PURPOSE: To compare the incidence of long-term complications after cataract surgery with primary anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) implantation in uveitic patients and patients without a history of intraocular inflammation (control group). SETTING: Single-center private practice. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. METHODS: The study comprised patients who between November 2005 and August 2010 had cataract extraction followed by AC IOL implantation because conventional placement was not possible. Outcome measures were the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and CDVA after 1 year. RESULTS: Of the 39 patients identified through electronic medical records, 17 (17 eyes) had a history of chronic uveitis and 22 (23 eyes) had no intraocular inflammatory disease. There were no significant differences in the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications between the 2 groups during follow-up (range 12 to 68 months) (P=.702). Although uveitic eyes had a greater risk for epiretinal membrane formation, the incidence of uveitis flareups attributed to the IOL and deposits on IOL surfaces was comparable to that in the control group (P<.001). The CDVA improved significantly in both groups 1 year after surgery (P<.01 and P<.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: In uveitic eyes with inadequate capsule support, AC IOL implantation restored visual function without a significant increase in long-term postoperative complications compared with eyes that had no history of uveitis.
PURPOSE: We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. METHODS: Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. RESULTS: Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland.
The shape and position of a neuron convey information regarding its molecular and functional identity. The identification of cell types from structure, a classic method, relies on the time-consuming step of arbor tracing. However, as genetic tools and imaging methods make data-driven approaches to neuronal circuit analysis feasible, the need for automated processing increases. Here, we first establish that mouse retinal ganglion cell types can be as precise about distributing their arbor volumes across the inner plexiform layer as they are about distributing the skeletons of the arbors. Then, we describe an automated approach to computing the spatial distribution of the dendritic arbors, or arbor density, with respect to a global depth coordinate based on this observation. Our method involves three-dimensional reconstruction of neuronal arbors by a supervised machine learning algorithm, post-processing of the enhanced stacks to remove somata and isolate the neuron of interest, and registration of neurons to each other using automatically detected arbors of the starburst amacrine interneurons as fiducial markers. In principle, this method could be generalizable to other structures of the CNS, provided that they allow sparse labeling of the cells and contain a reliable axis of spatial reference.
The importance of cell types in understanding brain function is widely appreciated but only a tiny fraction of neuronal diversity has been catalogued. Here we exploit recent progress in genetic definition of cell types in an objective structural approach to neuronal classification. The approach is based on highly accurate quantification of dendritic arbor position relative to neurites of other cells. We test the method on a population of 363 mouse retinal ganglion cells. For each cell, we determine the spatial distribution of the dendritic arbors, or arbor density, with reference to arbors of an abundant, well-defined interneuronal type. The arbor densities are sorted into a number of clusters that is set by comparison with several molecularly defined cell types. The algorithm reproduces the genetic classes that are pure types, and detects six newly clustered cell types that await genetic definition.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss. Biomarkers and methods for early diagnosis of DR are urgently needed. Using a new molecular imaging approach, we show up to 94% higher accumulation of custom designed imaging probes against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in retinal and choroidal vessels of diabetic animals (P<0.01), compared to normal controls. More than 80% of the VEGFR-2 in the diabetic retina was in the capillaries, compared to 47% in normal controls (P<0.01). Angiography in rabbit retinas revealed microvascular capillaries to be the location for VEGF-A-induced leakage, as expressed by significantly higher rate of fluorophore spreading with VEGF-A injection when compared to vehicle control (26±2 vs. 3±1 μm/s, P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed VEGFR-2 expression in capillaries of diabetic animals but not in normal controls. Macular vessels from diabetic patients (n=7) showed significantly more VEGFR-2 compared to nondiabetic controls (n=5) or peripheral retinal regions of the same retinas (P<0.01 in both cases). Here we introduce a new approach for early diagnosis of DR and VEGFR-2 as a molecular marker. VEGFR-2 could become a key diagnostic target, one that might help to prevent retinal vascular leakage and proliferation in diabetic patients.
