IMPORTANCE: Asymmetric horizontal strabismus surgery is often performed to correct primary gaze alignment without considering the symptoms that may result from misalignment in the patient's side gaze. Surgical choices influence alignment in side gaze and may contribute to functional and social deficits. OBJECTIVE: To identify the surgical procedures associated with changes of alignment in side gaze to help inform surgical planning for patients with horizontal strabismus. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The medical records of 1081 horizontal strabismus surgical procedures that were performed at Boston Children's Hospital during a 2-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Only records with strabismus measurements recorded in the right and left gaze before and after surgery were included. Data analysis was conducted from September 1, 2012, through June 7, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Change in comitance (CIC), determined by measuring the horizontal comitance (the difference between right- and left-gaze strabismus measurements) before and after surgery. RESULTS: The review identified 569 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Of the 491 patients with comitant preoperative alignment, 59 developed postoperative incomitance, of whom 53 (89.9%) had asymmetric surgery. Of the 78 patients with incomitant preoperative alignment, 36 patients' (46.2%) deviation had improved to comitance after surgery; 32 (88.9%) of these patients had asymmetric surgery. Asymmetric 2-muscle surgery had a median CIC of 4.0 while symmetric 2-muscle surgery had a median CIC of 1.5 (difference in CIC, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.0-3.0; P < .001). A CIC of 25 prism diopters or more was observed in 6 patients who underwent asymmetric surgery (0 with symmetric surgery). New postoperative incomitance was symptomatic in at least 17 patients (28.8%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Asymmetric strabismus surgery can treat incomitant deviations, but it can also create symptomatic incomitant deviations in patients who were previously comitant. Surgical planning should include consideration of the potential for CIC, including the potential for unsatisfactory appearance in side gaze. Patients with binocular vision will be sensitive to diplopia in any gaze direction; in such cases, the consequences of asymmetric surgery should be considered with particular care.
PURPOSE: Idiopathic vitritis is a poorly understood complication after Boston keratoprosthesis surgery with unclear etiology. We sought to determine whether an association exists between periprosthetic corneal tissue loss and the development of idiopathic vitritis in keratoprosthesis recipients. METHODS: Thirteen Boston type I keratoprosthesis recipient eyes with a history of idiopathic vitritis and 34 type I keratoprosthesis recipient eyes with no history of idiopathic vitritis underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) at a median time postoperatively of 2.4 years versus 1.9 years (range, 0.5-14.2 vs. 0.1-13.6 years), respectively. Areas of corneal graft tissue loss ("gaps") around the keratoprosthesis stem were identified and analyzed by 2 masked observers. The difference in the presence, number, and size of gaps was compared between cases and controls. RESULTS: A periprosthetic gap was identified more commonly in idiopathic vitritis cases than in controls on AS-OCT (11/13, 86% vs. 11/34, 33.3%, P < 0.001). The number of gaps between cases and controls was also significantly different (2.6 ± 1.6 vs. 0.5 ± 0.8, P < 0.001), but not the estimated gap area (0.056 ± 0.049 mm vs. 0.039 ± 0.025 mm, P = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: A significantly higher proportion of keratoprosthesis recipient eyes with idiopathic vitritis had corneal tissue loss around the keratoprosthesis stem than did controls. Tissue loss could serve as an entry point for debris or bacterial components, triggering idiopathic vitritis. Our study underscores the utility of AS-OCT imaging in the postoperative management of keratoprosthesis patients.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to revisit the clinical paradigm attributed to Boston keratoprosthesis recipients presenting with idiopathic vitreous inflammation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of keratoprosthesis recipients at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, from January 2000 to August 2013, for demographic data, indication(s) for surgery, timing and presentation of vitreous inflammation, and best-corrected visual acuity at baseline, on presentation, and after resolution of vitritis. RESULTS: Twenty-three (23 eyes) of 346 patients developed idiopathic vitreous inflammation after keratoprosthesis implantation. Six of 23 patients presented with signs and symptoms similar to infectious endophthalmitis but were culture negative. The proportion of patients who fit the previous paradigm of sudden painless loss of vision without external signs of infection ("sterile vitritis") at their first presentation with vitritis was only 4 of 23. Vision decline was variable (median, 9 lines on Snellen chart; range, 0-24), as was time to recovery of best vision (median, 8.9 weeks; range, 0.9-36.7). Nine eyes had repeat bouts (43 episodes in 23 patients). Ten of 43 episodes did not recover to baseline vision. Seventeen of 23 eyes with idiopathic vitritis after keratoprosthesis later developed other complications. CONCLUSIONS: The current paradigm for idiopathic vitritis after keratoprosthesis implantation includes sudden painless loss of vision with full recovery of vision on treatment with periocular corticosteroids. However, idiopathic vitritis after keratoprosthesis can also mimic infectious endophthalmitis with pain and external signs of inflammation. Visual loss can be gradual. Vision may not recover to baseline despite treatment. Vitritis may be a part of a common pathway of chronic inflammation after keratoprosthesis.
