimulated an increase in [Ca]. RvD1-, but not the RvE1-, stimulated increase in [Ca] and mucin secretion was blocked by the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and siRNA for the EGFR. RvD1-, but not RvE1-stimulated an increase in [Ca] that was also inhibited by TAPI-1, an inhibitor of the matrix metalloprotease ADAM 17. Inhibition of the EGFR also blocked RvD1-stimulated increase in AKT activity and both RvD1-and RvE1-stimulated increase in ERK 1/2 activity. Pretreatment with either RvD1 or RvE1 did not block the EGFR-stimulated increase in [Ca]. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in cultured rat and human conjunctival goblet cells, RvD1 activates the EGFR, increases [Ca], activates AKT and ERK1/2 to stimulate mucin secretion. RvE1 does not transactivate the EGFR to increase [Ca] and stimulate mucin secretion, but does interact with the receptor to increase ERK 1/2 activity.
Biofluid biomarkers of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are still lacking, and their identification is challenging. Metabolomics is well-suited to address this need, and urine is a valuable accessible biofluid. This study aimed to characterize the urinary metabolomic signatures of patients with different stages of AMD and a control group (>50 years). It was a prospective, cross-sectional study, where subjects from two cohorts were included: 305 from Coimbra, Portugal (AMD patients n = 252; controls n = 53) and 194 from Boston, United States (AMD patients n = 147; controls n = 47). For all participants, we obtained color fundus photographs (for AMD staging) and fasting urine samples, which were analyzed using H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Our results revealed that in both cohorts, urinary metabolomic profiles differed mostly between controls and late AMD patients, but important differences were also found between controls and subjects with early AMD. Analysis of the metabolites responsible for these separations revealed that, even though distinct features were observed for each cohort, AMD was in general associated with depletion of excreted citrate and selected amino acids at some stage of the disease, suggesting enhanced energy requirements. In conclusion, NMR metabolomics enabled the identification of urinary signals of AMD and its severity stages, which might represent potential metabolomic biomarkers of the disease.
The large GTPase dynamin 2 controls both endosomal fission and microtubule acetylation. Here we report that dynamin 2 alters microtubules and regulates the trafficking of human adenovirus type 37. Dynamin 2 knockdown by siRNA in infected cells resulted in accumulation of acetylated tubulin, repositioning of microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) closer to cell nuclei, increased virus in the cytosol (with a compensatory decrease in endosomal virus), reduced proinflammatory cytokine induction, and increased binding of virus to the nucleoporin, Nup358. These events led to increased viral DNA nuclear entry and viral replication. Overexpression of dynamin 2 generated opposite effects. Therefore, dynamin 2 inhibits adenovirus replication and promotes innate immune responses by the infected cell. MTOC transposition in dynamin 2 knockdown promotes a closer association with nuclear pore complexes to facilitate viral DNA delivery. Dynamin 2 plays a key role in adenoviral trafficking and influences host responses to infection.
Ley D, Hallberg B, Hansen-Pupp I, Dani C, Ramenghi LA, Marlow N, Beardsall K, Bhatti F, Dunger D, Higginson JD, Mahaveer A, Mezu-Ndubuisi OJ, Reynolds P, Giannantonio C, van Weissenbruch M, Barton N, Tocoian A, Hamdani M, Jochim E, Mangili A, Chung J-K, Turner MA, Smith LEH, Hellström A, Hellström A. rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 in Preterm Infants: A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr 2019;206:56-65.e8.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 complexed with its binding protein (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) for the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other complications of prematurity among extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: This phase 2 trial was conducted from September 2014 to March 2016. Infants born at a gestational age of 23 weeks to 27 weeks were randomly allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 (250 µg/kg/ 24 hours, continuous intravenous infusion from <24 hours of birth to postmenstrual age 29 weeks) or standard neonatal care, with follow-up to a postmenstrual age of 40 weeks. Target exposure was ≥70% IGF-1 measurements within 28-109 µg/L and ≥70% intended therapy duration. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of ROP. Secondary endpoints included time to discharge from neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and growth measures. RESULTS: Overall, 61 infants were allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3, 60 to standard care (full analysis set); 24 of 61 treated infants achieved target exposure (evaluable set). rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 did not decrease ROP severity or ROP occurrence. There was, however, a 53% decrease in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the full analysis set (21.3% treated vs 44.9% standard care), and an 89% decrease in the evaluable set (4.8% vs 44.9%; P = .04 and P = .02, respectively) for severity distribution between groups. There was also a nonsignificant trend toward decrease in grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage in the full analysis set (13.1% vs 23.3%) and in the evaluable set (8.3% vs 23.3%). Fatal serious adverse events were reported in 19.7% of treated infants (12/61) and 11.7% of control infants (7/60). No effect was observed on time to discharge from neonatal care/growth measures. CONCLUSIONS: rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 did not affect development of ROP, but decreased the occurrence of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, with a nonsignificant decrease in grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01096784.
Beyond their historical role as the effector cells in allergic disorders, mast cells have been implicated in regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Possessing considerable functional plasticity, mast cells are abundant at mucosal surfaces, where the host and external environments interface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of mast cells to allograft rejection at the ocular surface. Using a well-characterized murine model of corneal transplantation, we report that mast cells promote allosensitization. Our data show mast cell frequencies and activation are increased following transplantation. We demonstrate that mast cell inhibition (a) limits the infiltration of inflammatory cells and APC maturation at the graft site; (b) reduces allosensitization and the generation of Th1 cells in draining lymphoid tissues; (c) decreases graft infiltration of alloimmune-inflammatory cells; and (d) prolongs allograft survival. Our data demonstrate a novel function of mast cells in promoting allosensitization at the ocular surface.