Rudnisky CJ, Belin MW, Guo R, Ciolino JB, Group BTKS1. Visual Acuity Outcomes of the Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1: Multicenter Study Results. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;162:89-98.e1.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual outcomes of the Boston keratoprosthesis type 1. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters of 300 eyes of 300 patients who underwent implantation of a Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 device between January 2003 and July 2008 by 1 of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centers were collected. RESULTS: After an average of 17.1 ± 14.8 months, visual acuity improved significantly (P < .0001) to a mean final value of 0.89 ± 0.64 (20/150). There were also significantly fewer eyes with light perception (6.7%; n = 19; P < .0001), although 3.1% (n = 9) progressed to no light perception. There was no association between age (P = .08), sex (P = .959), operative side (P = .167), or failure (P = .494) and final visual acuity. The median time to achieve 20/200 visual acuity was 1 month (95% confidence interval 1.0-6.0) and it was retained for an average of 47.8 months. Multivariate analysis, controlling for preoperative visual acuity, demonstrated 2 factors associated with final visual outcome: chemical injury was associated with better final vision (P = .007), whereas age-related macular degeneration was associated with poorer vision (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 is an effective device for rehabilitation in advanced ocular surface disease, resulting in a significant improvement in visual acuity. Eyes achieved a mean value of 20/150 (0.89 ± 0.64 logMAR units) after 6 months and this was relatively stable thereafter. The best visual prognosis is observed in chemical injury eyes, whereas the worst prognosis is in aniridia, although the latter has limited visual potential.

Saboo US, Amparo F, Shikari H, Dana R. Prevalence of ocular hypertension and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2016;254(5):923-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 218 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 24 mmHg in either eye without any glaucomatous optic disc changes. Glaucoma suspect was defined as optic disc changes with a cup-to-disc ratio ≥ 0.7 in either eye or asymmetry of ≥ 0.3 between the two eyes. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc changes plus glaucomatous visual field defects in two consecutive reliable visual field tests. The number of cases of ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and glaucoma suspects was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients (15 %) were diagnosed with OHT, eight patients (3.6 %) with suspicion of glaucoma, and one patient (0.4 %) with glaucoma. OHT occurred within 6 months of developing ocular GVHD in 60 % of the cases and within the first year in 76 %. High IOP normalized in 67 % of patients when the dosage of topical or systemic corticosteroids was lowered, and 27 % of patients required anti-glaucoma therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular hypertension is a common complication in patients with ocular GVHD, with a prevalence of 15 %. The rise in intraocular pressure is often transient and resolves with management of corticosteroids in most cases. However, clinicians should be aware that nearly one-third of the patients with OHT might require anti-glaucoma treatment. The prevalences of glaucoma and suspicion of glaucoma were not higher than in the general population.

Sachdeva MM, Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Papakostas A, Eliott D. Clinical and Ultrastructural Studies of Epiretinal Pigmentary Deposits after Retinectomy with Silicone Oil. Ophthalmology 2016;123(12):2595-2602.Abstract

PURPOSE: Large relaxing retinectomies have become increasingly used in the repair of retinal detachment related to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Retinectomies expose the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the vitreous cavity; the direct effects of silicone oil on the RPE are only beginning to be understood. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients noted to develop pigmented epiretinal deposits at regularly scheduled follow-up visits after repair of complex retinal detachments using silicone oil tamponade and retinectomy. METHODS: Epiretinal pigment deposits were characterized clinically by wide-field color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). At the time of silicone oil removal, the pigmented membranes were preserved in fixative and analyzed by light microscopy/immunostaining or electron microscopy for histologic characterization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Not applicable. RESULTS: We describe the development of diffuse preretinal pigmentary deposits in 12 eyes after surgery for complicated PVR detachments using retinectomies with oil, with an average onset of 3.2 months postoperatively. These pigment clumps produced a striking leopard-spot pattern on fundus autofluorescence imaging. Histopathologic and ultrastructural analysis of these epiretinal proliferations peeled at the time of silicone oil removal revealed RPE cells with intracellular silicone oil droplets, singly dispersed membrane-bound melanin granules, glial tissue (1 case), and a fibrous stroma. CONCLUSIONS: Although in vitro studies have suggested that RPE cells can phagocytose emulsified oil droplets, this report represents the first in vivo documentation by electron microscopy of this phenomenon in patients. These findings underscore that direct contact with silicone oil may affect the behavior of the RPE, which may be clinically relevant in patients who have undergone large relaxing retinectomies with silicone oil tamponade for PVR-related retinal detachments.

