ABSTRACT: Protecting nurses in healthcare facilities from SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential for maintaining an adequate nursing force. Foundational guidelines, consistently utilized, protect the nursing staff from infection. This article describes guidelines designed to reduce acute infection and associated morbidity and mortality among nursing staff and improve compliance with infection prevention protocols.
BACKGROUND: To describe the clinical presentation and characteristic imaging features of deep retinal haemorrhages primarily located in the Henle fibre layer (HFL) of the macula. The spectrum of aetiologies and a comprehensive theory of pathogenesis are presented. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre case series evaluating eyes with retinal haemorrhage in HFL. Clinical features, underlying aetiology, systemic and ocular risk factors, visual acuity, and multimodal imaging including fundus photography and cross-sectional and en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) are presented. RESULTS: Retinal haemorrhages localised to HFL in 33 eyes from 23 patients were secondary to acute blunt trauma to the head (n=2), eye (n=1) and trunk (n=1), ruptured intracranial aneurysm (Terson's syndrome, n=3), general anaesthesia (n=1), epidural anaesthesia (n=1), hypertension with anaemia (n=1), decompression retinopathy (n=1), postvitrectomy with intraocular gas (n=1), retinal vein occlusion (n=7), myopic degeneration (n=2), macular telangiectasia type 2 (n=1), and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (n=1). Defining clinical features included deep retinal haemorrhage with feathery margin and petaloid pattern radiating from the fovea. OCT demonstrated characteristic hyper-reflectivity from the haemorrhage delineated by obliquely oriented fibres in the Henle layer. Spontaneous resolution of HFL haemorrhage occurred after 3 months in 15 patients with follow-up. CONCLUSION: The characteristic petaloid-shaped, deep intraretinal haemorrhage with a feathery margin localised to HFL is associated with various disorders. The terminology 'Henle fiber layer hemorrhage (HH)' is proposed to describe the clinical and OCT findings, which may result from abnormal retinal venous pressure from systemic or local retinovascular disorders affecting the deep capillary plexus or from choroidal vascular abnormalities.
PURPOSE: To compare the one-year outcomes of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (pDMEK) and non-preloaded DMEK (n-pDMEK) in patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). METHODS: This retrospective comparative cohort study consecutively included 68 eyes with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy who underwent either pDMEK (n = 38) or n-pDMEK (n = 30) performed by cornea fellows with an experienced surgeon between 2016 and 2018 at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Exclusion criteria were previous surgery (other than uncomplicated cataract surgery) and any documented evidence of macular or other corneal diseases. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, patient characteristics, postprocessing endothelial cell count, donor graft data, and complications were compared. RESULTS: CDVA showed similar results for pDMEK (0.12 ± 0.11 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution [LogMAR]) and n-pDMEK (0.13 ± 0.13 LogMAR) (P = 0.827). Sixty-six percent of the pDMEK eyes and 57% of the n-pDMEK eyes achieved a VA of ≥0.1 LogMAR, and 95% and 97%, respectively, achieved a CDVA ≥0.3 LogMAR. The preoperative central corneal thickness of pDMEK and n-pDMEK (644 ± 62.2 μm, 660.5 ± 56.2 μm) decreased significantly after surgery (525.1 ± 43.6 μm, 526.5 ± 45.2 μm, P < 0.001), with no difference between groups (P = 0.840). The postprocessing endothelial cell count did not differ between pDMEK (2959.2 ± 182.9 cells/mm2) and n-pDMEK (2939.3 ± 278.7 cells/mm2) (P = 0.484). Complication rates were comparable with just the rebubbling performed in a minor procedure room showing a lower rate for pDMEK (13.16%) compared with n-pDMEK (33.33%) (P < 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: One-year clinical outcomes were similar between pDMEK and n-pDMEK procedures, rendering eye bank-prepared pDMEK tissues a useful tool in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction.
ABSTRACT: Neurovascular compression is a rare but potentially treatable cause of optic neuropathy. Although incidental contact of the cisternal optic nerve and internal carotid artery (ICA) is common, compressive optic neuropathy occurring within the orbital apex has not been comprehensively described. We report a case of intra-orbital and intracanalicular optic nerve compression due to an ectatic ICA in a patient with congenital absence of the contralateral ICA. This report describes the complementary roles of advanced neuroimaging and neuro-ophthalmologic examination in rendering the diagnosis.
