Meyer Zu Horste G, Derksen A, Stassart R, Szepanowski F, Thanos M, Stettner M, Boettcher C, Lehmann HC, Hartung H-P, Kieseier BC. Neuronal ADAM10 Promotes Outgrowth of Small-Caliber Myelinated Axons in the Peripheral Nervous System. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2015;74(11):1077-85.Abstract

The regulation of myelination and axonal outgrowth in the peripheral nervous system is controlled by a complex signaling network involving various signaling pathways. Members of the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family are membrane-anchored proteinases with both proteolytic and disintegrin characteristics that modulate the function of signaling molecules. One family member, ADAM17, is known to influence myelination by cleaving and thus regulating one of the key signals, neuregulin-1, which controls peripheral nervous system myelination. A similar function for ADAM10 had been suggested by previous in vitro studies. Here, we assessed whether ADAM10 exerts a similar function in vivo and deleted ADAM10 in a cell type-specific manner in either neurons or Schwann cells. We found that ADAM10 is not required in either Schwann cells or neurons for normal myelination during development or for remyelination after injury. Instead, ADAM10 is required specifically in neurons for the outgrowth of myelinated small-fiber axons in vitro and after injury in vivo. Thus, we report for the first time a neuron-intrinsic function of ADAM10 in axonal regeneration that is distinct from that of the related protein family member ADAM17 and that may have implications for targeting ADAM function in nervous system diseases.

Miller JB, Yonekawa Y, Eliott D, Kim IK, Kim LA, Loewenstein JI, Sobrin L, Young LH, Mukai S, Vavvas DG. Long-term Follow-up and Outcomes in Traumatic Macular Holes. Am J Ophthalmol 2015;160(6):1255-1258.e1.Abstract

PURPOSE: To review presenting characteristics, clinical course, and long-term visual and anatomic outcomes of patients with traumatic macular holes at a tertiary referral center. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with traumatic macular holes at a single tertiary referral center were reviewed. In addition to visual acuities and treatments throughout the clinical course, specific dimensions of the macular hole, including diameters, height, configuration, shape, and the presence of a cuff of fluid, were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were identified with a mean initial visual acuity (VA) of logMAR 1.3 (20/400) and a mean follow-up of 2.2 years. Eleven holes (39.3%) closed spontaneously in median 5.7 weeks. Eleven underwent vitrectomy with a median time to intervention of 35.1 weeks. Median time to surgery for the 5 eyes with successful hole closure was 11.0 weeks vs 56.3 weeks for the 6 eyes that failed to close (P = .02). VA improved in closed holes (P < .01), whether spontaneously (P < .01) or via vitrectomy (P = .04), but VA did not improve in holes that did not close (P = .22). There was no relation between initial OCT dimensions and final hole closure status, although there was a trend, which did not reach statistical significance, toward small dimensions for those that closed spontaneously. CONCLUSIONS: A fairly high spontaneous closure rate was observed, with a trend toward smaller OCT dimensions. We found no relationship between hole closure and the OCT characteristics of the hole. Surgical intervention was less successful at hole closure when elected after 3 months.

Milman T, Kao AA, Chu D, Gorski M, Steiner A, Simon CZ, Shih C, Aldave AJ, Eagle RC, Jakobiec FA, Udell I. Paraproteinemic Keratopathy: The Expanding Diversity of Clinical and Pathologic Manifestations. Ophthalmology 2015;122(9):1748-56.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe 7 patients with paraproteinemic keratopathy and to highlight the clinical and pathologic diversity of this rare entity and the importance of timely, systemic evaluation. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter collaborative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients with paraproteinemic keratopathy. METHODS: Clinical and pathologic records were reviewed to identify patients with well-documented corneal immunoglobulin deposits. Detailed ophthalmologic and medical histories were assembled. In 6 patients, corneal tissue was evaluated histochemically and immunohistochemically; in selected cases, corneal tissue was evaluated by in situ hybridization and ultrastructurally. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity and anterior segment examination at presentation and follow-up; local therapy; systemic diagnosis and management; and histopathologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and ultrastructural findings. RESULTS: Seven patients were identified with corneal immunoglobulin deposition. In addition to previously reported crystalline, nummular, patch-like, and lattice-like corneal opacities, prominent corneal vascularization was present in 2 patients mimicking interstitial keratitis and limbal stem cell deficiency. All patients had evidence of paraproteinemia in a setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering plasma cell myeloma, or Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Corneal findings were the first manifestation of systemic disease in 4 patients, and the diagnosis was not suspected in 3 of these patients. Pathologic evaluation of biopsied corneal and conjunctival tissues demonstrated immunoglobulin deposits. Previously unreported ultrastructural patterns in the cornea were noted: large scroll-like immunotactoid deposits, immune complex-like deposits, and randomly arranged fibrils morphologically intermediate between amyloid and immunotactoid deposits. Surgical intervention to improve vision was performed in 4 patients, with recurrence of deposits in 3 patients. Three patients underwent systemic therapy with diminution of the deposits and improvement in vision in 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and pathologic expressions of corneal immunoglobulin deposits are protean and present a diagnostic challenge. Early recognition of this rare entity is important to address the potentially serious associated systemic disease.