A 13-year-old female presented with left unilateral proptosis, blurry vision, and diplopia. Clinical examination showed left sided visual acuity of 20/50, limited extraocular movement, 5-mm proptosis, and optic disc edema. CT and MRI displayed a large, intraconal, well-demarcated soft tissue mass with inferotemporal displacement of the optic nerve. The imaging appearance was unusual and diagnosis remained uncertain. Histopathologic analysis of the biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of atypical syncytial meningioma. The tumor cells were positive for both androgen and progesterone receptors and the Ki67 stain was positive (proliferation index of 8%). The patient was treated with proton beam radiation therapy (total dose 50.4 GyE) that suppressed tumor growth and has preserved visual acuity to date (20/40). Differential diagnosis and approaches to therapy are explored.
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and histopathologic features distinguishing an extensive complex choristoma of the epibulbar surface and to address the management of such lesions. METHODS: Clinical history, diagnostic imaging studies, and histopathologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were reviewed from a 2-year-old girl with a congenital conjunctival lesion of the right eye that was surgically excised. RESULTS: The patient clinically displayed an extensive, vascularized amelanotic conjunctival lesion located superotemporally with extension onto the cornea. Her visual acuity was reduced to 20/670. The clinical diagnosis was a large lacrimal gland choristoma with corneal involvement and resulting deprivation amblyopia. The patient underwent an excision of the lesion including the corneal portion, and the ocular surface was reconstructed with amniotic membrane. Histopathologic evaluation disclosed lobules of lacrimal tissue and cartilage plaques, smooth muscle, and nerves consistent with a complex choristoma. Six weeks postoperatively, the visual acuity had improved to 20/180. The patient returned to her local ophthalmologist for amblyopia management. CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize the importance of recognizing lesion-induced amblyopia and the timely performance of appropriate surgery for complex epibulbar choristomas. A differential diagnosis of other congenital epibulbar lesions is provided.
Importance: Preservation of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus is critical. Interventions to improve glycemic control through early intensive treatment of diabetes reduce rates of severe retinopathy and preserve visual acuity. Objective: To assess the effects of prior intensive insulin treatment and risk factors on patient-reported visual function in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study of 1184 participants with type 1 diabetes from the DCCT/EDIC study (randomized clinical trial followed by an observational follow-up study) who completed the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) during EDIC years 17 through 20 (September 1, 2009, through April 30, 2014) in 28 institutions across the United States and Canada. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite NEI-VFQ-25 score. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity (measured by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol), retinopathy level (determined by masked grading of stereoscopic color fundus photographs), and NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores. The composite NEI-VFQ-25 scale and its subscales were scored 0 to 100, corresponding to poor to excellent function, respectively. Results: The overall average NEI-VFQ-25 score for 1184 DCCT/EDIC participants (mean [SD] age, 52.3 [6.9] years; 48% female) with a 30-year duration of diabetes was high (all participants: median, 91.7; interquartile range [IQR], 89.7-96.9; intensive treatment [n = 605]: median, 94.7; IQR, 91.0-97.2; conventional treatment [n = 579]: median, 94.0; IQR, 88.4-96.1; P = .006 for intensive vs conventional). After adjustment for sex, age, hemoglobin A1c level, and retinopathy level at DCCT baseline, the former intensive treatment group had a significant, albeit modest, improvement in overall NEI-VFQ-25 score compared with the former conventional diabetes treatment group (median difference, -1.0; 95% CI, -1.7 to -0.3; P = .006). This beneficial treatment effect was fully attributed to the prior glycemic control in DCCT (explained treatment effect: 100%). Those with visual acuity worse than 20/100 reported the largest decline in visual function (median difference, -21.0; 95% CI, -40.5 to -1.6; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In the DCCT/EDIC cohort, patient-reported visual function remains high in both treatment groups, comparable to previous reports of overall health-related quality of life. Intensive diabetes therapy modestly improved NEI-VFQ-25 score 30 years after the start of the DCCT, the benefit underestimated owing to more nonparticipants from the conventional treatment group. Visual acuity had the greatest effect on patient-reported visual function from among all risk factors. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00360815 and NCT00360893.
