2016

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Jakobiec FA, Syed ZA, Stagner AM, Harris GJ, Rootman J, Yoon MK, Mombaerts I. Orbital Inflammation in Pregnant Women. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;166:91-102.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To analyze overlaps between pregnancy and orbital inflammation (OI). DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Eight new cases from 1997 to 2015 and 2 previously published cases were identified for inclusion in this investigation to provide the fullest clinical picture. Medical records, imaging studies, and the results of biopsies were reviewed. RESULTS: Three categories of association were discovered: (1) OI arising for the first time during pregnancy (5 cases); (2) OI arising within 3 months of delivery (2 cases); and (3) previously diagnosed OI reactivated or exacerbated by pregnancy (3 cases). One patient had a preexistent systemic autoimmune disease and another's was later diagnosed. One patient had attacks during sequential pregnancies. Findings included eyelid swelling and erythema, conjunctival chemosis, pain on eye movement, minimal diplopia, the usual absence of proptosis, and general preservation of visual acuity. Imaging studies disclosed extraocular muscle swelling (8 cases), most frequently of a single lateral rectus muscle. There were 2 cases of dacryoadenitis; 1 of these and an additional case displayed inflammation of the retrobulbar fat. Corticosteroids effected resolution of most symptoms. Singleton births were normal with the exceptions of an intrauterine fetal demise owing to acrania and a molar pregnancy. CONCLUSION: OI usually affects a single rectus muscle (typically the lateral) and, less often, the lacrimal gland and is often mild when it arises during or after pregnancy. Independent systemic autoimmune disease is an uncommon feature. Corticosteroids were efficacious except in 1 case with severe orbital scarring. No definitive causal relationships between pregnancy and OI could be established based on the clinical data.

Jakobiec FA, Thanos A, Stagner AM, Grossniklaus HE, Proia AD. So-called massive retinal gliosis: A critical review and reappraisal. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(3):339-56.Abstract

Massive retinal gliosis, a nonneoplastic retinal glial proliferation, was first described in detail over 25 years ago, before the era of immunohistochemistry, in a series of 38 cases-to which can be added 30 case reports or small series (no more than 3 cases) subsequently. We analyze a new series of 3 nontumoral intraretinal glioses and 15 cases of tumoral retinal gliosis, not all of which, strictly speaking, were massive. The data from this series are compared with the findings in previously published cases. Included are 2 cases of massive retinal gliosis diagnosed from evisceration specimens. In reviewing all published and current cases, we were able to establish 3 subgroups of retinal tumoral glioses rather than a single "massive" category: focal nodular gliosis, submassive gliosis, and massive gliosis. Among 43 reported cases, including the present series, but excluding the previous large series of 38 cases in which substantial clinical data were omitted, there were 19 men and 24 women. Their mean and median ages were 36.2 years and 36 years, respectively, with a range of 2 to 79 years. All lesions were composed of mitotically quiet, compact spindled fibrous astrocytes devoid of an Alcian blue-positive myxoid matrix. The most common associated ocular conditions were phthisis bulbi and congenital diseases or malformations. Histopathologically, all 3 tumoral categories were accompanied by progressively more extensive fibrous and osseous metaplasia of the pigment epithelium, the latter forming a clinically and diagnostically useful, almost continuous, outer rim of eggshell calcification in the submassive and massive categories that should be detectable with appropriate imaging studies. In decreasing order of frequency, microcysts and macrocysts, vascular sclerosis, exudates, calcospherites, and Rosenthal fibers were observed among the proliferating fibrous astrocytes. Immunohistochemistry was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein in all cases and nestin in most (an intermediate cytoplasmic filament typically restricted to embryonic and reparative neural tissue). The nonneoplastic nature of all categories of gliosis was confirmed by absent TP53 (tumor suppressor gene) dysregulation, Ki-67 negativity, and intact p16 expression (the protein product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene) in the overwhelming majority of cases. These findings indicate an intrinsic attempt to regulate and maintain a low level of glial cell proliferation that becomes unsuccessful as the disease evolves. The categories of tumoral proliferation appeared to constitute a spectrum. We conclude that focal nodular tumors encompass lesions previously called retinal vasoproliferative lesions, which display the same histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings as 3 major categories of retinal gliosis characterized herein.

Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Katowitz WR, Eagle RC. A microanatomic abnormality of the lacrimal gland associated with Goldenhar syndrome. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(5):654-63.Abstract

A 12-month-old male infant, noted from birth to have a diffuse right temporal epibulbar thickening that encroached on the limbus inferotemporally, was found to manifest stigmata of Goldenhar syndrome, including a limbal dermoid with vellus hairs, esotropia, astigmatism, fullness and ectropion of the lower eyelid, preauricular skin tag, agenesis of the right kidney, and a supernumerary rib. In the excised epibulbar specimen, in addition to a solid dermoid, lobules of lacrimal gland tissue were interpreted as a portion of the palpebral or orbital lobes. This tissue displayed a unique histopathologic finding. Within some of the lobules were cuffs of eosinophilic squamous (epidermoid) cells that surrounded the intralobular ductules and made variable incursions into, with replacement of, the acinar units. Immunohistochemistry disclosed that the normal acinar and lumen-forming ductular cells were intermediate weight cytokeratin7-positive. The acinar cells were additionally gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 positive. The cells of the squamous cuffs were heavy weight cytokeratin 5/6-positive. The outermost basal cells of the cuffs were cytokeratin 14-positive, in common with the myoepithelial cells of the acini. The intraacinar squamous cells were negative for smooth muscle actin and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15. These findings suggest, but do not prove, that the source of the periductular and acinar squamous metaplasia was the germinal transitional cells where the acinar myoepithelium interfaces and imperceptibly converts into ductular basal cells. The foregoing findings are evaluated in the context of the panoply of ocular, facial, and visceral anomalies manifested in Goldenhar spectrum.

Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Lee NG. Clear-Cell (Reticulated) Transformation of Eyelid Eccrine Sweat Glands. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;Abstract

A 24-year-old man with a painful, recurrent left upper eyelid nodule underwent an excision. Histopathologic evaluation disclosed a granulomatous process, most likely in response to a ruptured epidermoid cyst. In the vicinity of the nodule were multiple eccrine sweat glands displaying a curious clear-cell appearance in the adlumenal cells, the first example of such a phenomenon in the eyelids. Alcian blue, periodic acid Schiff, and documented staining failed to disclose, respectively, any cytoplasmic mucosubstances, glycogen accumulation, or lipid in the adlumenal secretory cells. Cytokeratin 7 immunostained the adlumenal cells of the eccrine secretory coil, while cytokeratin 5/6 stained the ablumenal myoepithelial and ductular cells. Gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, normally demonstrable in the eccrine secretory cells, was not detectable. Clear-cell transformation should not be confused with syringoma of the lower eyelids, in which glycogen is responsible for the ablumenal clear-cell change.

Jakobiec FA, Roh M, Stagner AM, Yoon MK. Choristomatous Respiratory Cyst Restricted to the Upper Eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(1):e15-8.Abstract

A 79-year-old man underwent excision of an upper eyelid mass that had been enlarging for 3 months. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated a cyst lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with myriad goblet cells and cilia, and immunostaining revealed cytokeratins indicative of a respiratory origin. This rare condition, the first described exclusively in an eyelid, arises either from a congenital embryologic respiratory epithelial ectopia or the displacement of mature sinus mucosa following trauma or chronic sinus disease. The current case lacked any signs or symptoms of sinus disease or a history of trauma.