BACKGROUND: Strabismus is the leading risk factor for amblyopia, which should be early detected for minimized visual impairment. However, traditional school screening for strabismus can be challenged due to several factors, most notably training, mobility and cost. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a smartphone application in school vision screening for detection of strabismus. METHODS: The beta smartphone application, EyeTurn, can measure ocular misalignment by computerized Hirschberg test. The application was used by a school nurse in a routine vision screening for 133 elementary school children. All app measurements were reviewed by an ophthalmologist to assess the rate of successful measurement and were flagged for in-person verification with prism alternating cover test (PACT) using a 2.4Δ threshold (root mean squared error of the app). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the best sensitivity and specificity for an 8Δ threshold (recommended by AAPOS) with the PACT measurement as ground truth. RESULTS: The nurse obtained at least one successful app measurement for 93% of children (125/133). 40 were flagged for PACT, of which 6 were confirmed to have strabismus, including 4 exotropia (10△, 10△, 14△ and 18△), 1 constant esotropia (25△) and 1 accommodative esotropia (14△). Based on the ROC curve, the optimum threshold for the app to detect strabismus was determined to be 3.0△, with the best sensitivity (83.0%), specificity (76.5%). With this threshold the app would have missed one child with accommodative esotriopia, whereas conventional screening missed 3 cases of intermittent extropia. CONCLUSIONS: Results support feasibility of use of the app by personnel without professional training in routine school screenings to improve detection of strabismus.
OBJECTIVE: We describe the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study, report baseline ocular findings, and explore the feasibility of eye examinations in the school setting. DESIGN: Prospective, school-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Students in second and third grades. METHODS: Baseline eye examinations, including near and distance presenting visual acuity (VA), stereopsis, ocular alignment, dilated retinal examination, and cycloplegic refraction, were performed in 12 Baltimore public schools during the 2014-15 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presenting VA, prevalence of refractive error, and other ocular findings. RESULTS: Among the 1054 eligible students, 321 participated. There were 271 (84.4%) African American and 186 (57.9%) female students; mean age was 7.9 ± 0.8 years. Cycloplegia was achieved in 308. The mean presenting distance and near VA was 0.1 ± 0.2 logMAR (range -0.1 to 1.5) and 0.1 ± 0.2 logMAR (range 0.0-1.6) in the better-seeing eye, respectively. The most common ocular findings were +1.00 diopter (D) or greater hyperopia (34.7%), -0.50 D or greater myopia (29.5%), 1.00 D or greater astigmatism (23.4%), and convergence insufficiency (7.2%). Thirty-seven (11.5%) children needed referral to an eye care provider; 10% of students required glasses full-time. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the majority of second and third grade students in this study have good VA and minimal refractive error, 1 in 9 have an ocular finding necessitating further evaluation. It was feasible to conduct cycloplegic eye examinations in the school setting.
The cornea actively maintains its own avascular status to preserve its ultimate optical function. This corneal avascular state is also defined as "corneal angiogenic privilege", which results from a critical and sensitive balance between anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic mechanisms. In our review, we aim to explore the complex equilibrium among multiple mediators which prevents neovascularization in the resting cornea, as well as to unveil the evolutive process which leads to corneal angiogenesis in response to different injuries.
ABSTRACT: A 44-year-old woman presented with 2 painful and self-limited episodes of binocular horizontal diplopia within 1 year that at the beginning were thought to be secondary to microvascular insult. Her medical history was significant for Cushing syndrome status post transsphenoidal resection with bilateral adrenalectomy 4 years prior, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Neuro-ophthalmic evaluation was significant for left abduction deficit and incomitant esotropia consistent with left abducens nerve palsy. Of note, the patient had experienced a similar episode but on the contralateral side a few months prior. Although initially MRI of the brain demonstrated stable residual postoperative finding in the sella, upon review, an heterogenous T-1 hypointense marrow in the clivus was noted. Hypermetabolism of the clivus was also noted on computed tomography positron emission tomography of the skull base. A clival biopsy demonstrated a corticotroph adenoma with elevated proliferation index and scattered mitoses. A corticotroph pituitary adenoma after adrenalectomy, also known as Nelson syndrome, was diagnosed. Radiation therapy was offered to the patient, and resolution of symptoms was gradually observed.
PURPOSE: To determine eye drop type and usage frequency and investigate risk factors for no eye drop use in individuals with symptomatic dry eye (DE) in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: Crowdsourced observational study. METHODS: This study was conducted using the DryEyeRhythm smartphone application between November 2016 and September 2019. Data collected included the type and frequency of eye drop use, demographics, medical history, lifestyle, and self-reported symptoms. Symptomatic DE was defined as an Ocular Surface Disease Index total score of ≥ 13. Risk factors for no eye drop use were identified using multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Among 2619 individuals with symptomatic DE, 1876 did not use eye drops. The most common eye drop type was artificial tears (53.4%), followed by hyaluronic acid 0.1% (33.1%) and diquafosol sodium 3% (18.7%). Risk factors (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) for no eye drop use were age (0.97 [0.97-0.98]), body mass index (1.04 [1.01-1.07]), brain disease (0.38 [0.15-0.98]), collagen disease (0.30 [0.13-0.68]), mental illness other than depression and schizophrenia (0.65 [0.45-0.93]), cataract surgery (0.12 [0.02-0.59]), ophthalmic surgery other than cataract and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (0.55 [0.34-0.88]), current (0.47 [0.38-0.57]) or past (0.58 [0.43-0.77]) contact lens use, >8 h screen exposure time (1.38 [1.05-1.81]), <6 h (1.24 [1.01-1.52]) and >9 h (1.34 [1.04-1.72]) sleep time, and water intake (0.97 [0.94-0.98]). CONCLUSION: Many participants with symptomatic DE did not use optimized eye drop treatment and identified risk factors for no eye drop use. The DryEyeRhythm application may help improve DE treatment.
BACKGROUND: Prior studies comparing ophthalmic outcomes after treating unicoronal synostosis (UCS) by early endoscopic strip craniectomy (ESC) versus later fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) are modest in sample size, or lack consistent age adjustment. We report long-term, age-adjusted ophthalmic outcomes for a large cohort after nonrandomized treatment by one of these two options. METHODS: The following data was retrieved from a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with treated UCS born since 2000: cycloplegic refractions, sensorimotor examinations, and strabismus procedures before craniofacial repair and postoperatively at approximately 18 and 60 months of age. V-pattern strabismus was graded as mild (absent or + 1/-1 oblique dysfunction) versus moderate-to-severe (≥+2/-2 oblique dysfunction or left to right vertical alignment change of ≥20Δ or ocular torticollis >15°). RESULTS: A total of 120 infants were included: 60 treated by FOA and 60 by ESC. By the late examination, aniso-astigmatism was present in 71.8% of FOA-treated patients and 46% of ESC-treated patients (P < 0.0001). By late examination, the age-adjusted odds ratio of moderate-to-severe V-pattern strabismus after treatment by FOA versus ESC was 2.65 (95% CI, 1.37-6.28; P = 0.02); strabismus surgery was performed in 26 infants treated by FOA compared with 13 treated by ESC (OR = 2.8; P = 0.02). Amblyopia developed in 60% of FOA-treated patients compared with 35% of those treated by ESC (OR 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3-6.7; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our age-adjusted ophthalmic results confirm better long-term outcomes after treatment of USC by endoscopic strip craniectomy. Recognition and referral of affected infants by the earliest months of life facilitates the opportunity for endoscopic repair.
Autoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening intraocular inflammatory disease. For >30 years, the mouse model of experimental autoimmune uveitis has been employed to investigate disease mechanisms and test immunotherapeutic approaches. However, inflammation in this model is self-limited, and does not replicate the chronic, insidious nature prevalent in the human disease. Herein, a robust and reliable model of chronic autoimmune uveitis was developed and characterized in two strains of wild-type mice by modifying interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein dose and peptide fragments from conventional experimental autoimmune uveitis models. In both of these murine strains, immunization with our modified protocols resulted in a slowly progressive uveitis, with retinal scars and atrophy observed in the chronic stage by fundoscopy. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated decreased retinal thickness in chronic autoimmune uveitis mice, and electroretinography showed significantly reduced amplitudes of dark-adapted a- and b-waves and light-adapted b-waves. Histologic examination revealed prominent choroiditis with extensive retinal damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed substantially increased numbers of CD44IL-17IFN-γ memory T-helper 17 (Th17) cells in the retina, cervical lymph nodes, inguinal lymph nodes, and spleen. These data establish new modified protocols for inducing chronic uveitis in wild-type mice, and demonstrate a predominant memory Th17 cell response, suggesting an important role for memory Th17 cells in driving chronic inflammation in autoimmune uveitis.