IMPORTANCE: Biomarkers that predict future visual acuity (VA) in eyes with baseline diabetic macular edema (DME) would substantively improve risk assessment, management decisions, and selection of eyes for clinical studies targeting DME. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether baseline or early change in the novel spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) parameter disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL) is predictive of VA in eyes with center-involved DME. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: At a tertiary care referral center for diabetic eye disease, a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study obtained demographics, VA, and SD-OCT images from baseline, 4-month, and 8-month visits in 96 participants (120 eyes) with diabetes mellitus and baseline center-involved DME (SD-OCT central subfield thickness, ≥ 320 µm for men and ≥ 305 µm for women). Exclusion criteria included substantial media opacity, cataract surgery within 6 months, and nondiabetic retinal pathology affecting VA. On SD-OCT, the 1-mm-wide retinal area centered on the fovea was evaluated by masked graders for DRIL extent, cysts, hyperreflective foci, microaneurysms, cone outer segment tip visibility, and external limiting membrane or photoreceptor disruption and reflectivity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Visual acuity and SD-OCT-derived retinal morphology. RESULTS: Greater DRIL extent at baseline correlated with worse baseline VA (point estimate, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.02-0.05 per 100 µm; P < .001). An increase in DRIL during 4 months was associated with VA worsening at 8 months (point estimate, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.05 per 100 µm; P < .001). A multivariate model that included a 4-month change in VA, DRIL, and external limiting membrane disruption was predictive of an 8-month VA change (r = 0.80). Each approximately 300-µm DRIL increase during 4 months predicted a 1-line, 8-month VA decline. When DRIL increased at least 250 µm at 4 months, no eyes had VA improvement of at least 1 line at 8 months. When DRIL decreased at least 250 µm at 4 months, no eyes had VA decline of at least 1 line at 8 months, and 77.7% had VA improvement of at least 1 line. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Disorganization of the retinal inner layers in the 1-mm foveal area is associated with VA, and change in DRIL predicts future change in VA. Early change in DRIL prospectively identifies eyes with a high likelihood of subsequent VA improvement or decline. Therefore, DRIL warrants further study as a robust, readily obtained, and noninvasive biomarker of future VA response in eyes with DME.
UNLABELLED: The elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) of primary open-angle glaucoma is caused by impaired outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork. Within the juxtacanalicular region, alterations of both extracellular matrix homeostasis and the cellular tone of trabecular meshwork endothelial and the inner wall of Schlemm canal cells affect outflow. Newer pharmacologic agents that target trabecular meshwork and Schlemm canal cell cytoskeleton lower IOP. Aqueous drainage occurs nonhomogenously with greater flow going through certain portions of the TM and less going through other portions-a concept known as segmental flow, which is theoretically the result of outflow being dependent on the presence of discrete pores within Schlemm canal. The limited long-term success of trabecular meshwork bypass surgeries implicates the potential impact of resistance in Schlemm canal itself and collector channels. Additionally, others have observed that outflow occurs preferentially near collector channels. These distal structures may be more important to aqueous outflow than previously believed. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Dr. Rhee is a consultant to Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Allegan, Inc., Aquesys, Inc., Glaukos Corp., Ivantis, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. and Santen, Inc., and has received research funding from Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., and Ivantis, Inc. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.