Miyake M, Yamashiro K, Tamura H, Kumagai K, Saito M, Sugahara-Kuroda M, Yoshikawa M, Oishi M, Akagi-Kurashige Y, Nakata I, Nakanishi H, Gotoh N, Oishi A, Matsuda F, Yamada R, Khor C-C, Kurimoto Y, Sekiryu T, Tsujikawa A, Yoshimura N. The Contribution of Genetic Architecture to the 10-Year Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Fellow Eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(9):5353-61.Abstract

PURPOSE: To correlate a genetic risk score based on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) susceptibility genes with the risk of AMD in the second eye. METHODS: This is a retrospective, open cohort study consisting of 891 unilateral AMD patients, who were followed for at least 12 months and recruited from three institutes. DNAs were genotyped using Illumina OmniExpress, HumanOmni2.5-8, and/or HumanExome. Survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between 11 AMD susceptibility genes and the duration until second-eye involvement in 499 samples from Kyoto University, which were replicated in two other cohorts. Genetic risk score (GRS) was also evaluated. RESULTS: The ARMS2 rs10490924 recessive model (hazard ratio [HR]meta = 2.04; Pmeta = 3.4 × 10-3) and CFH rs800292 additive model (HRmeta = 1.77; Pmeta = 0.013) revealed significant associations with second-eye involvement. The dominant model of TNFRSF10A rs13278062, VEGFA rs943080, and CFI rs4698775 showed consistent effects across three datasets (I2 = 0%; HRmeta = 1.46, 1.30, 1.51, respectively). The GRS using these five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was also significantly associated (HRmeta [per score] = 2.42; P = 2.2 × 10-5; I2 = 0%). After 10 years from the first visit, the patients within the top 10% by GRS showed a 51% hazard rate, in contrast to 2.3% among patients within the lowest 10% by GRS. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the GRS using ARMS2, CFH, TNFRSF10A, VEGFA, and CFI was significantly associated with second-eye involvement. Genetic risk has high predictive ability for second-eye involvement of AMD.