CONTEXT: Cognitive dysfunction is a growing and understudied public health issue in the aging type 1 diabetic population and is difficult and time-consuming to diagnose. Studies in long duration type 1 diabetes have reported the presence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy was associated with cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether structural and vascular abnormalities of the retina, representing an extension of the central nervous system, are associated with cognitive impairment and other complications of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study of individuals with 50 or more years of type 1 diabetes (Joslin Medalist Study) was conducted at a university hospital in the United States. The study included 129 participants with complete cognitive testing. Validated cognitive testing measures included psychomotor speed, and immediate, and delayed memory. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) were performed to obtain neural retinal layer thicknesses and vascular density for superficial (SCP) and deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP). Multivariable modeling was adjusted for potential confounders associated with outcomes in unadjusted analyses. RESULTS: Decreased vessel density of the SCP and DCP was associated with worse delayed memory (DCP: P = .002) and dominant hand psychomotor speed (SCP: P = .01). Thinning of the retinal outer nuclear layer was associated with worse psychomotor speed both in nondominant and dominant hands (P = .01 and P = .05, respectively). Outer plexiform layer thickness was associated with delayed memory (P = .04). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that noninvasive retinal imaging using OCT and OCTA may assist in estimating the risks for cognitive dysfunction in people with type 1 diabetes.
Georgiou M, Fujinami K, Vincent A, Nasser F, Khateb S, Vargas ME, Thiadens AAHJ, de Carvalho ER, Nguyen X-T-A, Cabral De Guimarães TA, Robson AG, Mahroo OA, Pontikos N, Arno G, Fujinami-Yokokawa Y, Leo SM, Liu X, Tsunoda K, Hayashi T, Jimenez-Rolando B, Martin-Merida MI, Avila-Fernandez A, Carreño E, Garcia-Sandoval B, Carmen A, Sharon D, Kohl S, Huckfeldt RM, Boon CJF, Banin E, Pennesi ME, Wissinger B, Webster AR, Héon E, Khan AO, Zrenner E, Michaelides M. KCNV2-associated Retinopathy: Detailed Retinal Phenotype and Structural Endpoints - KCNV2 Study Group Report 2. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the detailed retinal phenotype of KCNV2-associated retinopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter international retrospective case series. METHODS: Review of retinal imaging including fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), including qualitative and quantitative analyses. RESULTS: Three distinct macular FAF features were identified: i) centrally increased signal (n=35, 41.7%), ii) DAF (n=27, 31.1%), and iii) ring of increased signal (n=37, 44.0%). Five distinct FAF groups were identified based on combinations of those characteristics, with 23.5% of patients changing FAF group over a mean (range) follow-up of 5.9 years (1.9-13.1 years). Qualitative assessment was performed by grading OCT into five grades: (i) continuous EZ (20.5%), (ii) EZ disruption (26.1%), (iii) EZ absence, without optical gap and with preserved retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) complex (21.6%); iv) loss of EZ and an hyporeflective zone at the foveola (6.8%); and (v) outer retina and RPE complex loss (25.0%). Eighty-six patients had scans available from both eyes, with 83 (96.5%) having the same grade in both eyes, and 36.1% changed OCT grade over a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. The annual rate of ONL thickness change was similar for right and left eyes. CONCLUSION: KCNV2-associated retinopathy is a slowly progressive disease with early retinal changes, which are predominantly symmetric between eyes. The identification of a single OCT or FAF measurement as an endpoint to determine progression that applies to all patients may be challenging; although ONL thickness is a potential biomarker. Findings suggest a potential window for intervention until 40 years of age.
