PURPOSE: To describe the long-term surgical course of patients with open globe injury. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients with open globe injuries (848 in total) treated surgically at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Data from presentation, initial repair, and follow-up surgery were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 848 injuries, 1415 surgical procedures were performed. The mean follow-up time was 19.7 months, including 6017 visits. On average, patients required 1.7 surgeries and 7.1 follow-up visits. Factors predicting follow-up surgery included more severe ocular trauma score, worse prerepair visual acuity, retinal hemorrhage, anterior vitrectomy at primary repair, pars plana vitrectomy at primary repair, and lensectomy at primary repair. Patients with zone II injury, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, and a history of previous ocular surgery tended to require follow-up surgery less frequently. Patients requiring a second surgery tended to have worse visual acuity at presentation and postrepair. Postoperative visual outcomes were worse for patients who underwent vitreoretinal follow-up surgery, likely because of mechanism of injury. Variables associated with inferior visual outcome were worse prerepair visual acuity, postoperative afferent pupillary defect (APD), old age, scleral laceration, and retinal detachment. CONCLUSION: Open globe injuries require significant surgical follow-up. Patients requiring multiple operations tended to have worse postoperative visual acuity. Patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery had overall worse visual outcomes. While the first year of surveillance appears to be pivotal in the course of an open globe injury, these patients can expect long-term care from comprehensive and subspecialty ophthalmologists.
Age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma are among the many retinal degenerative diseases where retinal cell death leads to irreversible vision loss and blindness. Working toward a cell-replacement-based therapy for such diseases, a number of research groups have recently evaluated the feasibility of using retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) cultured and transplanted on biodegradable polymer substrates to replace damaged retinal tissue. Appropriate polymer substrate design is essential to providing a three-dimensional environment that can facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and post-transplantation migration into the host environment. In this study, we have designed and fabricated a novel, ultra-thin electrospun poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold with microscale fiber diameters, appropriate porosity for infiltration by RPCs, and biologically compatible mechanical characteristics. We have verified that our electrospun PCL scaffold supports robust mouse RPC proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation in vitro, as well as migration into mouse retinal explants. These promising results make PCL a strong candidate for further development as a cell transplantation substrate in retinal regenerative research.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly. AMD progression is associated with alterations in inflammatory pathways and the immune system. A new study identifies a protective role for inflammasomes in AMD, suggesting that inflammasome activation might be manipulated as a potential therapeutic strategy for this condition (pages 791-798).
PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of blindness in children and is, in its most severe form, characterized by uncontrolled growth of vision-threatening pathologic vessels. Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker, was reported to protect against pathologic retinal neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Based on this single animal study using nonstandard evaluation of retinopathy, clinical trials are currently ongoing to evaluate propranolol treatment in stage 2 ROP patients who tend to experience spontaneous disease regression and are at low risk of blindness. Because these ROP patients are vulnerable premature infants who are still in a fragile state of incomplete development, the efficacy of propranolol treatment in retinopathy needs to be evaluated thoroughly in preclinical animal models of retinopathy and potential benefits weighed against potential adverse effects. METHODS: Retinopathy was induced by exposing neonatal mice to 75% oxygen from postnatal day (P) 7 to P12. Three routes of propranolol treatment were assessed from P12 to P16: oral gavage, intraperitoneal injection, or subcutaneous injection, with doses varying between 2 and 60 mg/kg/day. At P17, retinal flatmounts were stained with isolectin and quantified with a standard protocol to measure vasoobliteration and pathologic neovascularization. Retinal gene expression was analyzed with qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from retinas of control and propranolol-treated pups. RESULTS: None of the treatment approaches at any dose of propranolol (up to 60 mg/kg/day) were effective in preventing the development of retinopathy in a mouse model of OIR, evaluated using standard techniques. Propranolol treatment also did not change retinal expression of angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor. CONCLUSIONS: Propranolol treatment via three routes and up to 30 times the standard human dose failed to suppress retinopathy development in mice. These data bring into question whether propranolol through inhibition of β-adrenergic receptors is an appropriate therapeutic approach for treating ROP.
Pituicytomas are rare neoplasms of the sellar region. We report a case of vision loss and a junctional scotoma in a 43-year-old woman caused by compression of the optic chiasm by a pituitary tumor. The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor were consistent with the diagnosis of pituicytoma. The tumor was debulked surgically, and the patient's vision improved.
UNLABELLED: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are leading causes of hospital-acquired infections in the United States, and clonal cluster 5 (CC5) is the predominant lineage responsible for these infections. Since 2002, there have been 12 cases of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) infection in the United States-all CC5 strains. To understand this genetic background and what distinguishes it from other lineages, we generated and analyzed high-quality draft genome sequences for all available VRSA strains. Sequence comparisons show unambiguously that each strain independently acquired Tn1546 and that all VRSA strains last shared a common ancestor over 50 years ago, well before the occurrence of vancomycin resistance in this species. In contrast to existing hypotheses on what predisposes this lineage to acquire Tn1546, the barrier posed by restriction systems appears to be intact in most VRSA strains. However, VRSA (and other CC5) strains were found to possess a constellation of traits that appears to be optimized for proliferation in precisely the types of polymicrobic infection where transfer could occur. They lack a bacteriocin operon that would be predicted to limit the occurrence of non-CC5 strains in mixed infection and harbor a cluster of unique superantigens and lipoproteins to confound host immunity. A frameshift in dprA, which in other microbes influences uptake of foreign DNA, may also make this lineage conducive to foreign DNA acquisition. IMPORTANCE: Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection now ranks among the leading causes of death in the United States. Vancomycin is a key last-line bactericidal drug for treating these infections. However, since 2002, vancomycin resistance has entered this species. Of the now 12 cases of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), each was believed to represent a new acquisition of the vancomycin-resistant transposon Tn1546 from enterococcal donors. All acquisitions of Tn1546 so far have occurred in MRSA strains of the clonal cluster 5 genetic background, the most common hospital lineage causing hospital-acquired MRSA infection. To understand the nature of these strains, we determined and examined the nucleotide sequences of the genomes of all available VRSA. Genome comparison identified candidate features that position strains of this lineage well for acquiring resistance to antibiotics in mixed infection.
PURPOSE: To compare a theoretical pharmacokinetic model of triamcinolone acetonide after posterior sub-Tenon's injection with experimental serum and undiluted vitreous triamcinolone acetonide concentrations obtained during pars plana vitrectomy. DESIGN: Clinical-practice, prospective, interventional case series study. METHODS: This study compared computer-modeled triamcinolone acetonide diffusion after posterior sub-Tenon's injection with triamcinolone acetonide levels in experimental undiluted vitreous and serum samples from 57 patients undergoing vitrectomy assessed via mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography. At least 5 pairs of samples were collected at each of 7 time points (1 day, 3 days, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks) after triamcinolone acetonide injection, with 6 controls without injection. Cortisol levels were measured in 31 sets of samples. RESULTS: The theoretical model predicted that triamcinolone acetonide levels in systemic blood, vitreous, and choroidal extracellular matrix would plateau after 3 days at 15 ng/mL, 227 ng/mL and 2230 ng/mL, respectively. Experimental vitreous levels of triamcinolone peaked at 111 ng/mL at day 1, then reached a plateau in the range 15 to 25 ng/mL, while serum triamcinolone levels peaked at day 3 near 35 ng/mL and plateaued near 2 to 8 ng/mL. Serum triamcinolone and cortisol levels were inversely correlated (Spearman -0.42, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: The theoretical model predicts efficient delivery of triamcinolone acetonide from the posterior sub-Tenon's space to the extracellular choroidal matrix. The experimental findings demonstrate low levels of serum triamcinolone that alter systemic cortisol levels and higher vitreous levels lasting at least 1 month. Both assessments support trans-scleral delivery of posterior sub-Tenon's triamcinolone.
Many molecular and cellular abnormalities detected in the diabetic retina support a role for IL-1β-driven neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. IL-1β is well known for its role in the induction and, through autostimulation, amplification of neuroinflammation. Upregulation of IL-1β has been consistently detected in the diabetic retina; however, the mechanisms and cellular source of IL-1β overexpression are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose and IL-1β itself on IL-1β expression in microglial, macroglial (astrocytes and Müller cells) and retinal vascular endothelial cells; and to study the effect of diabetes on the expression of IL-1β in isolated retinal vessels and on the temporal pattern of IL-1β upregulation and glial reactivity in the retina of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. IL-1β was quantified by RealTime RT-PCR and ELISA, glial fibrillar acidic protein, α2-macroglobulin, and ceruloplasmin by immunoblotting. We found that high glucose induced a 3-fold increase of IL-1β expression in retinal endothelial cells but not in macroglia and microglia. IL-1β induced its own synthesis in endothelial and macroglial cells but not in microglia. In retinal endothelial cells, the high glucose-induced IL-1β overexpression was prevented by calphostin C, a protein kinase C inhibitor. The retinal vessels of diabetic rats showed increased IL-1β expression as compared to non-diabetic rats. Retinal expression of IL-1β increased early after the induction of diabetes, continued to increase with progression of the disease, and was temporally associated with upregulation of markers of glial activation. These findings point to hyperglycemia as the trigger and to the endothelium as the origin of the initial retinal upregulation of IL-1β in diabetes; and to IL-1β itself, via autostimulation in endothelial and macroglial cells, as the mechanism of sustained IL-1β overexpression. Interrupting the vicious circle triggered by IL-1β autostimulation could limit the progression of diabetic retinopathy.
BACKGROUND: The retinal rod outer segment is a sensory cilium that is specialized for the conversion of light into an electrical signal. Within the cilium, up to several thousand membranous disks contain as many as a billion copies of rhodopsin for efficient photon capture. Disks are continually turned over, requiring the daily synthesis of a prodigious amount of rhodopsin. To promote axial diffusion in the aqueous cytoplasm, the disks have one or more incisures. Across vertebrates, the range of disk diameters spans an order of magnitude, and the number and length of the incisures vary considerably, but the mechanisms controlling disk architecture are not well understood. The finding that transgenic mice overexpressing rhodopsin have enlarged disks lacking an incisure prompted us to test whether lowered rhodopsin levels constrain disk assembly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The structure and function of rods from hemizygous rhodopsin knockout (R+/-) mice with decreased rhodopsin expression were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and single cell recording. R+/- rods were structurally altered in three ways: disk shape changed from circular to elliptical, disk surface area decreased, and the single incisure lengthened to divide the disk into two sections. Photocurrent responses to flashes recovered more rapidly than normal. A spatially resolved model of phototransduction indicated that changes in the packing densities of rhodopsin and other transduction proteins were responsible. The decrease in aqueous outer segment volume and the lengthened incisure had only minor effects on photon response amplitude and kinetics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rhodopsin availability limits disk assembly and outer segment girth in normal rods. The incisure may buffer the supply of structural proteins needed to form larger disks. Decreased rhodopsin level accelerated photoresponse kinetics by increasing the rates of molecular collisions on the membrane. Faster responses, together with fewer rhodopsins, combine to lower overall sensitivity of R+/- rods to light.
Certain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms are associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a sight-threatening complication that develops in a subset of patients recovering from retinal reattachment surgery. Although these PDGF isoforms are abundant in the vitreous of patients and experimental animals with PVR, they make only a minor contribution to activating PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) and driving experimental PVR. Rather, growth factors outside of the PDGF family are the primary (and indirect) agonists of PDGFRα. These observations beg the question of why vitreal PDGFs fail to activate PDGFRα. We report here that vitreous contains an inhibitor of PDGF-dependent activation of PDGFRα and that a major portion of this inhibitory activity is due to vascular endothelial cell growth factor A (VEGF-A). Furthermore, recombinant VEGF-A competitively blocks PDGF-dependent binding and activation of PDGFR, signaling events, and cellular responses. These findings unveil a previously unappreciated relationship between distant members of the PDGF/VEGF family that may contribute to pathogenesis of a blinding eye disease.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), which marks myoepithelial cells (MECs), by immunofluorescence microscopy (IF). Small, immature cells were isolated after digestion of LG with collagenase and culture in RPMI 1640 for 2 weeks. Immature cells were examined for expression of stem cell markers by IF. Immature cell were grown in neuronal, epithelial, and myoepithelial cell media, and examined by light morphology and IF using antibodies to markers of different cell lineages. RESULTS: In the intact LGs, MECs expressed the stem cell markers nestin, Musashi 1, ABCG2, Pax6, Chx 10, ΔN p63, and Sox 2. All markers colocalized with SMA. Isolated immature cells contained Ki-67, nestin, Musashi 1, Pax 6, and CHX 10. In neuronal media, immature cells differentiated and assumed a neuronal cell morphology expressing neurofilament 200. In media for human corneal endothelial cells, immature cells differentiated, assumed cobblestone morphology, and labeled with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. In RPMI media immature cells differentiated into cells with MEC-like morphology, and expressed the MEC markers SMA, α-actinin, adenylate cyclase II, and vimentin. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that uninjured, adult LG contains progenitor cells that may be MECs, which can be isolated and differentiated into multiple lineages.
The increasing popularity of the Cre/loxP recombination system has led to the generation of numerous transgenic mouse lines in which Cre recombinase is expressed under the control of organ- or cell-specific promoters. Alterations in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a multifunctional cell monolayer that separates the retinal photoreceptors from the choroid, are prevalent in the pathogenesis of a number of ocular disorders, including age-related macular degeneration. To date, six transgenic mouse lines have been developed that target Cre to the RPE under the control of various gene promoters. However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that high levels of Cre expression can be toxic to mammalian cells. In this study, we report that in the Trp1-Cre mouse, a commonly used transgenic Cre strain for RPE gene function studies, Cre recombinase expression alone leads to RPE dysfunction and concomitant disorganization of RPE layer morphology, large areas of RPE atrophy, retinal photoreceptor dysfunction, and microglial cell activation in the affected areas. The phenotype described herein is similar to previously published reports of conditional gene knockouts that used the Trp1-Cre mouse, suggesting that Cre toxicity alone could account for some of the reported phenotypes and highlighting the importance of the inclusion of Cre-expressing mice as controls in conditional gene targeting studies.
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic capability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma patients with visual field defects. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: SETTINGS: Participants were recruited from a university hospital clinic. STUDY POPULATION: One eye of 85 normal subjects and 61 glaucoma patients with average visual field mean deviation of -9.61 ± 8.76 dB was selected randomly for the study. A subgroup of the glaucoma patients with early visual field defects was calculated separately. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Spectralis optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc) circular scans were performed to obtain peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses. The RNFL diagnostic parameters based on the normative database were used alone or in combination for identifying glaucomatous RNFL thinning. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To evaluate diagnostic performance, calculations included areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio. RESULTS: Overall RNFL thickness had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values: 0.952 for all patients and 0.895 for the early glaucoma subgroup. For all patients, the highest sensitivity (98.4%; 95% confidence interval, 96.3% to 100%) was achieved by using 2 criteria: ≥ 1 RNFL sectors being abnormal at the < 5% level and overall classification of borderline or outside normal limits, with specificities of 88.9% (95% confidence interval, 84.0% to 94.0%) and 87.1% (95% confidence interval, 81.6% to 92.5%), respectively, for these 2 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Statistical parameters for evaluating the diagnostic performance of the Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were good for early perimetric glaucoma and were excellent for moderately advanced perimetric glaucoma.
A ring-enhancing lesion is an uncommon cause of a dorsal midbrain syndrome. Here, we describe the case of a 60-year-old man with eye movement and pupillary findings consistent with dorsal midbrain syndrome, and in whom neuroimaging showed a single ring-enhancing lesion in the right midbrain and thalamus. Further investigation revealed a longstanding right groin mass which proved to be a malignant melanoma. His intracranial lesion was presumed to be a metastatic lesion, and treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. We report the patient's clinical course, and discuss the diagnosis and management of the solitary midbrain lesion.
PURPOSE: Human adenovirus species D type 19 (HAdV-D19) has been associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a highly inflammatory infection of the ocular surface. Confusion exists regarding the origins of HAdV-D19. The prototype virus (HAdV-D19p) does not cause EKC, while a virus identified later with the identical serologic determinant is a significant ocular pathogen. METHODS: High throughput genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were performed on HAdV-D19p and three HAdV-D19 EKC strains, and compared to the previously sequenced clinical isolate, HAdV-D19 (C) and HAdV-D37. Corneas of C57BL/6J mice were injected with HAdV-D19p, HAdV-D19 (C), or virus-free buffer, and inflammation assessed by clinical examination, flow cytometry, and cytokine ELISA. Confocal microscopy and real-time PCR of infected corneal cell cultures were used to test viral entry. RESULTS: HAdV-D19 (C) and the other clinical EKC isolates showed nearly 100% sequence identity. EKC strains diverged from HAdV-D19p in the penton base, E3, and fiber transcription units. Simplot analysis showed recombination between EKC-associated HAdV-D19 with HAdV-D37, HAdV-D22, and HAdV-D19p, the latter contributing only the hexon gene, the principal serum neutralization determinant. HAdV-D19p induced stromal keratitis in the C57BL/6J mouse, but failed to infect productively human corneal epithelial cells. These data led to retyping of the clinical EKC isolates with a HAdV-D19 hexon gene as HAdV-D64. CONCLUSIONS: HAdV-D19 associated with EKC (HAdV-D64) originated from a recombination between HAdV-D19p, HAdV-D37, and HAdV-D22, and was mischaracterized because of a shared hexon gene. HAdV-D19p is not infectious for corneal epithelial cells, thus explaining the lack of any association with keratitis.