Training the modern ophthalmic surgeon is a challenging process. Microsurgical education can benefit from innovative methods to practice surgery in low-risk simulations, assess and refine skills in the operating room through video content analytics, and learn at a distance from experienced surgeons. Developments in emerging technologies may allow us to pursue novel forms of instruction and build on current educational models. Artificial intelligence, which has already seen numerous applications in ophthalmology, may be used to facilitate surgical tracking and evaluation. Within immersive technology, growth in the space of virtual reality head-mounted displays has created intriguing possibilities for operating room simulation and observation. Here, we explore the applications of these technologies and comment on their future in ophthalmic surgical education.
Individuals with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) often present with deficits related to visuospatial processing. However, the neurophysiological basis underlying these higher order perceptual dysfunctions have not been clearly identified. We assessed visual search performance using a novel virtual reality based task paired with eye tracking to simulate the exploration of a naturalistic scene (a virtual toy box). This was combined with electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and an analysis pipeline focusing on time frequency decomposition of alpha oscillatory activity. We found that individuals with CVI showed an overall impairment in visual search performance (as indexed by decreased success rate, as well as increased reaction time, visual search area, and gaze error) compared to controls with neurotypical development. Analysis of captured EEG activity following stimulus onset revealed that in the CVI group, there was a distinct lack of strong and well defined posterior alpha desynchronization; an important signal involved in the coordination of neural activity related to visual processing. Finally, an exploratory analysis revealed that in CVI, the magnitude of alpha desynchronization was associated with impaired visual search performance as well as decreased volume of specific thalamic nuclei implicated in visual processing. These results suggest that impairments in visuospatial processing related to visual search in CVI are associated with alterations in alpha band oscillations as well as early neurological injury at the level of visual thalamic nuclei.
PURPOSE: To assess test-retest repeatability of the accommodative response (AR) in children with and without amblyopia and adults using the Grand Seiko autorefractor. DESIGN: Prospective Reliability Assessment METHODS: Test-retest of accommodation was obtained while participants viewed 20/150 sized letters at 33 cm using the Grand Seiko autorefractor of children 5 to < 11 years with amblyopia (n=24) and without amblyopia (n=36), and adults 18 to < 35 years (n=34). Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess repeatability and reliability. The AR between the fellow and amblyopic eyes of children with amblyopia and Eye 1 and Eye 2 of the visually normal participants was assessed using group comparisons. RESULTS: The 95% LOA of the AR was greatest in the amblyopic eyes (-1.25 D, 1.62 D) of children with amblyopia. The 95% LOA were similar between the fellow eyes (-0.88 D, 0.74 D) of children with amblyopia and both eyes of the children without amblyopia (Eye 1: -0.68 D, 0.71 D; Eye 2: -0.59 D, 0.70 D) and the adults (Eye 1: 95% LOA = -0.49 D to 0.45 D; Eye 2: LOA = -0.66 D to 0.67 D). ICC revealed the Grand Seiko autorefractor as a reliable instrument for measuring AR. CONCLUSIONS: The Grand Seiko autorefractor was more repeatable and reliable when measuring the AR in children and adults without amblyopia than in the amblyopic eye in children with amblyopia. It is recommended that multiple measures of the AR is obtained in amblyopic eyes to improve the precision of measures.
Blood leakage from the vessels in the eye is the hallmark of many vascular eye diseases. One of the preclinical mouse models of retinal blood leakage, the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor deficient mouse (Vldlr-/-), is used for drug screening and mechanistic studies. Vessel leakage is usually examined using Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). However, interpreting FFA images of the Vldlr-/- model is challenging as no automated and objective techniques exist for this model. A pipeline has been developed for quantifying leakage intensity and area including three tasks: (i) blood leakage identification, (ii) blood vessel segmentation, and (iii) image registration. Morphological operations followed by log-Gabor quadrature filters were used to identify leakage regions. In addition, a novel optic disk detection algorithm based on graph analysis was developed for registering the images at different timepoints. Blood leakage intensity and area measured by the methodology were compared to ground truth quantifications produced by two annotators. The relative difference between the quantifications from the method and those obtained from ground truth images was around 10% ± 6% for leakage intensity and 17% ± 8% for leakage region. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the method results and the ground truth was around 0.98 for leakage intensity and 0.94 for leakage region. Therefore, we presented a computational method for quantifying retinal vascular leakage and vessels using FFA in a preclinical angiogenesis model, the Vldlr-/- model.