Saeed HN, Kohanim S, Le H-G, Chodosh J, Jacobs DS. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Corneal Ectasia: Management and a Case for Association. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;169:276-81.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report the occurrence of corneal ectasia (ECT) in patients with history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and to make the case for an association between these 2 diagnoses. We also report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment on visual acuity (VA) in these patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A manufacturing database of PROSE patients from 2002 to 2014 at Boston Foundation for Sight (BFS), a single-center clinical practice, was reviewed to identify patients with diagnoses of both SJS and ECT. RESULTS: Nine patients were identified with diagnoses of both SJS and ECT. In each case, review of the medical record revealed that diagnosis of SJS preceded that of ECT. The prevalence of ECT in this population exceeded that in the general population (P < .0001). Videokeratography was available for 13 eyes in 7 patients; using Krumeich's classification of keratoconus, 3 eyes were found to be at stage 1, 3 at stage 2, 1 at stage 3, and 6 at stage 4. Sixteen of 18 eyes underwent PROSE treatment. Of these 16 eyes, initial median VA was 20/200 (range, count fingers to 20/20; logMAR 1.0). Median VA after PROSE customization was 20/30 (range, 20/60-20/15; logMAR 0.1761, P < .0025). CONCLUSIONS: ECT occurs at a higher-than-expected rate in patients with a history of SJS. PROSE treatment improves VA in these patients. The basis of the association between SJS and ECT is considered, as well as the role of plausible contributory factors such as corneal microtrauma and matrix metalloproteinases.

Saeed HN, Chodosh J. Ocular manifestations of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and their management. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2016;Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances and outcomes data in the management of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) demonstrate the need for a universal standard of care for patients admitted with the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Amniotic membrane transplantation, aggressive topical corticosteroids, and lubrication in the acute stage are necessary to prevent or mitigate long-term ocular sequelae. If chronic ocular disease does occur, several interventions can be employed to prevent progressive vision loss and discomfort. The earliest interventions are the ones most likely to prevent chronic complications. SUMMARY: The literature overwhelmingly describes acute intervention for ocular involvement in SJS/TEN as improving long-term outcomes. All patients admitted for SJS/TEN or suspicion of SJS/TEN should be evaluated and then closely followed by ophthalmologists. As the disease progresses, the interventions needed for visual rehabilitation become more invasive and higher risk.

Saeed H, Mantagos IS, Chodosh J. Complications of Stevens-Johnson syndrome beyond the eye and skin. Burns 2016;42(1):20-7.Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Ocular and cutaneous disease are common chronic sequelae of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) and have been well described in the literature. Long-term complications affecting other organ systems have not been so well described. The purpose of this review article is to highlight non-ocular and non-cutaneous chronic complications of SJS/TEN. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for the keywords "Stevens-Johnson syndrome" and "toxic epidermal necrolysis" through September 1, 2014. Relevant articles were then reviewed in full. RESULTS: 138 articles in the English language were found that described chronic sequelae of SJS/TEN. Our search revealed six affected organ systems other than the eyes and integument, with chronic sequelae from SJS/TEN: respiratory, gastrointestinal/hepatic, oral, otorhinolaryngologic, gynecologic/genitourinary, and renal. Complications involving these organs systems appeared likely to reduce the quality of life for SJS/TEN survivors. DISCUSSION: SJS/TEN is a multi-organ disease requiring multidisciplinary care from a variety of specialists. Affected patients have complex hospital stays, and their quality of life may be severely impacted by multiple long-term complications. We believe that preventative care in the acute setting might limit the development and progression of many of the sequelae described above.