IMPORTANCE: Somatic mutations in BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1 gene) are frequently identified in uveal melanoma. To date, the role of germline BAP1 mutations in uveal melanoma has not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical phenotype of uveal melanoma in patients with germline BAP1 mutations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study at an academic ophthalmology referral center among 507 patients with uveal melanoma who consented for collection of blood samples. The study dates were June 22, 1992, to December 14, 2010. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Clinical characteristics of uveal melanoma and the development of metastases. BAP1 gene sequencing from blood samples of patients with uveal melanoma was correlated with clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Of 507 blood samples analyzed, 25 patients (4.9%) exhibited 18 BAP1 polymorphisms, of which 9 were novel. Computational analyses predicted that 8 BAP1 mutations in 8 patients (1.6%) were likely to result in damaged BAP1 protein. Five of these 8 mutations were novel. These 8 patients were compared with 482 patients in whom no BAP1 polymorphisms were identified. In univariate analyses, patients with germline BAP1 mutations exhibited larger tumor diameters (mean, 15.9 vs 12.3 mm; P = .004) and higher rates of ciliary body involvement (75.0% vs 21.6%, P = .002) and metastases (71.4% vs 18.0%, P = .003) compared with control subjects. Patients with germline BAP1 mutations exhibited increased frequency of family history of cancer (100% vs 65.9%, P = .06), particularly cutaneous melanoma (62.5% vs 9.9%, P < .001) and ocular melanoma (25.0% vs 1.9%, P = .01). No differences were identified in age at diagnosis, sex, history of other malignant neoplasm, presenting visual acuity, distance of the tumor from the optic nerve or fovea, iris involvement, extrascleral extension, or tumor pigmentation. Germline BAP1 mutations increased risk of metastasis independent of ciliary body involvement (P = .02). Germline BAP1 mutation approached significance as an independent risk factor for metastasis (P = .09). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data suggest that germline BAP1 mutations occur infrequently in uveal melanoma and are associated with larger tumors and higher rates of ciliary body involvement, 2 known risk factors for metastasis.
PURPOSE: To analyze the density and morphology of corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) as associated with corneal innervation. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled and masked cross-sectional study. METHODS: setting: Single-center study. PATIENTS: Thirty eyes with the diagnosis HZO and their contralateral clinically unaffected eyes, 15 eyes of 15 normal controls. intervention procedures: In vivo confocal microscopy and corneal esthesiometry of the central cornea. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in morphology and density of the superficial and basal epithelial cells and stromal keratocytes, and correlation with corneal sensation. RESULTS: The density of superficial epithelial cells in HZO eyes with severe sensation loss (766.5 ± 25.2 cells/mm(2)) was significantly lower than both healthy control eyes (1450.23 ± 150.83 cells/mm(2)) and contralateral unaffected eyes (1974.13 ± 298.24 cells/mm(2)) (P = .003). Superficial epithelial cell size (1162.5 μm(2)) was significantly larger in HZO eyes with severe loss of sensation, as compared to contralateral (441.46 ± 298.14) or healthy eyes (407.4 ± 47.2μm(2); all P < .05). The density of basal epithelial cells, anterior keratocytes, and posterior keratocytes did not show statistical significance between patients, controls, and contralateral unaffected eyes. Changes in superficial epithelial cell density and morphology correlated strongly with corneal sensation. CONCLUSIONS: In vivo confocal microscopy reveals profound HZO-induced changes in the superficial epithelium, as demonstrated by increase in cell size, decrease in cell density, and squamous metaplasia. We demonstrate that these changes strongly correlate with changes in corneal innervation in eyes affected by HZO.