Many recent studies have showed that morphological changes are one of the key signs of meibomian gland disease (MGD). These changes can be seen even before symptom onset, potentially underestimating the prevalence of MGD; however, until now, there is no conclusive information about the impact of meibomian gland (MG) morphology in tear film physiology and disease. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anatomical and morphological MG alterations between patients with evaporative dry eye disease (DED) and healthy controls. Retrospective chart review of seventy-five patients with evaporative DED and healthy individuals who had dry eye assessments included Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, meibum quality, meibum expressibility, lid margin abnormality, ocular staining, non-invasive tear film break-up time, and meibography. We did not find significant differences in MG alterations in the upper lid between healthy and DED subjects. Patients with evaporative DED presented MG alterations in the lower lid more frequently than healthy subjects (54.8 vs. 30.3%; p = 0.03). The presence of shortened glands was the only MG alteration that was more prevalent in the lower lid in dry-eye patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Subjects with evaporative DED presented more alterations in the lower lid than healthy subjects.
Importance: Gait dysfunction is common in older people with visual impairment and is a major cause of falls. Objective: To compare 3-year longitudinal changes in gait measures across the spectrum of baseline visual field (VF) damage in glaucoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A post hoc analysis was designed on September 1, 2018, following a prospective cohort study, which enrolled older adults with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma from September 2013 to March 2015 and followed up for up to 3 years. Baseline VF damage was defined by integrated VF (IVF) sensitivity and categorized as normal/mild (IVF >28 dB), moderate (IVF, 23-28 dB), and severe (IVF, <23 dB). Each participant walked on an electronic walkway back and forth twice at normal pace each study year. Linear mixed-effects models evaluated longitudinal change in gait outcomes (1) stratified within each VF severity category and (2) across the range of IVF sensitivity. Analysis took place from October 2019 to October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Three-year changes in 7 gait assessments under usual-pace walking, including base support and its coefficient of variation, stride length and its coefficient of variation, stride velocity and its coefficient of variation, and cadence. Results: Of 241 participants, the mean (SD) age was 70.8 (7.7) years, 116 (48.2%) were women, and 70 (29.0%) were African American. When comparing longitudinal gait changes over 3 years across the spectrum of IVF sensitivity, each 5-unit (dB) decrement was associated with more rapid declines in stride velocity (-0.05 z score unit/y; 95% CI, -0.09 to -0.01; P = .01) and cadence (-0.07 z score unit/y; 95% CI, -0.10 to -0.03; P < .001). When evaluating gait changes within each glaucoma severity group, shorter stride length was associated with persons with normal/mild (-0.06 z score unit/y; 95% CI, -0.10 to -0.03; P = .001), moderate (-0.08 z score unit/y; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.04; P < .001), and severe VF damage (-0.16 z score unit/y; 95% CI, -0.24 to -0.07; P < .001), while stride velocity (-0.18 z score unit; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.07; P = .002) and slower cadence (-0.15 z score unit; 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.04; P = .006) were associated with those with severe VF damage. Conclusions and Relevance: At worse levels of baseline VF damage, patients with glaucoma in this study demonstrated an exacerbated decline in walking speeds (ie, stride velocity and cadence), indicating that mobility speeds decrease faster over time in older adults with glaucoma.