Sainz-de-la-Maza M, Molina N, Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Doctor PP, Tauber J, Foster SC. Scleritis associated with relapsing polychondritis. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(9):1290-4.Abstract

AIMS: To evaluate ocular disease characteristics and successful therapeutic regimens in patients with scleritis associated with relapsing polychondritis (RP). To compare these features with those seen in patients with scleritis associated with other systemic immune-mediated diseases (SIMD). METHODS: Electronic health records of 13 scleritis patients associated with RP were analysed and compared with those of 113 scleritis patients associated with other SIMD seen at two tertiary referral centres. RESULTS: Scleritis in patients with RP was often bilateral (92.3%), diffuse (76.9%), recurrent (84.6%), sometimes with decreased vision (46.2%), anterior uveitis (38.5%), peripheral keratitis (15.4%) and ocular hypertension (30.8%). Patients with scleritis associated with RP more often had bilateral scleritis (p=0.001), necrotising scleritis (23.1%; p=0.02), recurrences (p=0.001) and decreased vision (three of the six with legal blindness; p=0.012), as compared with patients who had scleritis associated with other SIMD. Nine patients (69.2%) had one or more SIMD other than RP, including systemic vasculitis (4) or other autoimmune disease (8); they antedated RP by 9 years (range 2-21 years). Successful therapy included cyclophosphamide (5), methotrexate (3), azathioprine (3), mycophenolate mofetil (2), infliximab (2) and adalimumab (1). CONCLUSIONS: Scleritis may be the first manifestation whose study leads to the diagnosis of RP. Scleritis associated with RP is more often bilateral, necrotising, recurrent and associated with decrease of vision than scleritis associated with other SIMD. About 69.2% of patients will have an additional SIMD disorder. Scleritis associated with RP most often will require immunomodulatory therapy. Occasionally, scleritis with RP may appear while using antitumor necrosis factor α agents.

Sainz-de-la-Maza M, Molins B, Mesquida M, Llorenç V, Zarranz-Ventura J, Sala-Puigdollers A, Matas J, Adan A, Foster SC. Interleukin-22 serum levels are elevated in active scleritis. Acta Ophthalmol 2016;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate serum cytokine profile from patients with active scleritis in a two-centre prospective case-control study. METHODS: The serum of 20 active scleritis patients not treated with any local, periocular, or systemic immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) was analysed with multiplex assay to determine the levels of 11 cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-5, TNF-α, and TNF-β, and with ELISA to determine the levels of TGF-β1, IL-22, and IL-23. Twenty-five age-matched healthy volunteers were used as controls. In a subgroup of 13 patients with active disease, a second serum sample was obtained when the disease was inactive and levels of IL-22 were determined. Serum IL-22 levels from patients with active scleritis were correlated with type of scleritis (non-necrotizing and necrotizing), degree of inflammation (0-4+ :≤2+ and >2+), and associated systemic disease. RESULTS: Serum levels of IL-22 were elevated in active scleritis patients compared to controls (6.41 ± 1.52 pg/ml versus 1.93 ± 0.39 pg/ml, p = 0.012) and significantly decreased after scleritis remission with the use of IMT (p = 0.005). There was no statistical association with scleritis type, degree of inflammation, or associated systemic disease. The serum levels of other cytokines were not significantly different from controls. CONCLUSION: In our study cohort, IL-22 serum levels were significantly elevated in active scleritis patients compared to controls and decreased significantly after remission. Our results suggest that IL-22, a T helper (Th) 17- and Th22- derived cytokine, may play a critical role in the physiopathology of scleritis.
Salvador-Culla B, Kolovou PE. Keratoprosthesis: A Review of Recent Advances in the Field. J Funct Biomater 2016;7(2)Abstract

Since its discovery in the years of the French Revolution, the field of keratoprostheses has evolved significantly. However, the path towards its present state has not always been an easy one. Initially discarded for its devastating complications, the introduction of new materials and the discovery of antibiotics in the last century gave new life to the field. Since then, the use of keratoprostheses for severe ocular surface disorders and corneal opacities has increased significantly, to the point that it has become a standard procedure for corneal specialists worldwide. Although the rate of complications has significantly been reduced, these can impede the long-term success, since some of them can be visually devastating. In an attempt to overcome these complications, researchers in the field have been recently working on improving the design of the currently available devices, by introducing the use of new materials that are more biocompatible with the eye. Here we present an update on the most recent research in the field.