Mlynarski EE, Sheridan MB, Xie M, Guo T, Racedo SE, McDonald-McGinn DM, Gai X, Chow EWC, Vorstman J, Swillen A, Devriendt K, Breckpot J, Digilio MC, Marino B, Dallapiccola B, Philip N, Simon TJ, Roberts AE, Piotrowicz M, Bearden CE, Eliez S, Gothelf D, Coleman K, Kates WR, Devoto M, Zackai E, Heine-Suñer D, Shaikh TH, Bassett AS, Goldmuntz E, Morrow BE, Emanuel BS, Consortium IC22q11 2. Copy-Number Variation of the Glucose Transporter Gene SLC2A3 and Congenital Heart Defects in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 2015;96(5):753-64.Abstract
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and the phenotypic presentation is highly variable. Approximately 65% of individuals with 22q11DS have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or an aortic arch defect. The etiology of this phenotypic variability is not currently known. We hypothesized that copy-number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region might increase the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Genotyping with Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 was performed on two groups of subjects with 22q11DS separated by time of ascertainment and processing. CNV analysis was completed on a total of 949 subjects (cohort 1, n = 562; cohort 2, n = 387), 603 with CHDs (cohort 1, n = 363; cohort 2, n = 240) and 346 with normal cardiac anatomy (cohort 1, n = 199; cohort 2, n = 147). Our analysis revealed that a duplication of SLC2A3 was the most frequent CNV identified in the first cohort. It was present in 18 subjects with CHDs and 1 subject without (p = 3.12 × 10(-3), two-tailed Fisher's exact test). In the second cohort, the SLC2A3 duplication was also significantly enriched in subjects with CHDs (p = 3.30 × 10(-2), two-tailed Fisher's exact test). The SLC2A3 duplication was the most frequent CNV detected and the only significant finding in our combined analysis (p = 2.68 × 10(-4), two-tailed Fisher's exact test), indicating that the SLC2A3 duplication might serve as a genetic modifier of CHDs and/or aortic arch anomalies in individuals with 22q11DS.
Modjtahedi BS, Fortenbach CR, Lorch AC. Optic Nerve Head Avulsion: Clinical, Radiographic, and Sonographic Correlations. Ophthalmology 2015;122(12):2442.
Modjtahedi BS, Rong A, Bobinski M, McGahan J, Morse LS. Imaging characteristics of intraocular foreign bodies: a comparative study of plain film X-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Retina 2015;35(1):95-104.Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine the imaging features of common intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) and the ability to differentiate types of IOFBs. METHODS: Four-mm IOFBs were inserted via through pars plana approach into cadaveric lamb eyes. Six metallic (aluminum, brass, copper, silver, steel, and lead) and seven nonmetallic (plastic [CF6 spectacle plastic and polyvinyl chloride pipe], glass [bottle glass and windshield glass], wood [dry and wet poplar], and stone [slate]) IOFBs were imaged using plain film x-ray, computed tomography scan, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (T1, T2, and gradient echo sequences). RESULTS: Plain film x-ray had limited ability to differentiate most IOFBs. Computed tomography findings can be divided into low attenuation objects (wood), moderate attenuation (CF6 spectacle plastic), high attenuation without surrounding artifact (polyvinyl chloride, slate, bottle glass, windshield glass, and aluminum), high attenuation with shadow artifact and minimal edge streak artifact (steel, brass, copper), and high attenuation with significant shadow artifact and prominent streak artifact (silver and lead). Density (in Hounsfield units) aided in differentiating the types of IOFBs. Gradient echo sequences on magnetic resonance imaging also held utility. Ultrasound images had considerable overlap in appearances. CONCLUSION: Imaging techniques can significantly aid in determining the IOFBs type, with computed tomography serving as the best initial modality. X-ray holds limited utility while ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are best reserved as adjunctive tests.

Moreno-Ramos OA, Olivares AM, Haider NB, de Autismo LC, Lattig MC. Whole-Exome Sequencing in a South American Cohort Links ALDH1A3, FOXN1 and Retinoic Acid Regulation Pathways to Autism Spectrum Disorders. PLoS One 2015;10(9):e0135927.Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a range of complex neurodevelopmental conditions principally characterized by dysfunctions linked to mental development. Previous studies have shown that there are more than 1000 genes likely involved in ASD, expressed mainly in brain and highly interconnected among them. We applied whole exome sequencing in Colombian-South American trios. Two missense novel SNVs were found in the same child: ALDH1A3 (RefSeq NM_000693: c.1514T>C (p.I505T)) and FOXN1 (RefSeq NM_003593: c.146C>T (p.S49L)). Gene expression studies reveal that Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 are expressed in ~E13.5 mouse embryonic brain, as well as in adult piriform cortex (PC; ~P30). Conserved Retinoic Acid Response Elements (RAREs) upstream of human ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 and in mouse Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 genes were revealed using bioinformatic approximation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using Retinoid Acid Receptor B (Rarb) as the immunoprecipitation target suggests RA regulation of Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 in mice. Our results frame a possible link of RA regulation in brain to ASD etiology, and a feasible non-additive effect of two apparently unrelated variants in ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 recognizing that every result given by next generation sequencing should be cautiously analyzed, as it might be an incidental finding.

Morrison MA, Magalhaes TR, Ramke J, Smith SE, Ennis S, Simpson CL, Portas L, Murgia F, Ahn J, Dardenne C, Mayne K, Robinson R, Morgan DJ, Brian G, Lee L, Woo SJ, Zacharaki F, Tsironi EE, Miller JW, Kim IK, Park KH, Bailey-Wilson JE, Farrer LA, Stambolian D, Deangelis MM. Ancestry of the Timorese: age-related macular degeneration associated genotype and allele sharing among human populations from throughout the world. Front Genet 2015;6:238.Abstract

