March 2020

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Anesi SD, Eggenschwiler L, Ferrara M, Artornsombudh P, Walsh M, Foster SC. Reliability of Conjunctival Biopsy for Diagnosis of Ocular Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: Redetermination of the Standard for Diagnosis and Outcomes of Previously Biopsy-Negative Patients. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020;:1-8.Abstract
: To demonstrate the reliability of conjunctival biopsy analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and supplemented with avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (ABC) in diagnosing oMMP, and report therapy response in biopsy-positive patients, particularly when previously biopsy-negative elsewhere.: Retrospective outcomes review of 136 consecutive patients after conjunctival biopsy for suspected oMMP.: Among 136 patients, 66% were diagnosed with oMMP by DIF and 13% via supplemental ABC immunoperoxidase. Sensitivity increased from 79.6% with DIF to 95.6% with supplemental ABC. Among 57 biopsy-positive patients, 77% were in remission at 1-year follow-up and 88% after 2 years. Of 34 previous biopsy-negative but now biopsy-positive patients with a 2-year follow-up, 91% achieved remission, including all 16 diagnosed via DIF and ABC.: Conjunctival biopsy analyzed by histopathology and DIF supplemented by ABC has high reliability for diagnosing oMMP and is a useful tool to use before starting long-term immunomodulatory therapy in a patient with suspected oMMP.
Argüeso P. Disrupted Glycocalyx as a Source of Ocular Surface Biomarkers. Eye Contact Lens 2020;46 Suppl 2:S53-S56.Abstract
The glycocalyx is a dense and diverse coat of glycans and glycoconjugates responsible for maintaining cell surface integrity and regulating the interaction of cells with the external environment. Transmembrane mucins such as MUC1 and MUC16 comprise a major component of the epithelial glycocalyx and are currently used to monitor disease progression in cancer. At the ocular surface, multiple lines of evidence indicate that abnormal expression of the enzymes responsible for glycan biosynthesis during pathological conditions impairs the glycosylation of transmembrane mucins. It is now becoming clear that these changes contribute to modify the interaction of mucins with galectin-3, a multimeric lectin crucial for preserving the ocular surface epithelial barrier. This review highlights the potential of using the epithelial glycocalyx as a reliable source for the generation of biomarkers to diagnose and monitor ocular surface disease.
Ashraf M, Shokrollahi S, Salongcay RP, Aiello LP, Silva PS. Diabetic retinopathy and ultrawide field imaging. Semin Ophthalmol 2020;35(1):56-65.Abstract
The introduction of ultrawide field imaging has allowed the visualization of approximately 82% of the total retinal area compared to only 30% using 7-standard field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy (ETDRS) photography. This substantially wider field of view, while useful in many retinal vascular diseases, is particularly important in diabetic retinopathy where eyes with predominantly peripheral lesions or PPL have been shown to have significantly greater progression rates compared to eyes without PPL. In telemedicine settings, ultrawide field imaging has substantially reduced image ungradable rates and increased rate of disease identification allowing care to be delivered more effectively. Furthermore, the use of ultrawide field fluorescein angiography allows the visualization of significantly more diabetic retinal lesions and allows more accurate quantification of total retinal nonperfusion, with potential implications in the management of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The focus of this paper is to review the current role of ultrawide field imaging in diabetic retinopathy and its possible future role in innovations for retinal image analysis such as artificial intelligence and vessel caliber measurements.
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Banks C, Scangas GA, Husain Q, Hatton MP, Fullerton Z, Metson R. The role of routine nasolacrimal sac biopsy during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. Laryngoscope 2020;130(3):584-589.Abstract
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Most patients who undergo endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) have a diagnosis of idiopathic nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of routine biopsy of the lacrimal sac performed at time of DCR on subsequent patient diagnosis and treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: The histopathology of nasolacrimal specimens (n = 769), obtained from 654 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic DCR by a single surgeon over a 30-year period, were reviewed. Specific focus included the identification of unanticipated pathologic findings as they related to pertinent patient demographics, clinical presentation, radiologic findings, and intraoperative observations. RESULTS: The study population was 69.6% female, with an average age of 56.1 ± 18.2 years. Pathological findings of tissue from the nasolacrimal sac, which was routinely sampled in all cases, showed inflammation (n = 566 [73.6%]), normal histology (n = 147 [19.1%]), granulomas (n = 8 [1.0%]), and neoplastic process (n = 7 [0.9%]). Patient history, preoperative CT scan, and/or intraoperative findings alerted the surgeon to the possibility of an unusual diagnosis in 12 of the 15 patients. An unsuspected neoplastic or granulomatous cause of lacrimal obstruction was identified on intraoperative biopsy in three patients (0.46%). CONCLUSIONS: Although neoplastic and granulomatous diseases are relatively rare causes of lacrimal obstruction necessitating DCR surgery, they may be identified by through patient evaluation in most cases and by routine intraoperative biopsy of the lacrimal sac in all cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:584-589, 2020.