PURPOSE: To assess temporal summation in children with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by determining the critical duration (tCRIT) for complete temporal summation under rod-mediated conditions. From prior ERG studies, it is known that the kinetics of activation of phototransduction are prolonged in the ROP rod photoreceptor. METHODS: Dark-adapted thresholds for detecting 10° diameter stimuli with durations from 10 to 640 ms were measured. A two-alternative, spatial, forced-choice psychophysical procedure was used. The tCRIT for complete summation was estimated in former preterm subjects with a history of severe ROP (n = 7), mild ROP (n = 23), and no ROP (n = 15). The subjects ranged in age from 10.4 to 17.6 (median 15.6) years. Age-similar term-born control subjects (n = 5) were also tested. RESULTS: Critical duration was significantly longer in subjects with a history of ROP than in subjects who never had ROP or who were born at term. Mean tCRIT in the mild ROP group [127.5 (SD = 19.9) ms] and severe group [147.6 (SD = 18.9) ms] did not differ significantly, but both were significantly longer than in former preterms who never had ROP [101.1 (SD = 16.5) ms] and in term-born controls [101.0 (SD = 19.5) ms]. CONCLUSIONS: In ROP subjects, tCRIT is significantly prolonged. This is likely due to abnormal kinetics in the rod outer segment.
The mammalian neocortex is composed of two major neuronal cell types with distinct origins: excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons, generated in dorsal and ventral progenitor zones of the embryonic telencephalon, respectively. Thus, inhibitory neurons migrate relatively long distances to reach their destination in the developing forebrain. The role of lineage in the organization and circuitry of interneurons is still not well understood. Utilizing a combination of genetics, retroviral fate mapping, and lineage-specific retroviral barcode labeling, we find that clonally related interneurons can be widely dispersed while unrelated interneurons can be closely clustered. These data suggest that migratory mechanisms related to the clustering of interneurons occur largely independent of their clonal origin.
PURPOSE: To determine whether people with central field loss (CFL) from macular degeneration have improved ability to recognize a particularly difficult spatial configuration embedded in noise, the peripherally-viewed 'ladder contour'. The visibility of these configuration has been linked to general contour integration ability and crowding limitations in peripheral vision. METHODS: We used a trial-based yes-no task. CFL patients and normally-sighted controls performed the task, looking for ladder contours embedded in a field of randomly oriented Gabor patches, at a range of stimulus presentation times (varying stimulus difficulty). Viewing eccentricity in CFL patients was set by their preferred retinal loci (PRLs) and matched artificially in the control group. The contours were presented so as to be tangent to the CFL region, given a patient's PRL location. RESULTS: CFL and normally-sighted groups performed similarly on the task. The only significant determinant of performance was the viewing eccentricity. CONCLUSIONS: CFL patients do not seem to develop any improved ability to recognize ladder contours with their parafoveal retina, which suggests that there is no underlying improvement in contour integration or reduction in crowding limitations in the region of the PRL despite extended daily use.
Detecting the gaze direction of others is critical for many social interactions. We explored factors that may make the perception of mutual gaze more difficult, including the degradation of the stimulus and simulated vision impairment. To what extent do these factors affect the complex assessment of mutual gaze? Using an interactive virtual head whose eye direction could be manipulated by the subject, we conducted two experiments to assess the effects of simulated vision impairments on mutual gaze. Healthy subjects had to demarcate the center and the edges of the cone of gaze-that is, the range of gaze directions that are accepted for mutual gaze. When vision was impaired by adding a semitransparent white contrast reduction mask to the display (Exp. 1), judgments became more variable and more influenced by the head direction (indicative of a compensation strategy). When refractive blur was added (Exp. 1), the gaze cone shrank from 12.9° (no blur) to 11.3° (3-diopter lens), which cannot be explained by a low-level process but might reflect a tightening of the criterion for mutual gaze as a response to the increased uncertainty. However, the overall effects of the impairments were relatively modest. Elderly subjects (Exp. 2) produced more variability but did not differ qualitatively from the younger subjects. In the face of artificial vision impairments, compensation mechanisms and criterion changes allow us to perform better in mutual gaze perception than would be predicted by a simple extrapolation from the losses in basic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity.