We observed that the third leading cause of blindness in the world, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), occurs at a very low documented frequency in a population-based cohort from Timor-Leste. Thus, we determined a complete catalog of the ancestry of the Timorese by analysis of whole exome chip data and haplogroup analysis of SNP genotypes determined by sequencing the Hypervariable I and II regions of the mitochondrial genome and 17 genotyped YSTR markers obtained from 535 individuals. We genotyped 20 previously reported AMD-associated SNPs in the Timorese to examine their allele frequencies compared to and between previously documented AMD cohorts of varying ethnicities. For those without AMD (average age > 55 years), genotype and allele frequencies were similar for most SNPs with a few exceptions. The major risk allele of HTRA1 rs11200638 (10q26) was at a significantly higher frequency in the Timorese, as well as 3 of the 5 protective CFH (1q32) SNPs (rs800292, rs2284664, and rs12066959). Additionally, the most commonly associated AMD-risk SNP, CFH rs1061170 (Y402H), was also seen at a much lower frequency in the Korean and Timorese populations than in the assessed Caucasian populations (C ~7 vs. ~40%, respectively). The difference in allele frequencies between the Timorese population and the other genotyped populations, along with the haplogroup analysis, also highlight the genetic diversity of the Timorese. Specifically, the most common ancestry groupings were Oceanic (Melanesian and Papuan) and Eastern Asian (specifically Han Chinese). The low prevalence of AMD in the Timorese population (2 of 535 randomly selected participants) may be due to the enrichment of protective alleles in this population at the 1q32 locus.

Mukherjee S, Zhou X, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Ultrastructure of adenovirus keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(1):472-7.Abstract

PURPOSE: We determined the ultrastructure of mouse adenovirus keratitis, a model for human adenovirus keratitis. METHODS: Adenovirus keratitis was induced in C57Bl/6j mice by intrastromal injection of human adenovirus species D type 37 (HAdV-D37) with a heat-pulled, glass, micropipette needle under compressed air. At select time points after infection, mice were euthanized and their corneas removed, fixed, and sectioned at 70-nm thickness for electron microscopy. RESULTS: Injection of HAdV-D37 into the mouse corneal stroma placed virus predominantly in the pericellular corneal stromal matrix. Virus was seen bound to and entering stromal cells at 1 and 2 hours after infection, respectively. Cell membrane transit by virus was seen to involve two distinct structures resembling caveolae and macropinosomes. However, later during infection intracellular virus was not seen within membrane-bound organelles. By 8 hours after infection, intracellular virus had accumulated into densely packed, perinuclear arrays. Virus disassembly was not obvious at any time point after infection. Infiltrating neutrophils seen by one day after infection had engulfed degraded stromal cells by 4 days after infection. CONCLUSIONS: By transmission electron microscopy, injected HAdV-D37 readily enters stromal cells in the C57Bl/6j mouse cornea and induces stromal inflammation, as was shown previously by light microscopy. However, electron microscopy also revealed dense, static arrays of intracytoplasmic virus, suggesting a block in viral capsid disassembly and viral DNA nuclear entry. These findings may explain why human adenoviruses do not replicate in the mouse corneal stroma.

Müller RT, Pourmirzaie R, Pavan-Langston D, Cavalcanti BM, Aggarwal S, Colón C, Jamali A, Cruzat A, Hamrah P. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Demonstrates Bilateral Loss of Endothelial Cells in Unilateral Herpes Simplex Keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(8):4899-906.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report bilateral corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), as well as its correlation with subbasal nerve changes, in patients with unilateral herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). METHODS: Thirty-six eyes of 36 patients with corneal scarring caused by HSK, as well as their respective contralateral clinically unaffected eyes, were prospectively studied and compared with 26 eyes of 26 healthy volunteers. In vivo confocal microscopy and corneal sensation of the central cornea were performed bilaterally in all patients and in one random eye of controls. The ECD and subbasal corneal nerve density, including the lengths of total nerves, main trunks, and branches were evaluated and correlated to central corneal sensation. RESULTS: The ECD was significantly lower in eyes affected with HSK than in controls (2304 ± 578 vs. 2940 ± 370 cells/mm2, P < 0.0001). Surprisingly, lower ECD was also detected in contralateral clinically unaffected eyes (2548 ± 423), compared to controls (P = 0.02). Both affected and contralateral eyes showed decrease in total nerve length, compared to controls (10.0 ± 6.3 vs. 17.6 ± 6.3 vs. 21.9 ± 4.3 mm/mm2, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). The ECD correlated positively with total nerve length (r = 0.39, P = 0.0009) and with corneal sensation (r = 0.31, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: In vivo confocal microscopy findings demonstrated alterations in corneal ECD in both affected and clinically unaffected contralateral eyes of patients with unilateral HSK. Moreover, the positive significant correlation between the ECD and the subbasal nerve density may suggest a potential link between corneal innervation and corneal endothelial cell homeostasis.