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Chang W-C, Abe R, Anderson P, Anderson W, Ardern-Jones MR, Beachkofsky TM, Bellón T, Biala AK, Bouchard C, Cavalleri GL, Chapman N, Chodosh J, Choi HK, Cibotti RR, Divito SJ, Dewar K, Dehaeck U, Etminan M, Forbes D, Fuchs E, Goldman JL, Holmes JH, Hope EA, Hung S-I, Hsieh C-L, Iovieno A, Jagdeo J, Kim MK, Koelle DM, Lacouture ME, Le Pallec S, Lehloenya RJ, Lim R, Lowe A, McCawley J, McCawley J, Micheletti RG, Mockenhaupt M, Niemeyer K, Norcross MA, Oboh D, Olteanu C, Pasieka HB, Peter J, Pirmohamed M, Rieder M, Saeed HN, Shear NH, Shieh C, Straus S, Sukasem C, Sung C, Trubiano JA, Tsou S-Y, Ueta M, Volpi S, Wan C, Wang H, Wang Z-Q, Weintraub J, Whale C, Wheatley LM, Whyte-Croasdaile S, Williams KB, Wright G, Yeung SN, Zhou L, Chung W-H, Phillips EJ, Carleton BC. SJS/TEN 2019: From science to translation. J Dermatol Sci 2020;Abstract
Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are potentially life-threatening, immune-mediated adverse reactions characterized by widespread erythema, epidermal necrosis, and detachment of skin and mucosa. Efforts to grow and develop functional international collaborations and a multidisciplinary interactive network focusing on SJS/TEN as an uncommon but high burden disease will be necessary to improve efforts in prevention, early diagnosis and improved acute and long-term management. SJS/TEN 2019: From Science to Translation was a 1.5-day scientific program held April 26-27, 2019, in Vancouver, Canada. The meeting successfully engaged clinicians, researchers, and patients and conducted many productive discussions on research and patient care needs.
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Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Rizzo JF, Chwalisz BK. Case report: Orbital myositis triggering oxygen-responsive cluster headache. Cephalalgia 2020;40(3):313-316.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Orbital myositis is an idiopathic, non-infectious condition, typically seen in young females and usually affecting one extraocular muscle. Orbital myositis mimicking cluster headache is a rare clinical entity, and this is the first description of a case of a secondary trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia from orbital myositis responsive to high-flow oxygen. CASE: A young woman presented with new-onset, oxygen-responsive headache, periorbital pain and autonomic features. She had associated vertical diplopia on downgaze and subtle ocular misalignment. An initial diagnosis of cluster headache was made. Initial brain MRI was unrevealing, but dedicated MRI of the orbits showed enhancement of orbital muscles. The diplopia and the imaging findings were consistent with orbital myositis. CONCLUSION: Orbital myositis mimicking cluster headache is rare, and not previously reported as an oxygen-responsive headache.