Salvador-Culla B, Kolovou PE, Arzeno L, Martínez S, López MA. Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1 in Chemical Burns. Cornea 2016;35(6):911-6.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe and further analyze the long-term results in visual acuity (VA), anatomical retention, and rate of complications from patients who underwent Boston keratoprosthesis (B-Kpro) type 1 after ocular chemical burns in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: A retrospective review of 42 eyes (22 OD:20 OS) of 36 patients who underwent B-Kpro type 1 implantation after severe ocular burn at Hospital Elías Santana in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, between April 2006 and October 2014, were included. RESULTS: Demographics, VA, anatomical retention, and the rates of postoperative complications and concurrent surgeries were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The excellent anatomical retention rates and visual outcomes presented in this study support the remarkable capability of B-Kpro type 1 to restore functional VA in eyes with severe chemical injuries. However, strict control of the postoperative complications is necessary for long-term success. In conclusion, the use of a B-Kpro type 1 after severe chemical burn is a viable option in patients otherwise condemned to the high risk of failure associated with conventional corneal grafts.

Sarker-Nag A, Hutcheon AEK, Karamichos D. Mitochondrial Profile and Responses to TGF-β Ligands in Keratoconus. Curr Eye Res 2016;41(7):900-7.Abstract

PURPOSE: Keratoconus (KC) is a complex corneal dystrophy with multifactorial etiology. Previous studies have shown evidence of mitochondrial abnormalities in KC; however, the exact cause of these abnormalities remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify if transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms play a role in the regulation of mitochondrial proteins in human KC cells (HKC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) and HKC were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks in three different conditions: (a) CONTROL: MEM + 10%FBS, (b) MEM + 10%FBS + TGF-β1 and (c) MEM + 10%FBS + TGF-β3. All samples were processed for mitochondrial damage analysis using real-time PCR. RESULTS: We quantified and analyzed 84 mitochondrial and five housekeeping genes in HCFs and HKCs. Our data showed that when TGF-β1 and/or TGF-β3 were compared with control in HCFs, nine genes were significantly different; however, no genes were significantly regulated by the TGF-β isoforms in HKCs. Significant differences were also seen in seven genes when HFCs were compared with HKCs, in all three conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data support the growing consensus that mitochondrial dysfunction is a key player in KC disease. These in vitro data show clear links between mitochondrial function and TGF-β isoforms, with TGF-β1 severely disrupting KC-mitochondrial function, while TGF-β3 maintained it, thus suggesting that TGF-β may play a role in KC-disease treatment.

Satoh M, Namba K-I, Kitaichi N, Endo N, Kitamei H, Iwata D, Ohno S, Ishida S, Onoé K, Watarai H, Taniguchi M, Ishibashi T, Stein-Streilein J, Sonoda K-H, Van Kaer L, Iwabuchi K. Invariant natural killer T cells play dual roles in the development of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Exp Eye Res 2016;153:79-89.Abstract

Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) represents an experimental model for human endogenous uveitis, which is caused by Th1/Th17 cell-mediated inflammation. Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigens and produce large amounts of cytokines upon activation. To examine the role of NKT cells in the development of uveitis, EAU was elicited by immunization with a peptide from the human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (hIRBP1-20) in complete Freund's adjuvant and histopathology scores were evaluated in C57BL/6 (WT) and NKT cell-deficient mice. NKT cell-deficient mice developed more severe EAU pathology than WT mice. When WT mice were treated with ligands of the invariant subset of NKT cells (α-GalCer or RCAI-56), EAU was ameliorated in mice treated with RCAI-56 but not α-GalCer. IRBP-specific Th1/Th17 cytokines were reduced in RCAI-56-treated compared with vehicle-treated mice. Although the numbers of IRBP-specific T cells detected by hIRBP3-13/I-A(b) tetramers in the spleen and the draining lymph node were the same for vehicle and RCAI-56 treatment groups, RORγt expression by tetramer-positive cells in RCAI-56-treated mice was lower than in control mice. Moreover, the eyes of RCAI-56-treated mice contained fewer IRBP-specific T cells compared with control mice. These results suggest that invariant NKT (iNKT) cells suppress the induction of Th17 cells and infiltration of IRBP-specific T cells into the eyes, thereby reducing ocular inflammation. However, in sharp contrast to the ameliorating effects of iNKT cell activation during the initiation phase of EAU, iNKT cell activation during the effector phase exacerbated disease pathology. Thus, we conclude that iNKT cells exhibit dual roles in the development of EAU.