Müller RT, Abedi F, Cruzat A, Witkin D, Baniasadi N, Cavalcanti BM, Jamali A, Chodosh J, Dana R, Pavan-Langston D, Hamrah P. Degeneration and Regeneration of Subbasal Corneal Nerves after Infectious Keratitis: A Longitudinal InVivo Confocal Microscopy Study. Ophthalmology 2015;122(11):2200-9.Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate the longitudinal alterations of subbasal corneal nerves in patients with infectious keratitis (IK) during the acute phase, cessation of treatment, and the recovery phase by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, case-control, single-center study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six eyes of 56 patients with the diagnosis of bacterial (n = 28), fungal (n = 15), or Acanthamoeba (n = 13) keratitis were included in the study. Thirty eyes of 30 normal volunteers constituted the control group. METHODS: Corneal sensation and serial IVCM of the central cornea were performed prospectively using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3/Rostock Cornea Module (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The IVCM images were assessed at 3 time points: at the acute phase (first visit to the cornea service), at cessation of antimicrobial treatment, and up to 6 months after the resolution of infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total nerve number and length, main nerve trunks, branching, and corneal sensation were assessed during the follow-up period. RESULTS: Corneal nerves were reduced significantly during the acute phase in eyes with IK compared with controls across all subgroups, with total nerve length of 5.47±0.69 mm/mm(2) versus 20.59±1.06 mm/mm(2) (P <0.0001). At the cessation of treatment, corneal nerves in patients with IK had regenerated, including total nerve length (8.49±0.94 mm/mm(2); P = 0.02) and nerve branch length (4.80±0.37 mm/mm(2); P = 0.005). During the recovery phase, after resolution of infection, corneal nerves regenerated further, including total nerve length (12.13±1.97 mm/mm(2); P = 0.005), main nerve trunk length (5.80±1.00 mm/mm(2); P = 0.01), and nerve branch length (6.33±0.76 mm/mm(2); P = 0.003) as compared with the acute phase, but were still significantly lower when compared with controls (P < 0.05 for all parameters). Corneal degeneration and regeneration correlated with corneal sensation (r = 0.47; P = 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IK who sustain profound loss of corneal nerves during the acute phase of infection demonstrate increased corneal nerve density during the first 6 months after the resolution of infection. However, despite significant nerve regeneration, corneal nerve density does not recover fully and remains low compared to controls. By providing an objective methodology to monitor corneal re-innervation, IVCM adds potentially important findings that may have implications for clinical management and surgical planning.

Mundell NA, Beier KT, Pan AY, Lapan SW, Göz Aytürk D, Berezovskii VK, Wark AR, Drokhlyansky E, Bielecki J, Born RT, Schier AF, Cepko CL. Vesicular stomatitis virus enables gene transfer and transsynaptic tracing in a wide range of organisms. J Comp Neurol 2015;523(11):1639-63.Abstract

Current limitations in technology have prevented an extensive analysis of the connections among neurons, particularly within nonmammalian organisms. We developed a transsynaptic viral tracer originally for use in mice, and then tested its utility in a broader range of organisms. By engineering the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to encode a fluorophore and either the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) or its own glycoprotein (VSV-G), we created viruses that can transsynaptically label neuronal circuits in either the retrograde or anterograde direction, respectively. The vectors were investigated for their utility as polysynaptic tracers of chicken and zebrafish visual pathways. They showed patterns of connectivity consistent with previously characterized visual system connections, and revealed several potentially novel connections. Further, these vectors were shown to infect neurons in several other vertebrates, including Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, axolotls, and Xenopus. They were also shown to infect two invertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster, and the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, a species previously intractable for gene transfer, although no clear evidence of transsynaptic spread was observed in these species. These vectors provide a starting point for transsynaptic tracing in most vertebrates, and are also excellent candidates for gene transfer in organisms that have been refractory to other methods.