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Enayati S, Chang K, Achour H, Cho K-S, Xu F, Guo S, Z Enayati K, Xie J, Zhao E, Turunen T, Sehic A, Lu L, Utheim TP, Chen DF. Electrical Stimulation Induces Retinal Müller Cell Proliferation and Their Progenitor Cell Potential. Cells 2020;9(3)Abstract
Non-invasive electrical stimulation (ES) is increasingly applied to improve vision in untreatable eye conditions, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Our previous study suggested that ES promoted retinal function and the proliferation of progenitor-like glial cells in mice with inherited photoreceptor degeneration; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Müller cells (MCs) are thought to be dormant residential progenitor cells that possess a high potential for retinal neuron repair and functional plasticity. Here, we showed that ES with a ramp waveform of 20 Hz and 300 µA of current was effective at inducing mouse MC proliferation and enhancing their expression of progenitor cell markers, such as (cone-rod homeobox) and , as well as their production of trophic factors, including ciliary neurotrophic factor. RNA sequencing revealed that calcium signaling pathway activation was a key event, with a false discovery rate of 5.33 × 10 ( = 1.78 × 10) in ES-mediated gene profiling changes. Moreover, the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, abolished the observed effects of ES on MC proliferation and progenitor cell gene induction, supporting a central role of ES-induced Ca signaling in the MC changes. Our results suggest that low-current ES may present a convenient tool for manipulating MC behavior toward neuroregeneration and repair.
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Feldstein IT, Dyszak GN. Road crossing decisions in real and virtual environments: A comparative study on simulator validity. Accid Anal Prev 2020;137:105356.Abstract
Virtual reality (VR) is a valuable tool for the assessment of human perception and behavior in a risk-free environment. Investigators should, however, ensure that the used virtual environment is validated in accordance with the experiment's intended research question since behavior in virtual environments has been shown to differ to behavior in real environments. This article presents the street crossing decisions of 30 participants who were facing an approaching vehicle and had to decide at what moment it was no longer safe to cross, applying the step-back method. The participants executed the task in a real environment and also within a highly immersive VR setup involving a head-mounted display (HMD). The results indicate significant differences between the two settings regarding the participants' behaviors. The time-to-contact of approaching vehicles was significantly lower for crossing decisions in the virtual environment than for crossing decisions in the real one. Additionally, it was demonstrated that participants based their crossing decisions in the real environment on the temporal distance of the approaching vehicle (i.e., time-to-contact), whereas the crossing decisions in the virtual environment seemed to depend on the vehicle's spatial distance, neglecting the vehicle's velocity. Furthermore, a deeper analysis suggests that crossing decisions were not affected by factors such as the participant's gender or the order in which they faced the real and the virtual environment.
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Gise RA, Heidary G. Update on Pediatric Optic Neuritis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020;20(3):4.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on advances in the understanding of pediatric demyelinating optic neuritis. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past decade, the disease phenotypes for demyelinating syndromes in children have been more clearly defined. Pediatric optic neuritis may present as a clinically isolated syndrome or in the setting of underlying neurologic disease. In addition to optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica, recent work has identified antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG IgG) as a unique demyelinating cause with distinct features regarding treatment and prognosis. The disease phenotypes for demyelinating pediatric optic neuritis have expanded. Treatment strategies vary and are not universally effective for each cause of demyelinating disease. Accurately distinguishing among these unique clinical syndromes is therefore critical for initiation of appropriate treatment to prevent disability, to maximize visual outcomes, and to provide insight into long-term prognosis.
Greiner JV, Glonek T, Korb DR, Lindsay ME, Oliver PJ, Olson MCD. Corneal Cryopreservation Using Glycerylphosphorylcholine-Enriched Medium. Cornea 2020;39(3):370-375.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of prolonged cryopreservation at subzero-degree temperatures on corneal transparency and histology after treatment with preservation medium containing the phosphodiester glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC). METHODS: Rabbit corneas (n = 30) were immersed for 3 hours in K-Sol preservation medium containing 30 mM GPC. Three groups with 6 corneas each were refrigerated at -8°C for 2 weeks and liquid nitrogen temperature for 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. Two groups with 6 corneas each immersed in K-Sol preservation medium only were refrigerated at -8°C for 2 weeks and liquid nitrogen temperature for 6 weeks, respectively. Postthawing corneal transparency was measured on a grading scale after which corneas were prepared for and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: All 3 groups of corneas preserved with GPC maintained a greater degree of corneal transparency compared with corneas preserved without GPC. The number of corneas retaining epithelial and endothelial layers increased in all groups where corneas were preserved in medium containing GPC, in contrast to corneas preserved in medium without GPC. Cytoplasmic vacuolization or nuclear damage was greater in corneas preserved without GPC. Similar findings were found in corneas stored at -8°C and liquid nitrogen temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a cryoprotective effect of corneas preserved in K-Sol containing the phosphodiester GPC at subzero-degree temperatures. In corneas immersed in preservation medium containing GPC, a higher degree of transparency is maintained and a lesser degree of histopathologic changes is observed with storage at both -8°C and in liquid nitrogen.
