PURPOSE: The Cutler-Beard procedure is a commonly used technique to reconstruct large upper eyelid defects. Eyelid retraction and entropion are common complications. To prevent these problems, the authors modified the traditional Cutler-Beard procedure with secondary placement of an autologous tarsoconjunctival graft. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 2 patients with large upper eyelid defects necessitating upper eyelid reconstruction. The initial stage is unaltered. At the time of flap division, a tarsoconjunctival graft from the contralateral upper eyelid is sutured to the posterior surface of the newly constructed upper eyelid. Two patients underwent this procedure, and follow up was 4 and 23 months, respectively. Patients developed no postoperative complications, including entropion or retraction. CONCLUSIONS: This modification to the Cutler-Beard operation is a technically simple procedure that can restore a more anatomically correct eyelid and can prevent subsequent entropion or retraction. This technique is unique, offering 3 major advances: first, placing the graft at the second surgical stage; second, replacing the tarsus and conjunctiva with like tissue; and third, preserving a lip of conjunctiva to cover the edge of the newly reconstructed upper eyelid.
In children or young adults, the morphology of the skull can be altered by excessive drainage of CSF following placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. In Sunken Eyes, Sagging Brain Syndrome, gradual enlargement of the orbital cavity occurs from low or negative intracranial pressure (ICP), leading to progressive bilateral enophthalmos. The authors report several heretofore unrecognized manifestations of this syndrome, which developed in a 29-year-old man with a history of VP shunt placement following a traumatic brain injury at the age of 9 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed typical features of chronic intracranial hypotension, and lumbar puncture yielded an unrecordable subarachnoid opening pressure. The calvaria was twice its normal thickness, owing to contraction of the inner table. The paranasal sinuses were expanded, with aeration of the anterior clinoid processes, greater sphenoid wings, and temporal bones. The sella turcica showed a 50% reduction in cross-sectional area as compared with that in control subjects, resulting in partial extrusion of the pituitary gland. These new features broaden the spectrum of clinical findings associated with low ICP. Secondary installation of a valve to restore normal ICP is recommended to halt progression of these rare complications of VP shunt placement.
PURPOSE: To report the features of the rare and under-recognized condition of canaliculops (or canaliculocele) of the eyelid, which is a dilation of the canaliculus, and to evaluate treatment with marsupialization. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: The records of 2 patients with canaliculops from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary were reviewed. Data collected included clinical history, surgical technique, histopathologic analysis, and comparative immunohistochemical analysis of a range of cytokeratins in normal conjunctival epithelium, normal canalicular epithelium, and canaliculops epithelium. RESULTS: Two women, 53 and 66 years of age, experienced chronic, noninflammatory, painless medial eyelid and eyelid margin fluctuant swelling after earlier trauma or eyelid surgery. The external mass was accompanied by a whitish opalescent or bluish discoloration of a palpebral surface bulge. Biopsy revealed multilaminar (up to 12 cells thick), nonkeratinizing, tightly packed small squamous epithelial cells that surmounted a highly regimented basal layer with a picket fence arrangement. No goblet cells or subepithelial inflammation were present. Immunohistochemistry revealed only superficial CK7 immunostaining and positive patchy suprabasilar CK17 staining in the canaliculops epithelium, contrasting with their full-thickness positivity and negativity, respectively, in normal conjunctival epithelium. Marsupialization achieved resolution of the condition in each patient. CONCLUSIONS: An improved awareness of the normal canalicular epithelial structure and its immunohistochemical features can definitively separate canaliculops from conjunctival cysts. Previous treatment of canaliculops has involved complete excisions. Canaliculops may, however, be effectively treated with less invasive marsupialization while obtaining an adequate biopsy specimen for histopathologic diagnosis.
The cellular entry of viruses represents a critical area of study, not only for viral tropism, but also because viral entry dictates the nature of the immune response elicited upon infection. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), caused by viruses within human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D), is a severe, ocular surface infection associated with corneal inflammation. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has previously been shown to play a critical role in entry of other HAdV species into many host cell types. However, HAdV-D endocytosis into corneal cells has not been extensively studied. Herein, we show an essential role for cholesterol rich, lipid raft microdomains and caveolin-1, in the entry of HAdV-D37 into primary human corneal fibroblasts. Cholesterol depletion using methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) profoundly reduced viral infection. When replenished with soluble cholesterol, the effect of MβCD was reversed, allowing productive viral infection. HAdV-D37 DNA was identified in caveolin-1 rich endosomal fractions after infection. Src kinase activity was also increased in caveolin-1 rich endosomal fractions after infection, and Src phosphorylation and CXCL1 induction were both decreased in caveolin-1-/- mice corneas compared to wild type mice. siRNA knock down of caveolin-1 in corneal cells reduced chemokine induction upon viral infection, and caveolin-1-/- mouse corneas showed reduced cellular entry of HAdV-D37. As a control, HAdV-C2, a non-corneal pathogen, appeared to utilize the caveolar pathway for entry into A549 cells, but failed to infect corneal cells entirely, indicating virus and cell specific tropism. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed the presence of caveolin-1 in HAdV-D37-containing vesicles during the earliest stages of viral entry. Collectively, these experiments indicate for the first time that HAdV-D37 uses a lipid raft mediated caveolin-1 associated pathway for entry into corneal cells, and connects the processes of viral entry with downstream proinflammatory cell signaling.
PURPOSE: Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is an oxidative stress disorder that leads to age-related and gradual loss of corneal endothelial cells resulting in corneal edema and loss of vision. To date, other than surgical intervention, there are no treatment options for patients with FECD. We have shown that in FECD, there is a deficiency in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated antioxidant defense due to decreased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activation of antioxidant response element (ARE). In this study, we used sulforaphane (SFN) and D3T to investigate a strategy of targeting Nrf2-ARE in FECD. METHODS: FECD and normal ex vivo corneas and human corneal endothelial cell lines were pretreated with SFN or D3T and exposed to oxidative stress with tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). Apoptosis was detected with TUNEL. Cellular localization of Nrf2 and p53 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Effect of SFN was determined by using DCFDA assay, Western blot and real-time PCR. RESULTS: After pretreatment with SFN, oxidative stress was induced with tBHP. In ex vivo FECD specimens, SFN decreased CEC apoptosis by 55% in unstressed group and by 43% in tBHP-treated specimens. SFN enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in FECD specimens and decreased p53 staining under oxidative stress. Pretreatment with SFN enhanced cell viability by decreasing intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Upregulation of Nrf2 levels led to increased synthesis of DJ-1, heme oxygenase 1, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide quinone oxidoreductase-1. SFN significantly upregulated major ARE-dependent antioxidants and ameliorated oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in FECD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that targeting Nrf2-ARE pathway may arrest degenerative cell loss seen in FECD.