Sehic A, Guo S, Cho K-S, Corraya RM, Chen DF, Utheim TP. Electrical Stimulation as a Means for Improving Vision. Am J Pathol 2016;186(11):2783-2797.Abstract

Evolving research has provided evidence that noninvasive electrical stimulation (ES) of the eye may be a promising therapy for either preserving or restoring vision in several retinal and optic nerve diseases. In this review, we focus on minimally invasive strategies for the delivery of ES and accordingly summarize the current literature on transcorneal, transorbital, and transpalpebral ES in both animal experiments and clinical studies. Various mechanisms are believed to underlie the effects of ES, including increased production of neurotrophic agents, improved chorioretinal blood circulation, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. Different animal models have demonstrated favorable effects of ES on both the retina and the optic nerve. Promising effects of ES have also been demonstrated in clinical studies; however, all current studies have a lack of randomization and/or a control group (sham). There is thus a pressing need for a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern clinical success and optimization of stimulation parameters in animal studies. In addition, such research should be followed by large, prospective, clinical studies to explore the full potential of ES. Through this review, we aim to provide insight to guide future research on ES as a potential therapy for improving vision.

Selleck EM, Gilmore MS. Oxygen as a Virulence Determinant in Polymicrobial Infections. MBio 2016;7(4)Abstract

Infections caused by multiple organisms, or polymicrobial infections, are likely more common than is broadly appreciated. Interaction among microbial communities (and with their host) can change the infection landscape by subverting immunity, providing nutrients and inhibiting competing microbes. Stacy et al. (A. Stacy, D. Fleming, R. J. Lamont, K. P. Rumbaugh, and M. Whiteley, mBio 7:e00782-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00782-16) described a novel mechanism that results in synergistic growth of oral microbes Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus gordonii The authors used whole-genome fitness profiling by transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) to identify genes differentially required for growth in vitro versus in a mono- or coinfection in a thigh abscess model. They found that coinfection with S. gordonii allowed A. actinomycetemcomitans to shift from an anaerobic to an aerobic mode of growth. This shift involved the production of a terminal electron acceptor H2O2 by S. gordonii and increased A. actinomycetemcomitans persistence-an interaction termed "cross-respiration."

Semo M'ayan, Haamedi N, Stevanato L, Carter D, Brooke G, Young M, Coffey P, Sinden J, Patel S, Vugler A. Efficacy and Safety of Human Retinal Progenitor Cells. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2016;5(4):6.Abstract

PURPOSE: We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPC) using established rodent models. METHODS: Efficacy of hRPC was tested initially in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporine/dexamethasone. Due to adverse effects of dexamethasone, this drug was omitted from a subsequent dose-ranging study, where different hRPC doses were tested for their ability to preserve visual function (measured by optokinetic head tracking) and retinal structure in RCS rats at 3 to 6 months after grafting. Safety of hRPC was assessed by subretinal transplantation into wild type (WT) rats and NIH-III nude mice, with analysis at 3 to 6 and 9 months after grafting, respectively. RESULTS: The optimal dose of hRPC for preserving visual function/retinal structure in dystrophic rats was 50,000 to 100,000 cells. Human retinal progenitor cells integrated/survived in dystrophic and WT rat retina up to 6 months after grafting and expressed nestin, vimentin, GFAP, and βIII tubulin. Vision and retinal structure remained normal in WT rats injected with hRPC and there was no evidence of tumors. A comparison between dexamethasone-treated and untreated dystrophic rats at 3 months after grafting revealed an unexpected reduction in the baseline visual acuity of dexamethasone-treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Human retinal progenitor cells appear safe and efficacious in the preclinical models used here. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: Human retinal progenitor cells could be deployed during early stages of retinal degeneration or in regions of intact retina, without adverse effects on visual function. The ability of dexamethasone to reduce baseline visual acuity in RCS dystrophic rats has important implications for the interpretation of preclinical and clinical cell transplant studies.