PURPOSE: Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma through extracellular matrix (ECM) alteration among various mechanisms. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that regulates ECM within the trabecular meshwork (TM), and is highly upregulated by TGF-β2. We hypothesized that, in vivo, SPARC is a critical regulatory node in TGF-β2-mediated ocular hypertension. METHODS: Empty (Ad.empty) or TGF-β2-containing adenovirus (Ad.TGF-β2) was injected intravitreally into C57BL6-SV129 WT and SPARC-null mice. An initial study was performed to identify a stable period for IOP measurement under isoflurane. The IOP was measured before injection and every other day for two weeks using rebound tonometry. Additional mice were euthanized at peak IOP for immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The IOP was stable under isoflurane during minutes 5 to 8. The IOP was significantly elevated in Ad.TGF-β2-injected (n = 8) versus Ad.empty-injected WT (n = 8) mice and contralateral uninjected eyes during days 4 to 11 (P < 0.03). The IOPs were not significantly elevated in Ad.TGF-β2-injected versus Ad.empty-injected SPARC-null mice. However, on day 8, the IOP of Ad.TGF-β2-injected SPARC-null eyes was elevated compared to that of contralateral uninjected eyes (P = 0.0385). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that TGF-β2 stimulated increases in collagen IV, fibronectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and SPARC in WT mice, but only PAI-1 and CTGF in SPARC-null mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SPARC is essential to the regulation of TGF-β2-mediated ocular hypertension. Deletion of SPARC significantly attenuates the effects of TGF-β2 by restricting collagen IV and fibronectin expression. These data provide further evidence that SPARC may have an important role in IOP regulation and possibly glaucoma pathogenesis.
A defining feature in proliferative retinopathies is the formation of pathological neovessels. In these diseases, the balance between neovessel formation and regression determines blindness, making the modulation of neovessel growth highly desirable. The role of the immune system in these retinopathies is of increasing interest, but it is not completely understood. We investigated the role of the alternative complement pathway during the formation and resolution of aberrant neovascularization. We used alternative complement pathway-deficient (Fb(-/-)) mice and age- and strain-matched control mice to assess neovessel development and regression in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. In the control mice, we found increased transcription of Fb after OIR treatment. In the Fb(-/-) mice, we prepared retinal flatmounts and identified an increased number of neovessels, peaking at postnatal day 17 (P17; P=0.001). Subjecting human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to low oxygen, mimicking a characteristic of neovessels, decreased the expression of the complement inhibitor Cd55. Finally, using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate the neovessels after OIR, we found decreased expression of Cd55 (P=0.005). Together, our data implicate the alternative complement pathway in facilitating neovessel clearance by down-regulating the complement inhibitor Cd55 specifically on neovessels, allowing for their targeted removal while leaving the established vasculature intact.-Sweigard, J. H., Yanai, R., Gaissert, P., Saint-Geniez, M., Kataoka, K., Thanos, A., Stahl, G. L., Lambris, J. D., Connor, K. M. The alternative complement pathway regulates pathological angiogenesis in the retina.
EGFL7 is a secreted angiogenic factor, which in contrast to the well-known secreted angiogenic molecules VEGF and FGF-2, is almost exclusively expressed by endothelial cells and may act in an autocrine fashion. Prior studies have shown EGFL7 to mediate its angiogenic effects by interfering with the Notch pathway and/or via the intronic miR126. Less is known about its effects on VEGF signaling. We wanted to investigate the role of epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) in VEGF-driven angiogenesis using an ex vivo Matrigel-embedded mouse eye cup assay and siRNA mediated knockdown of EGFL7 by siRNA. Our results suggested that VEGF-induced vascular tube formation was significantly impaired after siRNA downregulation of EGFL7. In addition, knockdown of EGFL7 suppressed VEGF upregulation of phospho-Akt and phospho-Erk(1/2) in endothelial cells, but did not alter VEGFR phosphorylation and neuropilin-1 protein expression or miR126 expression. Thus, in conclusion, EGFL7 is required for VEGF upregulation of the Akt/Erk (1/2) pathway during angiogenesis, and may represent a new therapeutic target in diseases of pathological neovascularization.
Natural vision often involves recognizing objects from partial information. Recognition of objects from parts presents a significant challenge for theories of vision because it requires spatial integration and extrapolation from prior knowledge. Here we recorded intracranial field potentials of 113 visually selective electrodes from epilepsy patients in response to whole and partial objects. Responses along the ventral visual stream, particularly the inferior occipital and fusiform gyri, remained selective despite showing only 9%-25% of the object areas. However, these visually selective signals emerged ∼100 ms later for partial versus whole objects. These processing delays were particularly pronounced in higher visual areas within the ventral stream. This latency difference persisted when controlling for changes in contrast, signal amplitude, and the strength of selectivity. These results argue against a purely feedforward explanation of recognition from partial information, and provide spatiotemporal constraints on theories of object recognition that involve recurrent processing.