Munro RJ, Fulton AB, Chui TYP, Moskowitz A, Ramamirtham R, Hansen RM, Prabhu SP, Akula JD. Eye growth in term- and preterm-born eyes modeled from magnetic resonance images. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(5):3121-31.Abstract

PURPOSE: We generated a model of eye growth and tested it against an eye known to develop abnormally, one with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: We reviewed extant magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from term and preterm-born patients for suitable images (n = 129). We binned subjects for analysis based upon postmenstrual age at birth (in weeks) and ROP history ("Term" ≥ 37, "Premature" ≤ 32 with no ROP, "ROP" ≤ 32 with ROP). We measured the axial positions and curvatures of the cornea, anterior and posterior lens, and inner retinal surface. We fit anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior segment depth (PSD), axial length (AL), and corneal and lenticular curvatures with logistic growth curves that we then evaluated for significant differences. We also measured the length of rays from the centroid to the surface of the eye at 5° intervals, and described the length versus age relationship of each ray, Lray(x), using the same logistic growth curve. We determined the rate of ray elongation, Eray(x), from Lraydy/dx. Then, we estimated the scleral growth that accounted for Eray(x), G(x), at every age and position. RESULTS: Relative to Term, development of ACD, PSD, AL, and corneal and lenticular curvatures was delayed in ROP eyes, but not Premature eyes. In Term infants, G(x) was fast and predominantly equatorial; in age-matched ROP eyes, maximal G(x) was offset by approximately 90°. CONCLUSIONS: We produced a model of normal eye growth in term-born subjects. Relative to normal, the ROP eye is characterized by delayed, abnormal growth.

Nassi JJ, Cepko CL, Born RT, Beier KT. Neuroanatomy goes viral!. Front Neuroanat 2015;9:80.Abstract

The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and extending the range of species that can be studied.

Navarro-Gomez D, Leipzig J, Shen L, Lott M, Stassen APM, Wallace DC, Wiggs JL, Falk MJ, van Oven M, Gai X. Phy-Mer: a novel alignment-free and reference-independent mitochondrial haplogroup classifier. Bioinformatics 2015;31(8):1310-2.Abstract

MOTIVATION: All current mitochondrial haplogroup classification tools require variants to be detected from an alignment with the reference sequence and to be properly named according to the canonical nomenclature standards for describing mitochondrial variants, before they can be compared with the haplogroup determining polymorphisms. With the emergence of high-throughput sequencing technologies and hence greater availability of mitochondrial genome sequences, there is a strong need for an automated haplogroup classification tool that is alignment-free and agnostic to reference sequence. RESULTS: We have developed a novel mitochondrial genome haplogroup-defining algorithm using a k-mer approach namely Phy-Mer. Phy-Mer performs equally well as the leading haplogroup classifier, HaploGrep, while avoiding the errors that may occur when preparing variants to required formats and notations. We have further expanded Phy-Mer functionality such that next-generation sequencing data can be used directly as input. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Phy-Mer is publicly available under the GNU Affero General Public License v3.0 on GitHub (https://github.com/danielnavarrogomez/phy-mer). CONTACT: Xiaowu_Gai@meei.harvard.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

for the Network WCDRCR, Gross JG, Glassman AR, Jampol LM, Inusah S, Aiello LP, Antoszyk AN, Baker CW, Berger BB, Bressler NM, Browning D, Elman MJ, Ferris FL, Friedman SM, Marcus DM, Melia M, Stockdale CR, Sun JK, Beck RW. Panretinal Photocoagulation vs Intravitreous Ranibizumab for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2015;314(20):2137-46.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) is the standard treatment for reducing severe visual loss from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However, PRP can damage the retina, resulting in peripheral vision loss or worsening diabetic macular edema (DME). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the noninferiority of intravitreous ranibizumab compared with PRP for visual acuity outcomes in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 55 US sites among 305 adults with proliferative diabetic retinopathy enrolled between February and December 2012 (mean age, 52 years; 44% female; 52% white). Both eyes were enrolled for 89 participants (1 eye to each study group), with a total of 394 study eyes. The final 2-year visit was completed in January 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Individual eyes were randomly assigned to receive PRP treatment, completed in 1 to 3 visits (n = 203 eyes), or ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, by intravitreous injection at baseline and as frequently as every 4 weeks based on a structured re-treatment protocol (n = 191 eyes). Eyes in both treatment groups could receive ranibizumab for DME. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was mean visual acuity change at 2 years (5-letter noninferiority margin; intention-to-treat analysis). Secondary outcomes included visual acuity area under the curve, peripheral visual field loss, vitrectomy, DME development, and retinal neovascularization. RESULTS: Mean visual acuity letter improvement at 2 years was +2.8 in the ranibizumab group vs +0.2 in the PRP group (difference, +2.2; 95% CI, -0.5 to +5.0; P < .001 for noninferiority). The mean treatment group difference in visual acuity area under the curve over 2 years was +4.2 (95% CI, +3.0 to +5.4; P < .001). Mean peripheral visual field sensitivity loss was worse (-23 dB vs -422 dB; difference, 372 dB; 95% CI, 213-531 dB; P < .001), vitrectomy was more frequent (15% vs 4%; difference, 9%; 95% CI, 4%-15%; P < .001), and DME development was more frequent (28% vs 9%; difference, 19%; 95% CI, 10%-28%; P < .001) in the PRP group vs the ranibizumab group, respectively. Eyes without active or regressed neovascularization at 2 years were not significantly different (35% in the ranibizumab group vs 30% in the PRP group; difference, 3%; 95% CI, -7% to 12%; P = .58). One eye in the ranibizumab group developed endophthalmitis. No significant differences between groups in rates of major cardiovascular events were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, treatment with ranibizumab resulted in visual acuity that was noninferior to (not worse than) PRP treatment at 2 years. Although longer-term follow-up is needed, ranibizumab may be a reasonable treatment alternative, at least through 2 years, for patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01489189.