Greiner JV, Glonek T, Korb DR, Lindsay ME, Oliver PJ. Corneal absorption of glycerylphosphorylcholine. Exp Eye Res 2020;192:107932.Abstract
This study documents the absorption of glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) into corneas ex vivo. Corneas in quadruplicate were incubated in preservation medium containing 30 mM GPC, which is used as a reference marker. The GPC reference marker is used to calibrate P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral chemical-shift positions for identification of phosphatic metabolites and to calculate intracorneal pH in intact tissues ex vivo. Following baseline NMR ex vivo analysis, corneas were stored in eye bank chambers in preservation medium containing 30 mM GPC at 4 °C overnight for 8 h. After returning to room temperature, NMR analysis was repeated on the same corneas in fresh GPC-free preservation medium. NMR analysis also was performed on the 30 mM GPC preservation medium alone from the eye bank chambers for detection of the GPC signal. The elevated GPC signal unexpectedly persisted in corneas incubated at 4 °C overnight even though GPC was not present in the fresh GPC-free preservation medium. In fact, the concentration of GPC in the intact cornea was many times higher than that found in the cornea endogenously. The levels of phosphatic metabolites and the energy modulus, after subtracting the spectral contribution of the 30 mM exogenous GPC, as well as the intracorneal pH remained unchanged from pre-refrigeration analyses. Corneas also retained transparency through the time-course of this study irrespective of temperature or change in temperature. The GPC signal in the NMR analysis of the preservation medium from the eye bank chambers was nearly undetectable. GPC was unexpectedly absorbed into the corneal tissue without detectable metabolic or physical toxicity. The intracorneal uptake of GPC at reduced temperatures parallels the increase in GPC that occurs naturally in muscle tissue in animals during wintering periods and the very high concentration of GPC in sperm, a cryogenically compatible cell, suggestive of a potential role for GPC in cryopreservation.
Guan J-T, Li X-X, Peng D-W, Zhang W-M, Qu J, Lu F, D'Amato RJ, Chi Z-L. MicroRNA-18a-5p Administration Suppresses Retinal Neovascularization by Targeting FGF1 and HIF1A. Front Pharmacol 2020;11:276.Abstract
Pathologic ocular neovascularization commonly results in visual impairment or even blindness in numerous fundus diseases, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MicroRNAs regulate angiogenesis through modulating target genes and disease progression, making them a new class of targets for drug discovery. In this study, we investigated the potential role of miR-18a-5p in retinal neovascularization using a mouse model of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy (OIR). We found that miR-18a-5p was highly expressed in the retina of pups as well as retinal endothelial cells, and was consistently down-regulated during retinal development. On the other hand, miR-18a-5p was increased significantly during pathologic neovascularization in the retinas of OIR mice. Moreover, intravitreal administration of miRNA mimic, agomiR-18a-5p, significantly suppressed retinal neovascularization in OIR models. Accordingly, agomir-18a-5p markedly suppressed human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMEC) function including proliferation, migration, and tube formation ability. Additionally, we demonstrated that miR-18a-5p directly down-regulated known vascular growth factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), as the target genes. In conclusion, miR-18a-5p may be a useful drug target for pathologic ocular neovascularization.
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Habib LA, Wolkow N, Cohen L, Ma L, Yoon MK, Lee NG. Pyoderma gangrenosum of the eyelid associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2020;18:100623.Abstract
Purpose: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) of the eyelid can be difficult to diagnosis and may mimic other, more common pathologies, thereby delaying proper treatment and management. PG may be associated with systemic disorders that have significant comorbidities. Observations: The authors present two cases of pyoderma gangrenosum of the eyelid associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions and importance: This case series highlights the importance of early recognition of eyelid pyoderma gangrenosum to avoid local and systemic comorbidities with timely and appropriate management.