Background: Visually impaired older adults have a greater risk of falling, making them particularly susceptible to fall-related health consequences and restricted physical activity. Unclear however, is the relationship between having falls and longitudinal changes in daily patterns of objectively measured physical activity in older adults with visual impairments. Methods: We created a three-year prospective cohort study (Falls in Glaucoma Study) of older adults with primary or suspected glaucoma at the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute from 2013 to 2015. Cumulative incidence of falls was determined through self-reported fall calendars over 12 months. Participants were then classified into one of three groups: multiple fallers (≥2 falls), single fallers (1 fall), and non-fallers (0). Daily physical activity was measured over 1 week using a waist-bound accelerometer during baseline and three-year follow-ups. Activity fragmentation was defined as the reciprocal of the mean activity bout length, with higher fragmentation reflecting shorter, more fractured bouts of continuous activity. Multivariate linear mixed-effects models were used to assess three-year longitudinal changes in: 1) activity fragmentation, and 2) accumulation of activity across six three-hour intervals from 5 AM to 11 PM. Findings: In adjusted models accounting for visual field damage and other factors, multiple fallers demonstrated greater annual declines (per year) in daily active bouts (-1.79 bouts/day, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.35, -0.22), daily active minutes (-17.15 min/day, 95% CI: -26.35, -7.94), and increased fragmentation (1%, 95% CI: 0, 2%) over the three-year follow-up period as compared to non-fallers; no such changes were seen when comparing single fallers and non-fallers. In time-of-day analyses, multiple fallers experienced greater annual declines in average hourly steps over all periods of the day, though the rate of decline was only significant between 5 PM and 8 PM (-27.07 steps/hour, 95% CI: -51.15, -2.99) compared to non-fallers. Interpretation: In an older population with visual impairment, multiple falls over 12 months were associated with more transient and fragmented activity over a subsequent three-year period, and activity declines during evening hours, compared to non-fallers. These findings suggest that multiple fallers with visual impairment may be at high risk for a decline in physical capacity and endurance, warranting clinical interventions. Funding: The research was supported in part by National Institutes of Health Grant EY022976.
BACKGROUND: Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tear film and ocular surface. It causes ocular symptoms, reduced quality of life and a considerable economic burden on society. Prolonged use of visual display terminals (VDTs) has been suggested as an important risk factor for DED. PURPOSE: This review aims to study the association between DED and VDT use with an emphasis on the prevalence of DED among VDT users and harmful daily duration of VDT use. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted and yielded 57 relevant articles based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were subclassified according to study design. RESULTS: The far majority of the studies showed an association between VDT use and DED or DED-related signs and symptoms. The prevalence of definite or probable DED in VDT and office workers ranged from 26% to 70%, with as few as 1-2 hr of VDT exposure per day being associated with DED. CONCLUSION: VDT use is strongly associated with DED. VDT-associated DED is prevalent, but the exact prevalence needs to be further elucidated using standardized DED diagnosis criteria. Furthermore, a safe lower limit of daily VDT use has yet to be established. More research is needed on the effect of digitalization and digital transformation, which are particularly high during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Purpose: Animal models have demonstrated the role of dopamine in regulating axial elongation, the critical feature of myopia. Because frequent delivery of dopaminergic agents via peribulbar, intravitreal, or intraperitoneal injections is not clinically viable, we sought to evaluate ocular penetration and safety of the topically applied dopaminergic prodrug etilevodopa. Methods: The ocular penetration of dopamine and dopaminergic prodrugs (levodopa and etilevodopa) were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in enucleated porcine eyes after a single topical administration. The pharmacokinetic profile of the etilevodopa was then assessed in rats. A four-week once-daily application of etilevodopa as a topical eye drop was conducted to establish its safety profile. Results: At 24 hours, the studied prodrugs showed increased dopaminergic derivatives in the vitreous of porcine eyes. Dopamine 0.5% (P = 0.0123) and etilevodopa 10% (p = 0.370) achieved significant vitreous concentrations. Etilevodopa 10% was able to enter the posterior segment of the eye after topical administration in rats with an intravitreal half-life of eight hours after single topical administration. Monthly application of topical etilevodopa showed no alterations in retinal ocular coherence tomography, electroretinography, caspase staining, or TUNEL staining. Conclusions: At similar concentrations, no difference in ocular penetration of levodopa and etilevodopa was observed. However, etilevodopa was highly soluble and able to be applied at higher topical concentrations. Dopamine exhibited both high solubility and enhanced penetration into the vitreous as compared to other dopaminergic prodrugs. Translational Relevance: These findings indicate the potential of topical etilevodopa and dopamine for further study as a therapeutic treatment for myopia.