Odorcic S, Haas W, Gilmore MS, Dohlman CH. Fungal Infections After Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis Implantation: Literature Review and In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Hypochlorous Acid. Cornea 2015;34(12):1599-605.Abstract

PURPOSE: To review the current literature describing cases of fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis after Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation and to characterize the antifungal activity of 0.01% hypochlorous acid against medically relevant fungi. METHODS: A literature review of fungal keratitis or endophthalmitis in KPro patients from January 2001 to April 2015, and an in vitro time kill assay characterizing the fungicidal activity of 0.01% hypochlorous acid against fungi causing ocular infections. RESULTS: Fifteen publications, predominantly retrospective case series, were identified. Infection rates after KPro implantation ranged from 0.009 to 0.02 fungal infections per patient-year of follow-up. The largest single-surgeon series reported an incidence of 2.4% for fungal endophthalmitis during a 10-year period. Causative organisms included both yeasts and molds. Outcomes were favorable if infections were caught early and treated appropriately; less favorable outcomes were reported in developing countries where fungal species are endemic and resources are limited. 0.01% hypochlorous acid is rapidly fungicidal, reducing the number of viable yeast cells or mold conidia by at least 99.99% within 60 seconds. The antifungal activity extended to all molds (Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Mucor indicus) and yeast species (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis) tested. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal infections remain a lifelong concern in patients after KPro implantation. There is a growing need for a standard antifungal prophylaxis regimen, especially in the developing world. The rapid broad-spectrum in vitro fungicidal activity of 0.01% hypochlorous acid against all fungi tested makes it an attractive candidate as an antifungal prophylaxis in KPro patients.

Pal-Ghosh S, Pajoohesh-Ganji A, Tadvalkar G, Kyne BM, Guo X, Zieske JD, Stepp MA. Topical Mitomycin-C enhances subbasal nerve regeneration and reduces erosion frequency in the debridement wounded mouse cornea. Exp Eye Res 2015;Abstract

Corneal epithelial basement membrane dystrophies and superficial injuries caused by scratches can lead to recurrent corneal erosion syndrome (RCES). Patients and animals with reduced corneal sensory nerve innervation can also develop recurrent erosions. Multiple wild-type mouse strains will spontaneously develop recurrent corneal erosions after single 1.5 mm debridement wounds. Here we show that this wound is accompanied by an increase in corneal epithelial cell proliferation after wound closure but without a commensurate increase in corneal epithelial thickness. We investigated whether excess corneal epithelial cell proliferation contributes to erosion formation. We found that topical application of Mitomycin C (MMC), a drug used clinically to improve healing after glaucoma and refractive surgery, reduces erosion frequency, enhances subbasal axon density to levels seen in unwounded corneas, and prevents excess epithelial cell proliferation after debridement wounding. These results suggest that topically applied MMC, which successfully reduces corneal haze and scarring after PRK, may also function to enhance subbasal nerve regeneration and epithelial adhesion when used to treat RCES.

Papakostas TD, Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Vavvas D. Unusual focal remnant of the tunica vasculosa lentis. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2015;