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a prevalent cause of vision loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) has been identified as an important mediator of aberrant retinal angiogenesis in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and its modulation has proven to be effective in curbing pathologic angiogenesis in experimental oxygen-induced retinopathy. However, its role in CNV remains to be elucidated. This study demonstrates RUNX1 expression in critical cell types involved in a laser-induced model of CNV in mice. Furthermore, the preclinical efficacy of Ro5-3335, a small molecule inhibitor of RUNX1, in experimental CNV is reported. RUNX1 inhibitor Ro5-3335, aflibercept-an FDA-approved vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, or a combination of both, were administered by intravitreal injection immediately after laser injury. The CNV area of choroidal flatmounts was evaluated by immunostaining with isolectin B4, and vascular permeability was analyzed by fluorescein angiography. A single intravitreal injection of Ro5-3335 significantly decreased the CNV area 7 days after laser injury, and when combined with aflibercept, reduced vascular leakage more effectively than aflibercept alone. These data suggest that RUNX1 inhibition alone or in combination with anti-VEGF drugs may be a new therapy upon further clinical validation for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
OBJECTIVES: To compare sociodemographics and vision-related quality of life (QoL) of individuals with or without dry eye disease (DED); and to explore the impact of DED symptom severity on visual function, activity limitations and work productivity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional web-based survey. SETTING: General UK population. PARTICIPANTS: Adults ≥18 years with (N=1002) or without (N=1003) self-reported DED recruited through email and screened. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All participants completed the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), with six additional questions (items A3-A8), and the EuroQol 5 dimensions 5 levels. DED participants also completed Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life questionnaire, 5-item Dry Eye Questionnaire and the Standardised Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness questionnaire along with the Ocular Comfort Index, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment and the Eye Dryness Score (EDS), a Visual Analogue Scale. RESULTS: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in participants with versus without DED (mean age, 55.2 vs 55.0 years; 61.8% vs 61.0% women, respectively) based on recruitment targets. Scores were derived from NEI VFQ-25 using the new 28-item revised VFQ (VFQ-28R) scoring. Mean (SD) VFQ-28R scores were lower in participants with versus without DED, indicating worse functioning (activity limitations, 73.3 (12.3) vs 84.4 (12.3); socioemotional functioning, 75.3 (21.5) vs 90.3 (16.2); total score, 71.6 (12.8) vs 83.6 (12.6)). Higher percentages of problems/inability to do activities were observed among those with versus without DED. The impact of DED on visual function was worse for participants with more severe DED symptoms, as assessed by EDS. In addition, a higher EDS was associated with worse symptoms on common DED scales and a worse impact on work productivity. CONCLUSIONS: DED symptoms were associated with negative effects on visual function, activities and work productivity, whereas worse DED symptoms had a greater impact on vision-related QoL and work productivity.
PURPOSE: Since eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema (CI-DME) and good baseline visual acuity (VA) showed no difference in VA loss when managed initially with observation, laser, or aflibercept, understanding the estimated costs of these strategies to the US population is relevant for health care planning. DESIGN: Pre-planned subgroup analysis from a randomized controlled trial METHODS, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Total costs for managing participants with CI-DME and good baseline VA assigned to aflibercept (n= 236), laser (n=240), or observation (n = 236) during the 2-year trial were calculated. Using epidemiological data and extrapolating costs, 10-year costs for caring for persons with CI-DME and good baseline VA throughout the US was estimated. INTERVENTIONS: Observation or laser groups initiated aflibercept if VA decreased. Aflibercept group received injections up to every 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Estimated 10-year U.S. population costs to manage CI-DME with good VA. RESULTS: Assuming all patients in the US with CI-DME and good baseline VA received aflibercept initially, 10-year costs were projected to be $28.80 billion compared with $14.42 billion if initially receiving laser treatment or $15.70 billion if initially observed, with aflibercept added if VA worsened in the laser or observation arms. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Similar VA outcomes on average are obtained by initially managing CI-DME and good baseline VA with laser or observation strategies instead of immediately using aflibercept. While any one of these three strategies might be warranted depending on an individual's specific circumstances, on a societal level, cost savings might be achieved with these first two approaches. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01909791.