Shatos MA, Hodges RR, Morinaga M, McNay DE, Islam R, Bhattacharya S, Li D, Turpie B, Makarenkova HP, Masli S, Utheim TP, Dartt DA. Alteration in cellular turnover and progenitor cell population in lacrimal glands from thrombospondin 1(-/-) mice, a model of dry eye. Exp Eye Res 2016;153:27-41.Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes that occur in the lacrimal glands (LGs) in female thrombospondin 1 knockout (TSP1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model of the autoimmune disease Sjogren's syndrome. The LGs of 4, 12, and 24 week-old female TSP1(-/-) and C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) mice were used. qPCR was performed to measure cytokine expression. To study the architecture, LG sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Cell proliferation was measured using bromo-deoxyuridine and immunohistochemistry. Amount of CD47 and stem cell markers was analyzed by western blot analysis and location by immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of stem cell transcription factors was performed using Mouse Stem Cell Transcription Factors RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. Cytokine levels significantly increased in LGs of 24 week-old TSP1(-/-) mice while morphological changes were detected at 12 weeks. Proliferation was decreased in 12 week-old TSP1(-/-) mice. Three transcription factors were overexpressed and eleven underexpressed in TSP1(-/-) compared to WT LGs. The amount of CD47, Musashi1, and Sox2 was decreased while the amount of ABCG2 was increased in 12 week-old TSP1(-/-) mice. We conclude that TSP1 is necessary for maintaining normal LG homeostasis. Absence of TSP1 alters cytokine levels and stem cell transcription factors, LG cellular architecture, decreases cell proliferation, and alters amount of stem cell markers.

Shekhar K, Lapan SW, Whitney IE, Tran NM, Macosko EZ, Kowalczyk M, Adiconis X, Levin JZ, Nemesh J, Goldman M, McCarroll SA, Cepko CL, Regev A, Sanes JR. Comprehensive Classification of Retinal Bipolar Neurons by Single-Cell Transcriptomics. Cell 2016;166(5):1308-1323.e30.Abstract

Patterns of gene expression can be used to characterize and classify neuronal types. It is challenging, however, to generate taxonomies that fulfill the essential criteria of being comprehensive, harmonizing with conventional classification schemes, and lacking superfluous subdivisions of genuine types. To address these challenges, we used massively parallel single-cell RNA profiling and optimized computational methods on a heterogeneous class of neurons, mouse retinal bipolar cells (BCs). From a population of ∼25,000 BCs, we derived a molecular classification that identified 15 types, including all types observed previously and two novel types, one of which has a non-canonical morphology and position. We validated the classification scheme and identified dozens of novel markers using methods that match molecular expression to cell morphology. This work provides a systematic methodology for achieving comprehensive molecular classification of neurons, identifies novel neuronal types, and uncovers transcriptional differences that distinguish types within a class.

Sheldon CA, Paley GL, Xiao R, Kesler A, Eyal O, Ko MW, Boisvert CJ, Avery RA, Salpietro V, Phillips PH, Heidary G, McCormack SE, Liu GT. Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Age, Gender, and Anthropometric Features at Diagnosis in a Large, Retrospective, Multisite Cohort. Ophthalmology 2016;123(11):2424-2431.Abstract

PURPOSE: To examine anthropometric and maturational characteristics at diagnosis in pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). DESIGN: Retrospective, international, multisite study. PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric patients (2-18 years of age at diagnosis) with IIH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index (BMI), height, and weight Z-scores; sexual maturation. METHODS: Cases of IIH were identified retrospectively based on diagnostic code, pediatric neuro-ophthalmologist databases, or both and updated diagnostic criteria (2013) were applied to confirm definite IIH. Anthropometric measurements were converted into age- and gender-specific height, weight, and BMI Z-scores CDC 2000 growth charts. When available, sexual maturation was noted. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-three cases of definite IIH were identified across 8 sites. In boys, a moderate association between age and BMI Z-scores was noted (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.66; P < 0.001; n = 72), and in girls, a weak association was noted (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20-0.47; P < 0.001; n = 161). The average patient was more likely to be overweight at diagnosis at age 6.7 years in girls and 8.7 years in boys, and obese at diagnosis at age 12.5 years in girls and 12.4 years in boys. Compared with age- and gender-matched reference values, early adolescent patients were taller for age (P = 0.002 in girls and P = 0.02 in boys). Data on Tanner staging, menarchal status, or both were available in 25% of cases (n = 57/233). Prepubertal participants (n = 12) had lower average BMI Z-scores (0.95±1.98) compared with pubertal participants (n = 45; 1.92±0.60), but this result did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: With updated diagnostic criteria and pediatric-specific assessments, the present study identifies 3 subgroups of pediatric IIH: a young group that is not overweight, an early adolescent group that is either overweight or obese, and a late adolescent group that is mostly obese. Data also suggest that the early adolescent group with IIH may be taller than age- and gender-matched reference values. Understanding these features of pediatric IIH may help to illuminate the complex pathogenesis of this condition.