Background: Duane retraction syndrome and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita have an incidence of approximately 1:1500-1:3000 live births. However, the association of these two entities with a Marcus-Gunn might be a rare and, until now, under-recognized clinical presentation of the Wieacker-Wolff Syndrome.Patient and methods: We report a 7-year-old female with dysmorphic features, global developmental delay, arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), and unilateral Marcus Gunn jaw winking.Results: Whole Exome Sequencing showed a de novo premature stop codon in ZC4H2. Extensive genetic and metabolic work was negative otherwise and Brain MRI showed delayed non-specific myelination abnormalities. She continues to have significant delays but does not have regression, seizures or other neurological complications. She has required a multidisciplinary approach for the management of her multiple contractures.Conclusion: This case confirms ZC4H2 as a cause of syndromic DRS and extends the ZC4H2 phenotype to include Marcus Gunn jaw winking.
PURPOSE: Evaluate differences in eyecare utilization among glaucoma patients by race and socioeconomic status (SES). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Representative 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries >65 years with continuous part A/B enrollment between 1/1/2014 and 7/1/2014, at least one diagnosis code for glaucoma within that period, and a glaucoma diagnosis in the Chronic Conditions Warehouse before 1/1/2014. METHODS: The following race/ethnicity categories were defined in our cohort: Non-Hispanic White, Black/African American, Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander. Low SES was defined as having two or more enrollment-based low-income indicators (dual eligibility for Medicare/Medicaid, Part D limited income subsidies, and eligibility for Part A and B State buy-in). Negative binomial regression analyses were carried out to compare relative rate ratios (RR) of eye care utilization among racial groups, stratified by low- and non-low-SES. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measured from 7/1/2014-12/31/2016: eye examinations and eye care-related office visits; eye care-related inpatient and ED encounters; eye care-related nursing home and home-visit encounters; visual field and retinal nerve fiber optical coherence tomography tests; glaucoma lasers and surgeries. RESULTS: Among 78,526 participants with glaucoma, mean age was 79.1 years (SD 7.9 years), 60.9% were female, 78.4% were non-Hispanic White and 13.8% met enrollment-based criteria for low-SES. Compared to White beneficiaries, Blacks had lower counts of outpatient visits (rate ratio [RR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.93), VF tests (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.94), but more inpatient/ED encounters (RR 2.42, 95% CI 1.55-3.78), and surgeries (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.7). Hispanics had fewer outpatient visits (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98) and RNFL OCT tests (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.86-0.93), but more inpatient/ED encounters (RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.18-4.57) and SLT (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.42) vs. non-Hispanic Whites. In the non-low-SES group, Black vs. White disparities persisted in outpatient visits (RR 0.93 95% CI 0.92-0.95), VF (RR 0.96 95% CI 0.94-0.98), RNFL OCT (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.78-0.83) and inpatient/ED encounters (RR 2.57, 95% CI 1.55-4.26). CONCLUSIONS: Disparities were found in eye care utilization among Black and Hispanic glaucoma patients. These differences persisted among Blacks after stratification by SES, suggesting systemic racism may be an independent driver in this population.
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are the major cell type in the epi- or sub-retinal membranes in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a blinding fibrotic eye disease and still short of effective medicine. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether Chalocomoracin (CMR), a novel purified compound from fungus-infected mulberry leaves, is able to inhibit vitreous-induced signalling events and cellular responses intrinsic to PVR. Our studies have revealed that the CMR IC50 for ARPE-19 cells is 35.5 μmol/L at 72 hours, and that 5 μmol/L CMR inhibits vitreous-induced Akt activation and p53 suppression; in addition, we have discovered that this chemical effectively blocks vitreous-stimulated proliferation, migration and contraction of ARPE-19 cells, suggesting that CMR is a promising PVR prophylactic.