Neuroprotection is an emerging challenge in ophthalmology due to the particularly exposed location of retinal neurons and to the steadily increasing rate of intraocular surgical and pharmacological treatments applied to various eye diseases. Within few decades neuroprotection has developed from strongly contested approaches to being recognized and introduced as a potentially clinical application. One of the groups of putative substances for neuroprotection comprises αA- and αB-crystallins, which are types of heat-shock proteins and are considered to be molecular chaperones. The β/γ-crystallins form their own superfamily and are characterized as proteins with a distinct structure containing four Greek key motifs. Besides being abundant in the ocular lens, crystallins are also expressed in both the developing and mature retina. Crystallins are dramatically up-regulated in numerous retinal pathologies, including mechanical injury, ischemic insults, age-related macular degeneration, uveoretinitis, and diabetic retinopathy. Crystallins of the α family are thought to play a crucial role in retinal neuron survival and inflammation. Crystallins of the β/γ superfamily are also small proteins with a possible emerging role in retinal tissue remodeling and repair. One of the typical retinal diseases associated with crystallins is the experimental glaucomatous neuropathy that is characterized by their expression. Another typical retinal disease is the atrophy that occurs after mechanical injury to the optic nerve, which is associated with the need to regrow retinal axons. We have shown in regenerative models in vivo and in vitro that βB2-crystallin actively supports the regenerative growth of cut retinal axons, thereby offering targets for neuroprotective and regenerative treatments. In this review we discuss the discovery that βB2-crystallin is clearly up-regulated in the regenerating retina in vitro. βB2-Crystallin is produced and secreted during axon elongation, while β/γ-crystallins promote axon growth both in vivo and in vitro by acting either directly by uptake into cells, or indirectly by enhancing the production of ciliary neurotrophic factor from astrocytes to synergistically promote axon regrowth. We also discuss methods to induce the continuous production of crystallins at the site of injury and repair based on the use of transfected neural progenitor cells. This review ultimately leads to the conclusion that the postinjury fate of neurons cannot be seen merely as inevitable, but instead should be regarded as a challenge to shaping the neuroprotective and regenerative conditions that promote cell survival and axon repair.
A 24-year-old woman underwent excision of a slowly growing mass located in the right superomedial orbit that had histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings consistent with a choristomatous respiratory cyst. This rare condition may either arise primarily from embryologic respiratory epithelium rests in the orbit or develop secondarily as the result of trauma or chronic sinus disease complicated by mucocele formation.
Autosomal-dominant idiopathic infantile nystagmus has been linked to 6p12 (OMIM 164100), 7p11.2 (OMIM 608345) and 13q31-q33 (OMIM 193003). PAX6 (11p13, OMIM 607108) mutations can also cause autosomal-dominant nystagmus, typically in association with aniridia or iris hypoplasia. We studied a large multigenerational white British family with autosomal-dominant nystagmus, normal irides and presenile cataracts. An SNP-based genome-wide analysis revealed a linkage to a 13.4-MB region on chromosome 11p13 with a maximum lod score of 2.93. A mutation analysis of the entire coding region and splice junctions of the PAX6 gene revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.227C>G) that segregated with the phenotype and is predicted to result in the amino-acid substitution of proline by arginine at codon 76 p.(P76R). The amino-acid variation p.(P76R) within the paired box domain is likely to destabilise the protein due to steric hindrance as a result of the introduction of a polar and larger amino acid. Eye movement recordings showed a significant intrafamilial variability of horizontal, vertical and torsional nystagmus. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed features of foveal hypoplasia, including rudimentary foveal pit, incursion of inner retinal layers, short photoreceptor outer segments and optic nerve hypoplasia. Thus, this study presents a family that segregates a PAX6 mutation with nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia in the absence of iris abnormalities. Moreover, it is the first study showing detailed characteristics using eye movement recordings of autosomal-dominant nystagmus in a multigenerational family with a novel PAX6 mutation.