Ho AC, Humayun MS, Dorn JD, da Cruz L, Dagnelie G, Handa J, Barale P-O, Sahel J-A, Stanga PE, Hafezi F, Safran AB, Salzmann J, Santos A, Birch D, Spencer R, Cideciyan AV, de Juan E, Duncan JL, Eliott D, Fawzi A, Olmos de Koo LC, Brown GC, Haller JA, Regillo CD, Del Priore LV, Arditi A, Geruschat DR, Greenberg RJ, Greenberg RJ. Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind. Ophthalmology 2015;122(8):1547-54.Abstract
PURPOSE: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal degenerations leading to blindness due to photoreceptor loss. Retinitis pigmentosa is a rare disease, affecting only approximately 100 000 people in the United States. There is no cure and no approved medical therapy to slow or reverse RP. The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the safety, reliability, and benefit of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc, Sylmar, CA) in restoring some visual function to subjects completely blind from RP. We report clinical trial results at 1 and 3 years after implantation. DESIGN: The study is a multicenter, single-arm, prospective clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: There were 30 subjects in 10 centers in the United States and Europe. Subjects served as their own controls, that is, implanted eye versus fellow eye, and system on versus system off (native residual vision). METHODS: The Argus II System was implanted on and in a single eye (typically the worse-seeing eye) of blind subjects. Subjects wore glasses mounted with a small camera and a video processor that converted images into stimulation patterns sent to the electrode array on the retina. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were safety (the number, seriousness, and relatedness of adverse events) and visual function, as measured by 3 computer-based, objective tests. RESULTS: A total of 29 of 30 subjects had functioning Argus II Systems implants 3 years after implantation. Eleven subjects experienced a total of 23 serious device- or surgery-related adverse events. All were treated with standard ophthalmic care. As a group, subjects performed significantly better with the system on than off on all visual function tests and functional vision assessments. CONCLUSIONS: The 3-year results of the Argus II trial support the long-term safety profile and benefit of the Argus II System for patients blind from RP. Earlier results from this trial were used to gain approval of the Argus II by the Food and Drug Administration and a CE mark in Europe. The Argus II System is the first and only retinal implant to have both approvals.
PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) using the Corvis ST Tonometer (CST), ocular response analyzer (ORA), and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in eyes undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), as well as to analyze the relationship between the corneal biomechanical parameters of the CST and the ORA. METHODS: Fifty participants who had undergone LASIK to treat myopia in the previous 3 months were enrolled. Postoperative IOP measurements of these participants were obtained using the CST, ORA (corneal-compensated IOP [IOPcc], Goldmann-correlated IOP [IOPg]), and GAT. Device agreement was calculated by Bland-Altman analysis. The metrics of corneal biomechanical properties were recorded using the ORA and the CST. Corneal biomechanical parameters were compared. RESULTS: The Bland-Altman analysis revealed a significant bias between CST and GAT, between CST and IOPcc, and between CST and IOPg of 3.4, 1.0, and 3.8, mm Hg, respectively, with 95% limits of agreement of -0.7 to 7.5 mm Hg, -2.1 to 4.2 mm Hg, and -0.4 to 8.0 mm Hg. The ORA-derived IOP measurements, CST-derived IOP, and GAT IOP values showed good correlation with each other. The CST IOP and IOPcc were higher than the GAT IOP (all p < 0.05), whereas IOPg did not differ from the GAT IOP readings. Ocular response analyzer-derived corneal biomechanical parameters (corneal hysteresis and the corneal resistance factor) showed significant correlations with CST-derived parameters, including the maximum deformation amplitude at the corneal apex and the time from start until the first applanation. CONCLUSIONS: The CST offers an alternative method for measuring postoperative IOP in LASIK patients, and it appears to obtain higher IOP values than other tonometry techniques. The technique may facilitate the investigation of corneal biomechanical property changes in LASIK-treated eyes.
PURPOSE: Each year, over 8,000 corneal transplantation surgeries are performed in China. Unlike developed countries, which have established standard requirements for operative experience for corneal specialists, little information exists on surgical training for keratoplasty in China. The aim of this study was to assess the keratoplasty experience of Chinese corneal specialists and to characterize their surgical patterns. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one corneal specialists in 16 provinces (65 cities) in China were invited to complete an anonymous survey at the 2014 Chinese Corneal Society annual meeting, which consisted of questions with single or multiple-choice answers. Demographics, the number and type of keratoplasties performed, and the perceived limiting factors for performing keratoplasties were analyzed. RESULTS: An overwhelming 89% response rate was achieved. Of the 108 respondents, 76% worked in tertiary centers, and only 23% held a medical doctorate degree. Furthermore, 69% of the participants had received corneal fellowship training of less than one year. Only 71% were capable of keratoplasties. Among those doing keratoplasty, 68% performed less than 50 keratoplasties each year. Of the same group of keratoplasty surgeons, 88% of corneal specialists capable of keratoplasties had performed penetrating keratoplasties, 87% had performed lamellar keratoplasties, 12% had performed deep anterior lamellar keratoplasties, and 5% had performed Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasties. When questioned on the reasons for the low number of keratoplasties performed in China, the respondents deemed the following factors most important: lack of surgical training (71%), a shortage of donor supply (52%), and a lack of curricula (42%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that corneal transplantation capabilities are significantly associated with responders' education levels and training time. CONCLUSION: Keratoplasty surgery experience is suboptimal for Chinese corneal specialists. Penetrating and lamellar keratoplasties are the preferred surgical patterns. Our findings raise concerns about the adequacy of keratoplasty training in China.