Heidary G, Hunter DG. Outcomes of strabismus surgery in genetically confirmed congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. J AAPOS 2020;
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Jackson CJ, Myklebust Ernø IT, Ringstad H, Tønseth KA, Dartt DA, Utheim TP. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation: Current status and future perspectives. Stem Cells Transl Med 2020;9(3):316-327.Abstract
Damage to limbal stem cells as a result of injury or disease can lead to limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This disease is characterized by decreased vision that is often painful and may progress to blindness. Clinical features include inflammation, neovascularization, and persistent cornea epithelial defects. Successful strategies for treatment involve transplantation of grafts harvested from the limbus of the alternate healthy eye, called conjunctival-limbal autograft (CLAU) and transplantation of limbal cell sheets cultured from limbal biopsies, termed cultured limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET). In 2012, Sangwan and colleagues presented simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET), a novel transplantation technique that combines the benefits of CLAU and CLET and avoids the challenges associated with both. In SLET a small biopsy from the limbus of the healthy eye is divided and distributed over human amniotic membrane, which is placed on the affected cornea. Outgrowth occurs from each small explant and a complete corneal epithelium is typically formed within 2 weeks. Advantages of SLET include reduced risk of iatrogenic LSCD occurring in the healthy cornea at harvest; direct transfer circumventing the need for cell culture; and the opportunity to perform biopsy harvest and transplantation in one operation. Success so far using SLET is comparable with CLAU and CLET. Of note, 336 of 404 (83%) operations using SLET resulted in restoration of the corneal epithelium, whereas visual acuity improved in 258 of the 373 (69%) reported cases. This review summarizes the results of 31 studies published on SLET since 2012. Progress, advantages, challenges, and suggestions for future studies are presented.
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Kang JH, VoPham T, Laden F, Rosner BA, Wirostko B, Ritch R, Wiggs JL, Qureshi A, Nan H, Pasquale LR. Cohort Study of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer and the Risk of Exfoliation Glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2020;Abstract
PRECIS: In a cohort study of 120,307 participants with 25+ years of follow-up, a history of non-melanoma skin cancer was associated with a 40% higher exfoliation glaucoma risk. PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between non-melanoma skin cancer (a marker of ultraviolet radiation exposure) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). METHODS: We performed a cohort study of US women (n=79,102; 1980-2014) and men (n=41,205; 1986-2014), aged 40+ years and at risk for glaucoma who reported eye exams. From 1984 (women)/1988 (men), we asked about basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) history separately; in prior years, we asked about any non-melanoma skin cancer history in a single question. SCC was confirmed with histopathology reports while BCC and any early (<1984/<1988) non-melanoma skin cancer history was self-reported. Incident XFG cases (362 women and 83 men) were confirmed with medical records. Using pooled data, we estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks (MVRR; 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) with Cox proportional hazards models that were stratified by age (in months), 2-year time period at risk and average lifetime residential latitude. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted analyses, we observed a 40% higher XFG risk with any non-melanoma skin cancer history (MVRR=1.40; 95% CI=1.08,1.82); the association was observed even with 4 and 8 year lags in non-melanoma skin cancer history. Also, the non-melanoma skin cancer association was stronger in younger (<65▒y; MVRR=2.56; 95% CI=1.62,4.05) versus older participants (≥65▒y; MVRR=1.25; 95% CI=0.94,1.66; p for interaction=0.01) and those living in northern latitudes (≥42° north; MVRR=1.92; 95% CI=1.28,2.88) versus more southern latitudes (<42° north; MVRR=1.19; 95% CI=0.86,1.66; p for interaction=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Non-melanoma skin cancer was associated with higher XFG risk, particularly among younger participants and those living in Northern US.
Kang JH, Boumenna T, Stein JD, Khawaja A, Rosner BA, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR. Notice of Retraction and Replacement. Kang et al. Association of statin use and high serum cholesterol levels with risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019;137(7):756-765. JAMA Ophthalmol 2020;
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Marques JP, Pires J, Simão J, Marques M, Gil JQ, Laíns I, Alves D, Nunes S, Cachulo ML, Miller JB, Vavvas DG, Miller JW, Husain D, Silva R. Validation of RetmarkerAMD as a semiautomatic grading software for AMD. Eye (Lond) 2020;34(3):600-602.