Shi Y, Wang H, Yin J, Li M, Zhang X, Xin C, Chen X, Wang N. Microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy versus rigid probe trabeculotomy in childhood glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(9):1257-62.Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy with standard rigid probe trabeculotomy for the treatment of childhood glaucoma. METHODS: The early postoperative (12 months) results of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy (group 1) performed by single surgeon were retrospectively compared with those of rigid probe trabeculotomy (group 2) performed by the same surgeon in patients treated for childhood glaucoma. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg with at least a 30% reduction from preoperative IOP with (qualified success) or without (complete success) the use of anti-glaucoma medication. RESULTS: A total of 43 eyes of 36 patients were included. Mean IOP in group 1 was significantly lower than that in group 2 at 6 months (17.0±5.1 vs 22.5±9.8; p=0.042), 9 months (16.3±5.0 vs 21.6±9.6; p=0.009) and 12 months (14.8±2.5 vs 19.0±7.1; p=0.049) postoperatively. The mean percentage reduction in IOP from preoperative to the last postoperative follow-up was greater in group 1 (47.3±17.7%) than in group 2 (34.2±21.9%) (p=0.036). group 1 demonstrated an 81.0% complete and 86.4% qualified success rate, exceeding the 51.6% complete (p=0.060) and 61.9% qualified (p=0.037) success rate of group 2. There were no long-term complications in either group, but choroidal detachment occurred in one eye in group 2. CONCLUSION: Microcatheter-assisted circumferential trabeculotomy is a more effective treatment and is as safe as traditional trabeculotomy with a rigid probe for primary congenital glaucoma in the early postoperative course. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-OCC-15005789, Results.

Shieh E, Lee R, Que C, Srinivasan V, Guo R, DeLuna R, Pandit S, Simavli H, Seevaratnam R, Tsikata E, de Boer J, Chen TC. Diagnostic Performance of a Novel Three-Dimensional Neuroretinal Rim Parameter for Glaucoma Using High-Density Volume Scans. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;169:168-78.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) neuroretinal rim parameter, the minimum distance band (MDB), using optical coherence tomography (OCT) high-density volume scans for open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN: Reliability analysis. METHODS: setting: Institutional. STUDY POPULATION: Total of 163 patients (105 glaucoma and 58 healthy subjects). OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: One eye of each patient was included. MDB and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness values were determined for 4 quadrants and 4 sectors using a spectral-domain OCT device. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values, sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values. RESULTS: The best AUROC values of 3D MDB thickness for glaucoma and early glaucoma were for the overall globe (0.969, 0.952), followed by the inferior quadrant (0.966, 0.949) and inferior-temporal sector (0.966, 0.944), and then followed by the superior-temporal sector (0.964, 0.932) and superior quadrant (0.962, 0.924). All 3D MDB thickness AUROC values were higher than those of 2D RNFL thickness. Pairwise comparisons showed that the diagnostic performance of the 3D MDB parameter was significantly better than 2D RNFL thickness only for the nasal quadrant and inferior-nasal and superior-nasal sectors (P = .023-.049). Combining 3D MDB with 2D RNFL parameters provided significantly better diagnostic performance (AUROC 0.984) than most single MDB parameters and all single RNFL parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 2D RNFL thickness parameter, the 3D MDB neuroretinal rim thickness parameter had uniformly equal or better diagnostic performance for glaucoma in all regions and was significantly better in the nasal region.