Importance: Supplementing preterm infants with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) has been inconsistent in reducing the severity and incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Furthermore, few studies have measured the long-term serum lipid levels after supplementation. Objective: To assess whether ROP severity is associated with serum levels of LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA), during the first 28 postnatal days. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed the Mega Donna Mega study, a randomized clinical trial that provided enteral fatty acid supplementation at 3 neonatal intensive care units in Sweden. Infants included in this cohort study were born at a gestational age of less than 28 weeks between December 20, 2016, and August 6, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severity of ROP was classified as no ROP, mild or moderate ROP (stage 1-2), or severe ROP (stage 3 and type 1). Serum phospholipid fatty acids were measured through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ordinal logistic regression, with a description of unadjusted odds ratio (OR) as well as gestational age- and birth weight-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs, was used. Areas under the curve were used to calculate mean daily levels of fatty acids during postnatal days 1 to 28. Blood samples were obtained at the postnatal ages of 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Results: A total of 175 infants were included in analysis. Of these infants, 99 were boys (56.6%); the median (IQR) gestational age was 25 weeks 5 days (24 weeks 3 days to 26 weeks 6 days), and the median (IQR) birth weight was 785 (650-945) grams. A higher DHA proportion was seen in infants with no ROP compared with those with mild or moderate ROP or severe ROP (OR per 0.5-molar percentage increase, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.36-0.68]; gestational age- and birth weight-adjusted OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.46-0.93]). The corresponding adjusted OR for AA levels per 1-molar percentage increase was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.66-1.05). The association between DHA levels and ROP severity appeared only in infants with sufficient AA levels, suggesting that a mean daily minimum level of 7.8 to 8.3 molar percentage of AA was necessary for a detectable association between DHA level and less severe ROP. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that higher mean daily serum levels of DHA during the first 28 postnatal days were associated with less severe ROP even after adjustment for known risk factors, but only in infants with sufficiently high AA levels. Further studies are needed to identify LC-PUFA supplementation strategies that may prevent ROP and other morbidities.
Full-thickness wounds to the eye can lead to serious vision impairment. Current standards of care (from suturing to tissue transplantation) usually require highly skilled surgeons and use of an operating theater. In this study, we report the synthesis, optimization, and in vitro and ex vivo testing of photocrosslinkable hydrogel-based adhesive patches that can easily be applied to globe injuries or corneal incisions. According to the type and concentration of polymers used in the adhesive formulations, we were able to finely tune the physical properties of the bioadhesive including viscosity, elastic modulus, extensibility, ultimate tensile strength, adhesion, transparency, water content, degradation time, and swellability. Our in vitro studies showed no sign of cytotoxicity of the hydrogels. Moreover, the hydrogel patches showed higher adhesion on freshly explanted pig eyeballs compared to a marketed ocular sealant. Finally, ex vivo feasibility studies showed that the hydrogel patches could seal complex open-globe injuries such as large incision, cruciform injury, and injury associated with tissue loss. These results suggest that our photocrosslinkable hydrogel patch could represent a promising solution for the sealing of open-globe injuries or surgical incisions. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Current management of severe ocular injuries require advanced surgical skills and access to an operating theater. To address the need for emergent management of wounds that cannot be handled in the operating room, surgical adhesives have gained popularity, but none of the currently available adhesives have optimal bioavailability, adhesive or mechanical properties. This study describes the development, optimization and testing of a light-sensitive adhesive patch that can easily be applied to the eye. After solidification using visible light, the patch shows no toxicity and is more adherent to the tissue than a marketed sealant. Thus this technology could represent a promising solution to stabilize ocular injuries in emergency settings before definitive surgical repair.
SIGNIFICANCE: Photographic depiction helps to illustrate the primary and secondary field of view effects of low vision devices along with their utility to clinicians, patients, and caretakers. This technique may also be helpful for designers and researchers in improving the design and fitting of low vision devices. PURPOSE: The field of view through spectacles-mounted low vision devices has typically been evaluated using perimetry. However, the perimetric field diagram is different from the retinal image and often fails to represent the important aspects of the field of view and visual parameters. We developed a photographic depiction method to record and veridically show the field of view effects of these devices. METHODS: We used a 3D-printed holder to place spectacles-mounted devices at the same distance from the empirically determined reference point of the field of view in a camera lens (f = 16 mm) as they would be from an eye, when in use. The field of view effects of a bioptic telescope, a minifier (reverse telescope), and peripheral prisms were captured using a conventional camera, representing retinal images. The human eye pupil size (adjusting the F number: f/2.8 to f/8 and f/22 in the camera lens) and fitting parameters (pantoscopic tilt and back vertex distance) varied. RESULTS: Real-world indoor and outdoor walking and driving scenarios were depicted as retinal images illustrating the field of view through low vision devices, distinguishing optical and obscuration scotomas, and demonstrating secondary effects (spatial distortions, viewpoint changes, diplopia, spurious reflection, and multiplexing effects) not illustrated by perimetric field diagrams. CONCLUSIONS: Photographic depiction illustrates the primary and secondary field of view effects of the low vision devices. These images highlight the benefit and possible trade-offs of the low vision devices and may be beneficial in education and training.
Community-based screening programs have had limited success in preventing vision loss from glaucoma due to overall low prevalence of glaucoma, screening limitations, and barriers to follow-up appointments. This editorial highlights lessons learned from 2 large prospective trials: the Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study and the Screening To Prevent Glaucoma Study. While some lessons are specific to ophthalmology, many lessons are applicable to screening for asymptomatic diseases in underserved, vulnerable communities.
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between baseline age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and disease stage, as well as optical coherence tomography features seen in AMD, with 3-year changes in dark adaptation (DA). METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study including patients with AMD and a comparison group (n = 42 eyes, 27 patients). At baseline and 3 years, we obtained color fundus photographs, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and rod-mediated DA (20 minutes protocol). Multilevel mixed-effect models were used for analyses, with changes in rod intercept time at 3 years as the primary outcome. As some eyes (n = 11) reached the DA testing ceiling value at baseline, we used 3-year changes in area under the DA curve as an additional outcome. RESULTS: Baseline AMD, AMD stage, and hyperreflective foci on optical coherence tomography were associated with larger changes in rod intercept time at 3 years. When change in area under the DA curve was used as an outcome, in addition to these features, the presence of retinal atrophy and drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment had significant associations. New subretinal drusenoid deposits at 3 years were also associated with more pronounced changes in rod intercept time and area under the DA curve. CONCLUSION: Specific optical coherence tomography features are associated with DA impairments over time, which supports that structural changes predict functional loss over 3 years.
Importance: Uncorrected refractive error in school-aged children may affect learning. Objective: To assess the effect of a school-based vision program on academic achievement among students in grades 3 to 7. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted in Baltimore City Public Schools during school years from 2016 to 2019 among 2304 students in grades 3 to 7 who received eye examinations and eyeglasses. Intervention: Participating schools were randomized 1:1:1 to receive eye examinations and eyeglasses during 1 of 3 school years (2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 1-year intervention impact, measured by effect size (ES), defined as the difference in score on an academic test (i-Ready or Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers tests on reading and mathematics) between intervention and control groups measured in SD units, comparing cohort 1 (intervention) with cohorts 2 and 3 (control) at the end of program year 1 and comparing cohort 2 (intervention) with cohort 3 (control) at the end of program year 2. The secondary outcome was 2-year intervention impact, comparing ES in cohort 1 (intervention) with cohort 3 (control) at the end of program year 2. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to assess the impact of the intervention. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: Among the 2304 students included in the study, 1260 (54.7%) were girls, with a mean (SD) age of 9.4 (1.4) years. The analysis included 964 students (41 schools) in cohort 1, 775 students (41 schools) in cohort 2, and 565 students (38 schools) in cohort 3. There were 1789 Black students (77.6%), 388 Latinx students (16.8%), and 406 students in special education (17.6%). There was an overall 1-year positive impact (ES, 0.09; P = .02) as assessed by the i-Ready reading test during school year 2016-2017. Positive impact was also observed among female students (ES, 0.15; P < .001), those in special education (ES, 0.25; P < .001), and students who performed in the lowest quartile at baseline (ES, 0.28; P < .001) on i-Ready reading and among students in elementary grades on i-Ready mathematics (ES, 0.03; P < .001) during school year 2016-2017. The intervention did not show a sustained impact at 2 years or on Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers testing. Conclusions and Relevance: Students in grades 3 to 7 who received eyeglasses through a school-based vision program achieved better reading scores. Students had improved academic achievement over 1 year; however, a sustained impact was not observed after 2 years. Trial Registration: The Registry of Efficacy and Effectiveness Studies Identifier: 1573.1v1.