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Parikh R, Palmer V, Kumar A, Simon JW. Surgical Confusions in Ophthalmology: Description, Analysis, and Prevention of Errors from 2006 through 2017. Ophthalmology 2020;127(3):296-302.Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize surgical confusions in ophthalmology to determine their incidence, root causes, and impact on patients and physicians. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of errors in ophthalmic surgical procedures between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2017. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty-three cases involving surgical confusions. METHODS: Cases were identified by the Ophthalmic Mutual Insurance Company from closed case files and by the New York State Health Department from the New York Patient Occurrence Reporting and Tracking program that identified the surgical confusions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and impact by intended surgery, error type, and root cause as well as preventability by the Universal Protocol. RESULTS: Of the 143 cases of surgical confusions identified, 92 cases (64.3%) were deemed preventable by the Universal Protocol. Approximately two thirds, 95 cases (66.4%), were cases of incorrect implants being used during cataract surgery (cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation), of which 33 cases (34.7%) were not preventable by the Universal Protocol. Wrong eye blocks or anesthesia accounted for 20 cases (14.0%), incorrect eye procedures accounted for 10 cases (7.00%), incorrect refractive surgery measurements accounted for 6 cases (4.20%), incorrect patient or procedure accounted for 5 cases (3.50%), incorrect intraocular gas concentration accounted for 4 cases (2.80%), and incorrect medication in surgery accounted for 3 cases (2.10%). The most common root cause of confusion was an inadequately performed time out, which was responsible for nearly one third of all surgical confusions, 46 cases (32.2%). Incorrect lens orders or calculations before surgery (so-called upstream errors) were the second most common cause of surgical confusion, involving 31 cases (21.7%). The average legal indemnity for incorrect implant during cataract surgery was $57 514 (United States dollars). The average indemnity for incorrect refractive surgery measurement was $123 125, that for incorrect eye procedure was $50 000, and that for incorrect gas concentration was $220 844. CONCLUSIONS: Most surgical confusions could have been prevented by following the Universal Protocol properly. However, upstream errors, originating in the clinic or office before surgery, and ineffective communication during time outs suggest a need for modification of the Universal Protocol.
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Shoshany TN, Michalak S, Staffa SJ, Chinn RN, Bishop K, Hunter DG. Effect of Primary Occlusion Therapy in Asymmetric, Bilateral Amblyopia. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;211:87-93.Abstract
PURPOSE: Many bilateral amblyopia patients have asymmetric visual acuity (VA). There is no standard treatment for these patients, and outcomes have not been well described. Our goal is to compare VA outcomes in this group based on timing of occlusion therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional comparative case series. METHODS: Setting: Institutional practice. PatientPopulation: Patients diagnosed with amblyopia at Boston Children's Hospital between 2010 and 2014. InclusionCriteria: VA ≥ 0.3 logMAR bilaterally by objective optotype-based measures, interocular difference (IOD) ≥ 0.18 logMAR, age 2-12 years. ExclusionCriteria: Loss to follow-up, managed surgically, deprivation amblyopia. Patients had either primary or secondary occlusion (primary = initiated when VA ≥ 0.3 logMAR bilaterally; secondary = initiated to correct residual IOD once VA improved to ≤0.18 logMAR in the stronger eye). ObservationProcedure: Patient demographics, VA, IOD, and stereopsis were compared between groups. OutcomeMeasures: VA improvement at 12-18 months and at last visits. RESULTS: Of 2,200 patients reviewed, 167 (7.6%) had asymmetric, bilateral amblyopia; 98 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were equally divided between primary (n = 50) and secondary (n = 48) occlusion groups. There were no differences in demographics, baseline VA, or IOD between groups (P ≥ .22), although the primary occlusion group had a higher proportion of strabismic amblyopia (P = .007). VA in both eyes, IOD, and stereopsis improved similarly between groups, even after stratifying by amblyopia subtype (P ≥ .48). The secondary occlusion group was more likely to achieve 20/30 bilaterally and IOD ≤ 1 line at 12-18 months (P ≤ .4), although this equalized by the last visit. CONCLUSION: In patients with asymmetric, bilateral amblyopia, VA improved by 4 lines in the weaker eye and 2 lines in the stronger eye, while IOD improved by 2 lines, irrespective of occlusion status. Primary occlusion thus provided no further benefit over spectacle correction alone.

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