PURPOSE: Absorbable polyethylene glycol-based synthetic sealant (PEG sealant) polymerizes under xenon illumination and forms a clear, flexible, and firmly adherent hydrogel. The intraocular biocompatibility of PEG sealant and efficacy for closing retinal breaks were evaluated. METHODS: In an in vitro study, retinal detachment with a tear was created in porcine eyecups after vitreous gel removal. Polyethylene glycol-based synthetic sealant was applied to cover the tear and polymerized with a 40-second application of xenon light. Retinal adhesion strength was tested by forcefully squirting balanced salt solution (BSS) onto the retinal tear. Polyethylene glycol-based synthetic sealant was soaked in the BSS, incubated at 37°C, and the pH measured periodically over 72 hours. In an in vivo study, PEG sealant was injected into the vitreous cavity of the left eyes of rabbits. Ophthalmologic examinations were performed and bilateral ERGs were recorded simultaneously before and 28 days after injection. The eyes were enucleated for histological evaluation. RESULTS: Adhesion of PEG sealant to the retina was good in BSS. A forceful squirt of BSS onto the retinal tear covered with PEG sealant did not detach the retina; the retinal tear without PEG sealant detached immediately. The pH of the BSS containing PEG sealant was between 7.2 and 8.2. No inflammatory reaction was observed in the eyes throughout 28 days of follow-up. The ERGs recorded before and after injection showed typical patterns. Histological examinations did not reveal any abnormality or inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Polyethylene glycol-based synthetic sealant appeared to effectively seal retinal breaks and was not toxic to the eye.
PURPOSE: Although the impact of homonymous visual field defects (HFDs) on mobility has been investigated previously, the emphasis has been on obstacle detection. Relatively little is known about HFD patients' ability to judge collisions once an obstacle is detected. We investigated this using a walking simulator. METHODS: Patients with HFDs (n = 29) and subjects with normal vision (NV; n = 21) were seated in front of a large screen on which a visual simulation of walking was displayed. They made collision judgments for a human figure that appeared for 1 second at lateral offsets from the virtual walking path. A perceived-collision threshold was calculated for right and left sides. RESULTS: Symmetrical collision thresholds (same on left and right sides) were measured for participants with NV (n = 21), and right (n = 9) and left (n = 7) HFD without hemispatial neglect. Participants with left neglect (n = 10) showed significant asymmetry with thresholds smaller (compared to the NV group and other HFD groups) on the blind (P < 0.001) and larger on the seeing (P = 0.05) sides. Despite the asymmetry, the overall width of the zone of perceived collision risk was not different, suggesting a relatively uniform rightward deviation in judgments of the left neglect group. CONCLUSIONS: Left neglect was associated with rightward asymmetry in collision judgments, which may cause collisions on the left side even when an obstacle is detected. These behaviors may represent the spatial misperceptions in body midline described previously in patients with left neglect.
The cornea is the shield to the foreign world and thus, a primary site for peripheral infections. However, transparency and vision are incompatible with inflammation and scarring that may result from infections. Thus, the cornea is required to perform a delicate balance between fighting infections and preserving vision. To date, little is known about the specific role of antigen-presenting cells in viral keratitis. In this study, utilizing an established murine model of primary acute herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 keratitis, we demonstrate that primary HSV keratitis results in increased conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and macrophages within 24 hours after infection. Local depletion of cDCs in CD11c-DTR mice by subconjuntival diphtheria toxin injections, led to increased viral proliferation, and influx of inflammatory cells, resulting in increased scarring and clinical keratitis. In addition, while HSV infection resulted in significant corneal nerve destruction, local depletion of cDCs resulted in a much more severe loss of corneal nerves. Further, local cDC depletion resulted in decreased corneal nerve infection, and subsequently decreased and delayed systemic viral transmission in the trigeminal ganglion and draining lymph node, resulting in decreased mortality of mice. In contrast, sham depletion or depletion of macrophages through local injection of clodronate liposomes had neither a significant impact on the cornea, nor an effect on systemic viral transmission. In conclusion, we demonstrate that corneal cDCs may play a primary role in local corneal defense during viral keratitis and preserve vision, at the cost of inducing systemic viral dissemination, leading to increased mortality.