The treatment of hemifacial spasm with periorbital injections of higher doses of botulinum toxin can create disfiguring and undesirable weakness in the lower face during active facial movements. The use of asymmetric hyaluronidate filler injections to the lower face provides a refinement allowing for a lowered neurotoxin dose. The filler creates a ballasting effect and involuntary facial movement. The conventional filler effect also further reduces asymmetric nasolabial folds and marionette lines. Fifteen of 18 patients with lower facial spasms found the filler toxin combination an improvement over neurotoxin alone.
Synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a transcript's coding region produce no change in the amino acid sequence of the protein product and are therefore intuitively assumed to have a neutral effect on protein function. We report that two common variants of high-temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) that increase the inherited risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NvAMD) harbor synonymous SNPs within exon 1 of HTRA1 that convert common codons for Ala34 and Gly36 to less frequently used codons. The frequent-to-rare codon conversion reduced the mRNA translation rate and appeared to compromise HtrA1's conformation and function. The protein product generated from the SNP-containing cDNA displayed enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis and a reduced affinity for an anti-HtrA1 antibody. The NvAMD-associated synonymous polymorphisms lie within HtrA1's putative insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) binding domain. They reduced HtrA1's abilities to associate with IGF-1 and to ameliorate IGF-1-stimulated signaling events and cellular responses. These observations highlight the relevance of synonymous codon usage to protein function and implicate homeostatic protein quality control mechanisms that may go awry in NvAMD.
Steady state dendritic cells (DC) found in non-lymphoid tissue sites under normal physiologic conditions play a pivotal role in triggering T cell responses upon immune provocation. CD11b+ and CD103+ DC have received considerable attention in this regard. However, still unknown is whether such CD11b+ and CD103+ DC even exist in the ocular mucosa, and if so, what functions they have in shaping immune responses. We herein identified in the ocular mucosa of normal wild-type (WT) and Flt3-/- mice the presence of a CD11b+ DC (i.e., CD11c+ MHCII+ CD11b+ CD103- F4/80+ Sirp-a+). CD103+ DC (i.e. CD11c+ MHCII+ CD11b low CD103+ CD8a+ DEC205+ Langerin+) were also present in WT, but not in Flt3-/- mice. These CD103+ DC expressed high levels of Id2 and Flt3 mRNA; whereas CD11b+ DC expressed high Irf4, Csfr, and Cx3cr1 mRNA. Additionally, the functions of these DC differed in response to allergic immune provocation. This was assessed utilizing a previously validated model, which includes transferring specific populations of exogenous DC into the ocular mucosa of ovalbumin (OVA)/alum-primed mice. Interestingly, in such mice, topical OVA instillation following engraftment of exogenous CD11b+ DC led to dominant allergic T cell responses and clinical signs of ocular allergy relative to those engrafted with CD103+ DC. Thus, although CD11b+ and CD103+ DC are both present in the normal ocular mucosa, the CD11b+ DC subset plays a dominant role in a mouse model of ocular allergy.
PURPOSE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation is largely unknown. SPARC-null mice demonstrate a lower IOP resulting from increased outflow. SPARC is a matricellular protein often associated with fibrosis. We hypothesized that SPARC overexpression would alter IOP by affecting extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and/or turnover in the trabecular meshwork (TM). METHODS: An adenoviral vector containing human SPARC was used to increase SPARC expression in human TM endothelial cells and perfused human anterior segments using multiplicities of infection (MOIs) 25 or 50. Total RNA from TM was used for quantitative PCR, while protein from cell lysates and conditioned media were used for immunoblot analyses and zymography. After completion of perfusion, the anterior segments were fixed, sectioned, and examined by light and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: SPARC overexpression increased the IOP of perfused human anterior segments. Fibronectin and collagens IV and I protein levels were elevated in both TM cell cultures and within the juxtacanalicular (JCT) region of perfused anterior segments. Collagen VI and laminin protein levels were increased in TM cell cultures but not in perfused anterior segments. The protein levels of pro-MMP-9 decreased while the kinetic inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and PAI-1 protein levels, increased at MOI 25. At MOI 50, the protein levels of pro-MMP-1, -3, and -9 also decreased while PAI-1 and TIMP-1 and -3 increased. Only MMP-9 activity was decreased on zymography. mRNA levels of the collagens, fibronectin, and laminin were not affected by SPARC overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: SPARC overexpression increases IOP in perfused cadaveric human anterior segments resulting from a qualitative change the JCT ECM. Selective decrease of MMP-9 activity is likely part of the mechanism. SPARC is a regulatory node for IOP.
PURPOSE: Immunohistochemical studies have begun to advance knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of vascular anomalies in many anatomical regions. However, the immunohistochemical features of most orbital tumors have been overlooked. Therefore, a comparative immunohistochemical study of a series of the 2 most common orbital vascular lesions- infantile hemangioma (IH) and encapsulated cavernous venous lesion (ECVL), the latter also termed cavernous hemangioma or venous malformation-was undertaken. METHODS: Twenty surgically excised orbital tumors diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as IHs (10 cases) or "cavernous hemangioma" (10 cases) were evaluated pathologically and immunohistochemically using hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue, Masson trichrome, GLUT-1, CD31, CD34, D2-40, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, and Ki-67 probes. RESULTS: All cases reacted strongly with the traditional blood vessel endothelial markers CD31 and CD34 and were negative for D2-40, a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium. All IH were positive for GLUT-1, and all ECVL were negative for GLUT-1. In IH, SMA (but not desmin) stained a monolayer of pericytes and in ECVL multilaminar smooth muscle vascular mural cells and intravascular (interstitial) stromal cells. Nuclear Ki-67 immunostaining was strongly positive in IH (average of 16.3%) and close to zero in ECVL. CONCLUSIONS: Immunophenotypic results for ECVL and IH demonstrated no overlapping staining patterns. Infantile hemangioma had the classical architecture of capillaries. Because of the constant presence of mural smooth muscle, it was concluded that ECVL is an accurate and descriptive term. However, desmin negativity in ECVL indicates myofibroblastic differentiation rather than full-fledged smooth muscle differentiation. Infantile hemangioma may display ectatic channels as the lesion ages but does not acquire multilaminar smooth muscle walls. Its pericytes lack cytoplasmic filaments and desmin reactivity but are SMA-positive because of the presence of poorly polymerized actin in the cytosol. In IH, Ki-67 positivity was observed in the endothelial cells of the solid and more ectatic regions. In contrast, the virtual absence of Ki-67 positivity in ECVL lends further support for the interpretation that it is more closely related to a malformation than a benign neoplasm.
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor of mesenchymal origin that usually arises from pleura or pericardium but can also arise from many extraserosal sites. Although more than 50 cases of primary SFT of the orbit have been reported, there are no reports to date of a malignant nonophthalmic SFT metastasizing in the orbital soft tissues (although sphenoid wing bony involvement has been reported). The authors report here the first case of a patient with intraorbital metastasis of a CD34-positive malignant SFT. The patient was a 57-year-old man with a history of malignant pleural SFT and a prior kidney metastasis. He presented with the rapid appearance of proptosis and massive conjunctival chemosis preventing eyelid closure, and he was found to have a well-circumscribed metastasis to his lateral rectus muscle. Surgical excision cured his ocular symptoms, although he died 3 months later from brain and widespread metastases.
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) exemplifies a disease that is difficult to predict, lacks effective treatment options, and substantially reduces the quality of life of an individual. Surgery to correct a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment fails primarily because of PVR. Likely mediators of PVR are growth factors in vitreous, which stimulate cells within and behind the retina as an inevitable consequence of a breached retina. Three classes of growth factors [vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs), and non-PDGFs (growth factors outside of the PDGF family)] are relevant to PVR pathogenesis because they act on PDGF receptor α, which is required for experimental PVR and is associated with this disease in humans. We discovered that ranibizumab (a clinically approved agent that neutralizes VEGF-A) reduced the bioactivity of vitreous from patients and experimental animals with PVR, and protected rabbits from developing disease. The apparent mechanism of ranibizumab action involved derepressing PDGFs, which, at the concentrations present in PVR vitreous, inhibited non-PDGF-mediated activation of PDGF receptor α. These preclinical findings suggest that available approaches to neutralize VEGF-A are prophylactic for PVR, and that anti-VEGF-based therapies may be effective for managing more than angiogenesis- and edema-driven pathological conditions.
OBJECTIVE: To identify nutritional and weight gain limitations associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) severity among very preterm newborns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1180 infants <28 weeks GA at birth with ROP examination results were grouped and analyzed by quartile of weekly total calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intake, as well as growth velocity between postnatal days 7 and 28 (adjusted for GA and birth weight Z-score). ROP was categorized by development of no, mild (
Epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces impose multiple barriers to viral infection. At the ocular surface, the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 maintains barrier function by cross-linking transmembrane mucins on the apical glycocalyx. Despite these defense mechanisms, many viruses have evolved to exploit fundamental cellular processes on host cells. Here, we use affinity assays to show that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), but not HSV-2, binds human galectin-3. Knockdown of galectin-3 in human corneal keratinocytes by small interfering RNA significantly impaired HSV-1 infection, but not expression of nectin-1, indicating that galectin-3 is a herpesvirus entry mediator. Interestingly, exposure of epithelial cell cultures to transmembrane mucin isolates decreased viral infectivity. Moreover, HSV-1 failed to elute the biological counterreceptor MUC16 from galectin-3 affinity columns, suggesting that association of transmembrane mucins to galectin-3 provides protection against viral infection. Together, these results indicate that HSV-1 exploits galectin-3 to enhance virus attachment to host cells and support a protective role for transmembrane mucins under physiological conditions by masking viral entry mediators on the epithelial glycocalyx.
We report a new mechanism of ocular trauma. A basketball was intentionally overinflated until it exploded, resulting in corneal edema, hyphema, iritis, vitreous hemorrhage, commotio retinae, and a macular hole. The macular hole did not close after observation and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid removal, but a repeat vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling resulted in hole closure. Basketball overinflation to the point of explosion is a potentially blinding practice of which the public and manufacturers should be made aware.
PURPOSE: The Cutler-Beard procedure is a commonly used technique to reconstruct large upper eyelid defects. Eyelid retraction and entropion are common complications. To prevent these problems, the authors modified the traditional Cutler-Beard procedure with secondary placement of an autologous tarsoconjunctival graft. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 2 patients with large upper eyelid defects necessitating upper eyelid reconstruction. The initial stage is unaltered. At the time of flap division, a tarsoconjunctival graft from the contralateral upper eyelid is sutured to the posterior surface of the newly constructed upper eyelid. Two patients underwent this procedure, and follow up was 4 and 23 months, respectively. Patients developed no postoperative complications, including entropion or retraction. CONCLUSIONS: This modification to the Cutler-Beard operation is a technically simple procedure that can restore a more anatomically correct eyelid and can prevent subsequent entropion or retraction. This technique is unique, offering 3 major advances: first, placing the graft at the second surgical stage; second, replacing the tarsus and conjunctiva with like tissue; and third, preserving a lip of conjunctiva to cover the edge of the newly reconstructed upper eyelid.