A 75-year-old man presented with a recurrent, unilateral, solitary, linear, corrugated lesion of the right upper eyelid of prolonged duration together with bilateral dermatochalasis. A re-excision with blepharoplasty was performed. Histopathologic analysis of the tissue revealed parallel linear arrays of papillomatosis and acanthosis with overlying basket-weave hyperkeratosis consistent with a linear epidermal nevus. Immunohistochemical studies disclosed normal numbers of intraepidermal melanocytes and Langerhans cells without Merkel cells or an increase in cycling keratinocytes. Although the term "nevus" is mostly used in conjunction with the common nevomelanocytic nevus, in fact nevi of other cutaneous cellular elements can occur on a malformational basis (such as sebaceous, eccrine, apocrine, pilar, and elastic fiber nevi). Ophthalmologists should be aware of epidermal nevi because they are rarely associated with cataracts, malignant cutaneous neoplasms, neurologic abnormalities, and musculoskeletal disorders. For focal lesions like the present one, local excision is appropriate. A select differential diagnosis of histopathologically related conditions is provided.
The purpose of the study was to investigate if the number of goblet cells expanded ex vivo from a conjunctival explant is affected by the biopsy harvesting site on the conjunctiva and the distance from the explant. Conjunctival explants from six regions: superior and inferior bulbus, fornix, and tarsus of male Sprague-Dawley rats were grown in RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum on coverslips for eight days. Histochemical and immunofluorescent staining of goblet (CK-7/UEA-1/MUC5AC), stratified squamous, non-goblet (CK-4), proliferating (PCNA) and progenitor (ABCG2) cells were analyzed by epifluorescence and laser confocal microscopy. Outgrowth was measured with NIH ImageJ. For statistical analysis the Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank-order correlation test were used. Cultures from superior and inferior fornix contained the most goblet cells as indicated by the presence of CK-7+, UEA-1+ and MUC5AC+ cells. Superior and inferior forniceal cultures displayed 60.8% ± 9.2% and 64.7% ± 6.7% CK-7+ cells, respectively, compared to the superior tarsal (26.6% ± 8.4%; P < 0.05), superior bulbar (31.0% ± 4.0%; P < 0.05), inferior bulbar (38.5% ± 9.3%; P < 0.05) and inferior tarsal cultures (27.7% ± 8.3%; P < 0.05). While 28.4% ± 6.3% of CK-7+ goblet cells co-labeled with PCNA, only 7.4% ± 1.6% of UEA-1+ goblet cells did (P < 0.01). CK-7+ goblet cells were located at a lower concentration close to the explant (39.8% ± 3.1%) compared to near the leading edge (58.2% ± 4.5%; P < 0.05). Both markers for goblet cell secretory product (UEA-1 and MUC5AC), however, displayed the opposite pattern with a higher percentage of positive cells close to the explant than near the leading edge (P < 0.05). The percentage of CK-4+ cells was higher near the explant compared to near the leading edge (P < 0.01). The percentage of CK-7+ goblet cells in the cultures did not correlate with the outgrowth size (r(s) = -0.086; P = 0.435). The percentage of UEA-1+ goblet cells correlated negatively with outgrowth size (r(s) = -0.347; P < 0.01), whereas the percentage of CK-4+ cells correlated positively with the outgrowth size (r(s) = 0.473; P < 0.05). We conclude that forniceal explants yield the highest number of goblet cells ex vivo and thereby seem to be optimal for goblet cell transplantation. We also suggest that CK-7+/UEA-1- cells represent highly proliferative immature goblet cells. These cells could be important during conjunctival migration as they are mostly located close to the leading edge and their density does not decrease with increasing outgrowth size.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a novel primary orbital vascular tumor combining elements of a vascular leiomyoma (angioleiomyoma) and a cavernous hemangioma. METHODS: A critical review of clinical records, diagnostic tests, and radiographic studies combined with histopathologic evaluation with standard and special histochemical staining and immunohistochemical investigations was conducted. RESULTS: A 44-year-old man slowly developed 5 mm of well-tolerated relative right proptosis with minimal motility disturbance and no visual decline. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a medial and intraconal rounded mass that perfused slowly and whose anterior surface was well circumscribed. At surgery, the tumor was solid and pink with intersecting white bands and densely attached to surrounding normal tissues. The most adherent apical portion of the mass was left behind after subtotal excision. Histopathologically, only a partial pseudocapsule was discovered. The tumor was composed of cavernous channels, capillary zones, compressed lumens with linear strands of endothelium, and collections of muscular veins devoid of an elastica. Striking smooth muscle actin positivity was identified in disorganized masses of smooth muscle cells in the intervascular spaces and around the cavernous vascular units; these myocytes were intermixed with bundles of interstitial keloidal collagen. The endothelium was CD31 and CD34 positive for vascular endothelium and D2-40 negative for lymphatic endothelium. CONCLUSIONS: The authors have classified this hybrid tumor an angiomyofibroma with low neoplastic potential and features of a malformation. It is a composite variant of cavernous hemangioma associated with a conspicuous proliferation of anomalous disorganized smooth muscle cells (leiomyoma). Most of the lesion lacked a pseudocapsule, which impeded surgical delivery. Incomplete excision is recommended in such cases as preferable to the complications that could ensue from overly aggressive efforts at complete removal, particularly at the orbital apex. Supporting this position is the observation that incompletely excised cavernous hemangioma generally does not recur.
PURPOSE: We previously reported that calcineurin, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase, is activated and proposed that it participates in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis in two rodent ocular hypertension models. In this study, we tested whether calcineurin activation by itself, even in the absence of ocular hypertension, is sufficient to cause RGC degeneration. METHODS: We compared RGC and optic nerve morphology after adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2)-mediated transduction of RGCs with constitutively active calcineurin (CaNCA) or unactivated, wild-type calcineurin (CaNwt). Retinas and optic nerves were harvested 7-16 weeks after injection of the AAV into mouse vitreous. In flatmounted retinas, the transduced RGCs were identified with immunohistochemistry. The morphology of the RGCs was revealed by immunostaining for neurofilament SMI32 or by using GFP-M transgenic mice. A modified Sholl analysis was applied to analyze the RGC dendritic morphology. Optic nerve damage was assessed with optic nerve grading according to the Morrison standard. RESULTS: CaNwt and CaNCA were highly expressed in the injected eyes. Compared to the CaNwt-expressing RGCs, the CaNCA-expressing RGCs had smaller somas, smaller dendritic field areas, shorter total dendrite lengths, and simpler dendritic branching patterns. At 16 weeks, the CaNCA-expressing eyes had greater optic nerve damage than the CaNwt-expressing eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Calcineurin activation is sufficient to cause RGC dendritic degeneration and optic nerve damage. These data support the hypothesis that calcineurin activation is an important mediator of RGC degeneration, and are consistent with the hypothesis that calcineurin activation may contribute to RGC neurodegeneration in glaucoma.
Natural vision involves sequential eye movements that bring the fovea to locations selected by peripheral vision. How peripheral visual field loss (PVFL) affects this process is not well understood. We examine how the location and extent of PVFL affects eye movement behavior in a naturalistic visual search task. Ten patients with PVFL and 13 normally sighted subjects with full visual fields (FVF) completed 30 visual searches monocularly. Subjects located a 4° × 4° target, pseudo-randomly selected within a 26° × 11° natural image. Eye positions were recorded at 50 Hz. Search duration, fixation duration, saccade size, and number of saccades per trial were not significantly different between PVFL and FVF groups (p > 0.1). A χ(2) test showed that the distributions of saccade directions for PVFL and FVL subjects were significantly different in 8 out of 10 cases (p < 0.01). Humphrey Visual Field pattern deviations for each subject were compared with the spatial distribution of eye movement directions. There were no significant correlations between saccade directional bias and visual field sensitivity across the 10 patients. Visual search performance was not significantly affected by PVFL. An analysis of eye movement directions revealed patients with PVFL show a biased directional distribution that was not directly related to the locus of vision loss, challenging feed-forward models of eye movement control. Consequently, many patients do not optimally compensate for visual field loss during visual search.