We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT) task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6) than they could track (M = 4.0), but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design. Compared to single-task baseline, iMOT performance decreased and MOT performance increased when the two tasks had to be completed together. Overall, these findings suggest: 1) There is a clear limit to the number of items that can be simultaneously controlled, for a given speed and display density; 2) participants can control more items than they can track; 3) task-relevant action appears not to disrupt MOT performance in the current experimental context.
Hypotropia following orbital fracture repair is traditionally attributed to residual tissue entrapment, scarring, direct muscle injury, or damage to the branches of the oculomotor nerve serving the inferior oblique or inferior rectus muscles. We present a case of acquired hypotropia and incyclotropia that occurred following repair of an orbital fracture involving the floor and medial wall. In order to enable adequate visualization and treatment of the combined fractures, access via a transcaruncular approach and disinsertion of the inferior oblique muscle at its origin was necessary. Whereas the possibility of inferior oblique paresis due to repair of an orbital fracture via the transcaruncular approach has received some acknowledgment, there are no prior reports in the ophthalmic literature. Strabismus surgeons should be aware of this possibility when planning surgical correction of hypotropia and incyclotropia in similar cases.
Schlemm's canal is an important structure of the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway and is critically involved in regulating the intraocular pressure. In this study, we report a novel finding that prospero homeobox protein 1 (Prox-1), the master control gene for lymphatic development, is expressed in Schlemm's canal. Moreover, we provide a novel in vivo method of visualizing Schlemm's canal using a transgenic mouse model of Prox-1-green fluorescent protein (GFP). The anatomical location of Prox-1⁺ Schlemm's canal was further confirmed by in vivo gonioscopic examination and ex vivo immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, we show that the Schlemm's canal is distinguishable from typical lymphatic vessels by lack of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) expression and absence of apparent sprouting reaction when inflammatory lymphangiogenesis occurred in the cornea. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into Schlemm's canal and provide a new experimental model for live imaging of this critical structure to help further our understanding of the aqueous humor outflow. This may lead to new avenues toward the development of novel therapeutic intervention for relevant diseases, most notably glaucoma.
PURPOSE: Evaluate predictors and outcomes of ocular hypertension after open-globe injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, case-control study reviewing records of consecutive patients with open-globe injuries treated at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between February 1999 and January 2007. Of 658 patients treated, 382 had at least 2 months of follow-up and sufficient data to be included. Main outcome measures are visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and type of glaucoma intervention employed. RESULTS: Sixty-five (17%) patients developed ocular hypertension defined as IOP≥22 mm Hg at >1 visit or requiring treatment. Increased age (P<0.001), hyphema (0.025), lens injury (P<0.0001), and zone II injury (P=0.0254) are risk factors for developing ocular hypertension after open-globe injury. Forty-eight (74%) patients with ocular hypertension were treated medically, 8 (12%) underwent filtering or glaucoma drainage device surgery, 5 (8%) had IOP normalization with observation, while 4 (6%) required anterior chamber washout with no other glaucoma surgery. Patients with ocular hypertension had an average maximum IOP=33.4 mm Hg at a median follow-up of 21 days, with most patients maintaining normal IOP at all follow-up time points. Visual acuity improved over time with median acuity of hand motions preoperatively, and 20/60 at 12 and 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular hypertension is a significant complication after open-globe injury that sometimes requires surgical intervention. Predictive factors can alert physicians to monitor for elevated IOP in the first month after trauma. Most patients with traumatic ocular hypertension had improved visual acuity and IOP normalization over time.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. RESULTS: Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. CONCLUSIONS: Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery.