Purpose: The clinical features of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) can resemble and be difficult to differentiate from inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs). Misdiagnosis of an IRD as AIR causes unnecessary treatment with immunosuppressive agents. The purpose of this study is to calculate the predictive value of genetic testing for IRDs in patients with suspected AIR and provide clinical examples where genetic testing has been useful. Methods: We identified patients seen at MEEI between April 2013 and January 2017 for whom the differentiation of AIR vs. IRDs was difficult based on clinical assessment alone. All patients had some atypical features for AIR, but tested positive for anti-retinal antibodies. Within this group, we identified six patients who had genetic testing for IRDs with the Genetic Eye Disease panel for retinal genes (GEDi-R). We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of genetic testing in a population with approximately equal numbers of IRD and AIR patients. Results: Six patients had clinical features that made distinguishing between IRDs and AIR on a clinical basis difficult and were sent for genetic testing: four women and two men with a mean age of 59.5 years. In two of these six patients, genetic diagnoses were made based upon the identification of known pathogenic variants in the common IRD genes and . Two patients had variants of unknown significance within genes associated with IRDs, and the other two had no relevant genetic findings. Given the 60% sensitivity and 3% false positive rate for GEDi-R testing and assuming a 50% pre-test probability of having an IRD, the PPV for GEDi-R for detecting IRD is 95.2% and the NPV is 70.8%. Conclusions and Importance: In patients for whom the differential diagnosis of AIR and IRDs is unclear based on clinical information, genetic testing can be a valuable tool when it identifies an IRD, sparing the patient unnecessary immunosuppressive treatment. However, the test has a low NPV so a negative genetic testing result does not confidently exclude IRD as the true diagnosis.
Over the past two decades, the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (now known as the DRCR Retina Network) has contributed to multiple and substantial advances in the clinical care of diabetic eye disease. Network studies helped establish anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents as an effective alternative to panretinal photocoagulation for eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and as first-line therapy for eyes with visual impairment for diabetic macular edema (DME), defined treatment algorithms for the use of intravitreal medications in these conditions, and provided critical data to understand how to better evaluate the diabetic eye using optical coherence tomography and other imaging modalities. Ongoing DRCR.net studies will address whether anti-VEGF therapy is effective at preventing vision-threatening complications in eyes with severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, if photobiomodulation has a beneficial effect in eyes with DME, and whether initiation of DME treatment with bevacizumab and rescue with aflibercept can provide visual outcomes as good as those achieved with aflibercept alone. Future plans for the Network also include the expansion into non-diabetic eye disease in areas such as age-related macular degeneration.
PURPOSE: To review the published literature on the use of swept-source (SS) OCT for evaluating the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma. METHODS: A PubMed and Cochrane Library literature search initially conducted on March 3, 2017, and updated on June 26, 2018, yielded a total of 64 articles. Articles that were reviews or that were not published in English were excluded, and 29 were found to fit the inclusion criteria. The panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating to each study. Fifteen studies were rated level III, 14 studies were rated level II, and no studies were rated level I. RESULTS: Different aspects of the lamina cribrosa were studied using SS-OCT, including the anterior lamina cribrosa curvature, anterior lamina cribrosa depth, anterior lamina cribrosa insertions, laminar thickness, focal lamina cribrosa defects (FLCDs), and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture. In general, imaging of the anterior lamina can be achieved reliably, although shadowing from blood vessels at the neuroretinal rim remains an issue. Imaging of the posterior lamina can be achieved with varying levels of success. In glaucoma, there is posterior migration of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertions as well as increased thinning and posterior curvature of the lamina cribrosa. Focal lamina cribrosa defects appear more commonly in glaucoma, and this may hint at the pathogenesis of axonal damage. In addition, there may be remodeling of the microarchitecture of the lamina, resulting in more variable laminar pores. There are limited studies comparing SS-OCT with spectral-domain (SD) OCT with regard to imaging of the lamina, but the difference in image quality between enhanced depth imaging (EDI) with SD-OCT and SS-OCT seems minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Imaging of the lamina cribrosa using SS-OCT has demonstrated that the lamina cribrosa is likely biomechanically active and that significant changes occur in glaucoma. The diagnostic utility of SS-OCT for lamina cribrosa imaging is promising, but standardized nomenclature, automated measurements, and longitudinal studies with larger and more diverse sample sizes are needed.
PURPOSE: A case of a small benign storiform fibrous tumor of the conjunctival substantia propria is described to clarify the category of fibrous histiocytoma. In addition, a comparison of the various spindle cell tumors of the conjunctival substantia propria is explored. METHODS: The patient underwent a complete tumor excision, and the specimen was analyzed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigations. RESULTS: A cellular mass, composed solely of spindle cells in a storiform pattern without a component of histiocytic cells, was found beneath an undisturbed nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium and was separated from the epithelium by a grenz zone of uninvolved collagen. The lesion was sharply demarcated but not encapsulated. The Masson trichrome stain revealed scant deposition of intercellular collagen. The reticulin stain displayed numerous and delicate wiry fibers between the tumor cells and encircling capillaries. The Alcian blue stain demonstrated faint positivity in the interstitium. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for vimentin, factor XIIIa, smooth muscle actin, CD10, and CD45. Negative stains were obtained for CD34, CD56, S100, desmin, and Ki67. CONCLUSIONS: The broad term of fibrous histiocytoma should be reserved for deep fibroblastic spindle cell tumors (e.g., those of the orbit) that display an aggressive behavior. More benign superficial spindle cell tumors of the dermis are now preferentially characterized as dermatofibromas. It is suggested that equally benign epibulbar tumors should no longer be designated as fibrous histiocytomas but rather as benign storiform fibrous tumors. Tumors completely composed of polygonal histiocytoid (epithelioid) cells that are CD34+ should be excluded from the benign storiform fibrous tumor category. Positive smooth muscle actin and factor XIIIa staining in conjunction with negative staining for CD34 and desmin in the current spindled tumor cells are findings consistent with those of cutaneous dermatofibromas. Both the epibulbar and dermal spindle cell lesions have displayed an indolent and nonaggressive behavior. Microscopically they contain a high proportion of dendrocytic stellate cells that are either factor XIIIa+ or XIIIa-. Given the anatomic differences between the dermis and conjunctiva, the term dermatofibroma is inappropriate for the current tumor; instead the term benign storiform fibrous tumor has been proposed for superficial tumors of the conjunctiva.
Oculomotor synkinesis is the involuntary movement of the eyes or eyelids with a voluntary attempt at a different movement. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 regulate oculomotor nerve development; mice with loss of either molecule have oculomotor synkinesis. In a consanguineous family with congenital ptosis and elevation of the ptotic eyelid with ipsilateral abduction, we identified a co-segregating homozygous missense variant (c.772G>A) in ACKR3, which encodes an atypical chemokine receptor that binds CXCL12 and functions as a scavenger receptor, regulating levels of CXCL12 available for CXCR4 signaling. The mutant protein (p.V258M) is expressed and traffics to the cell surface but has a lower binding affinity for CXCL12. Mice with loss of Ackr3 have variable phenotypes that include misrouting of the oculomotor and abducens nerves. All embryos show oculomotor nerve misrouting, ranging from complete misprojection in the midbrain, to aberrant peripheral branching, to a thin nerve, which aberrantly innervates the lateral rectus (as seen in Duane syndrome). The abducens nerve phenotype ranges from complete absence, to aberrant projections within the orbit, to a normal trajectory. Loss of ACKR3 in the midbrain leads to downregulation of CXCR4 protein, consistent with reports that excess CXCL12 causes ligand-induced degradation of CXCR4. Correspondingly, excess CXCL12 applied to ex vivo oculomotor slices causes axon misrouting, similar to inhibition of CXCR4. Thus, ACKR3, through its regulation of CXCL12 levels, is an important regulator of axon guidance in the oculomotor system; complete loss causes oculomotor synkinesis in mice, while reduced function causes oculomotor synkinesis in humans.
PURPOSE: To identify the molecular cause in five unrelated families with a distinct autosomal dominant ocular systemic disorder we called ROSAH syndrome due to clinical features of retinal dystrophy, optic nerve edema, splenomegaly, anhidrosis, and migraine headache. METHODS: Independent discovery exome and genome sequencing in families 1, 2, and 3, and confirmation in families 4 and 5. Expression of wild-type messenger RNA and protein in human and mouse tissues and cell lines. Ciliary assays in fibroblasts from affected and unaffected family members. RESULTS: We found the heterozygous missense variant in the ɑ-kinase gene, ALPK1, (c.710C>T, [p.Thr237Met]), segregated with disease in all five families. All patients shared the ROSAH phenotype with additional low-grade ocular inflammation, pancytopenia, recurrent infections, and mild renal impairment in some. ALPK1 was notably expressed in retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and optic nerve, with immunofluorescence indicating localization to the basal body of the connecting cilium of the photoreceptors, and presence in the sweat glands. Immunocytofluorescence revealed expression at the centrioles and spindle poles during metaphase, and at the base of the primary cilium. Affected family member fibroblasts demonstrated defective ciliogenesis. CONCLUSION: Heterozygosity for ALPK1, p.Thr237Met leads to ROSAH syndrome, an autosomal dominant ocular systemic disorder.
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and complication rates of monocanalicular stents in the setting of canalicular lacerations. METHODS: A literature search was performed in May 2018 in the PubMed database to identify all English-language reports of monocanalicular stenting to address canalicular lacerations. Studies that did not include at least 10 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up evaluation after surgery were excluded. Ninety-nine articles were identified, and 15 of these met criteria for data abstraction and were included in this assessment. The panel methodologist (V.K.A.) evaluated the quality of evidence and assigned a level-of-evidence rating to each of these studies. RESULTS: All 15 studies were rated as level III evidence. Anatomic and functional success rates after surgery ranged from 68% to 100% and 79% to 100%, respectively. Stents were generally well tolerated, although extrusion rates varied from 0% to 29%. CONCLUSIONS: Only level III evidence was available, and studies were not powered to detect differences between groups for rare complications or failure. Monocanalicular stents seem to be efficacious and well tolerated in the management of canalicular lacerations. Potential complications include extrusion (most commonly), tube displacement, granuloma, ectropion, slit punctum, fistula, and infection. Further comparative studies would help to identify the optimal time for device removal and to directly compare monocanalicular with bicanalicular stents.
PURPOSE: To highlight the histopathologic diagnostic challenges of small-cell predominant extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENTNKT) of the orbit. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and histopathologic study with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of 3 cases. RESULTS: Three cases of ENTNKT presented to the Mass Eye and Ear emergency room as orbital cellulitis over 1 year. The first case was unusual in that there was a predominance of small cells, giving the ENTNKT the histopathologic appearance of a nonmalignant inflammatory process. This challenging case is juxtaposed alongside 2 other cases, which exhibited the more typical lymphomatous microscopic appearance. DISCUSSION: ENTNKT can extend into the orbit from the adjacent sinuses or rarely arise primarily in the orbit. A diagnosis is typically made with a biopsy. Occasionally, however, the histopathologic diagnosis can be elusive when a predominance of small lymphomatous cells that are virtually indistinguishable from non-neoplastic inflammatory cells is present. Demonstration of CD56 positivity by immunostaining and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus are essential in confirming the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: ENTNKT should be considered both in the clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses of orbital infections and idiopathic inflammations (pseudotumor).
: To investigate to what extent the OSDI can be utilized as a discriminative test for clinical findings. : One thousand and ninety patients with dry eye disease (DED) were consecutively included and examined for osmolarity, tear film break-up time (TFBUT), ocular protection index (OPI), ocular surface staining (OSS), Schirmer I test (ST), meibum expressibility (ME), meibum quality (MQ), and diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis considering optimum balanced sensitivity and specificity (close to 50%) was used for assessment. : The present study on more than 1,000 patients indicates that the OSDI in the ROC curve analysis is a poor discriminator of pathological scores for TFBUT ≤ 5 (AUC = 0.553; = .012) and ≤10 s (AUC = 0.608; = .002), OSS ≥ 3 (AUC = 0.54; = .043), ST ≤ 5 (AUC = 0.550; = .032) and ≤10 mm/5 min (AUC = 0.544; = .016), and ME ≥ 1 (AUC = 0.594; = <0.001). Pathological scores for osmolarity >308 and >316 mOsm/L, OPI, OSS > 1, MQ, and MGD could not be discriminated by OSDI ( > .05). : Cut-off values for the OSDI can be defined to discriminate pathological TFBUT (≤5 and ≤10), OSS (≥3), ST (≤5 and ≤10) and ME, however, the discriminability was low. Our comprehensive study emphasises the importance of taking both symptoms and signs into account in DED management.
: To report the visual prognosis, electroretinography (ERG) and perimetry outcomes of systemic corticosteroid-sparing immunomodulatory treatment (IMT) for birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC). : Retrospective non-comparative case series of 132 patients (264 eyes) with BSRC treated with IMT from Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution. : The average follow-up time was 60.1 months. After one year on IMT, 39.4% showed no clinically active inflammation. After 5 years of IMT, 78.0% had no signs of clinical inflammation. No significant differences were observed on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ERG parameters, and perimetry parameters between baseline and subsequent visits on IMT. : Long-term systemic corticosteroid-sparing IMT was associated with a low rate of BSRC disease exacerbation. While differences were seen on testing parameters, they were not consistent trends and difference were attributed to variability of testing or fluctuation of inflammation that may be expected in the course of the disease.