Jakobiec FA. Conjunctival Primary Acquired Melanosis: Is It Time for a New Terminology?. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;162:3-19.e1.Abstract

PURPOSE: To review the diagnostic categories of a group of conditions referred to as "primary acquired melanosis." DESIGN: Literature review on the subject and proposal of an alternative diagnostic schema with histopathologic and immunohistochemical illustrations. METHODS: Standard hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemical stains for MART-1, HMB-45, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF), and Ki-67 for calculating the proliferation index are illustrated. RESULTS: "Melanosis" is an inadequate and misleading term because it does not distinguish between conjunctival intraepithelial melanin overproduction ("hyperpigmentation") and intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation. It is recommended that "intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation" be adopted for histopathologic diagnosis. Atypical proliferations are characterized either by bloated dendritic melanocytes with enlarged cell components (dendrites, cell bodies, and nuclei) or by epithelioid melanocytes without dendrites. Atypical polygonal or epithelioid pagetoid cells may reach higher levels of the epithelium beyond the basal layer. Immunohistochemistry defines the degree of melanocytic proliferation or the cellular shape (dendritic or nondendritic) (MART-1, HMB-45) or identifies the melanocytic nuclei (MiTF). Intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation without atypia represents increased numbers of normal-appearing dendritic melanocytes (hyperplasia or early neoplasia) that generally remain confined to the basal/basement membrane region. Intraepithelial nonproliferative melanocytic pigmentation signifies the usually small number of conjunctival basal dendritic melanocytes that synthesize increased amounts of melanin that is transferred to surrounding keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: All pre- and postoperative biopsies of flat conjunctival melanocytic disorders should be evaluated immunohistochemically if there is any question regarding atypicality. This should lead to a clearer microscopic descriptive diagnosis that is predicated on an analysis of the participating cell types and their architectural patterns. This approach is conducive to a better appreciation of features indicating when to intervene therapeutically. An accurate early diagnosis should forestall unnecessary later surgery.

Jee D, Kang S, Yuan C, Cho E, Arroyo JG, of the Society ESCKO. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye Syndrome: Differential Effects of Vitamin D on Ocular Diseases. PLoS One 2016;11(2):e0149294.Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES), and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, and DES. METHODS: A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies. RESULTS: The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55-1.30, P for trend = 0.076) after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30-1.64) and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.99) were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76) and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81) were lower in men. CONCLUSIONS: The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES.

Jee D, Kim EC, Cho E, Arroyo JG. Positive Association between Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Pterygium after Control for Sunlight Exposure. PLoS One 2016;11(6):e0157501.Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium. METHODS: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 were used for the present epidemiologic study. A total of 19,178 participants aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated for blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and performed ophthalmic slit lamp examinations. Pterygium was considered as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. RESULTS: The average blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 18.6 ng/mL, and prevalence of pterygium was 6.5%. The odds of pterygium significantly increased across blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D quintiles after controlling sun exposure time as well as other confounders such as sex, age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension (P < 0.001). The odds ratios (OR) for pterygium was 1.51 (95% Confidence Interval[95%CI]; 1.19-1.92) in the highest blood vitamin D quintile. Stratified analysis by sex showed a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in both men (quintile 5 versus 1, OR; 1.68, 95%CI; 1.19-2.37) and women (quintile 5 versus 1, OR; 1.37, 95% CI; 1.00-1.88). CONCLUSIONS: Even after controlling sun light exposure time, we found a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in a representative Korean population. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown.

Jiang D, Xiao X, Fu T, Mashaghi A, Liu Q, Hong J. Transient Tear Film Dysfunction after Cataract Surgery in Diabetic Patients. PLoS One 2016;11(1):e0146752.Abstract

PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common systemic disease. Many diabetic patients seek cataract surgery for a better visual acuity. Unlike in the general population, the influence of cataract surgery on tear film function in diabetic patients remains elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tear function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients following cataract surgery. METHODS: In this prospective, interventional case series, 174 diabetic patients without dry eye syndrome (DES) and 474 age-matched nondiabetic patients as control who underwent phacoemulsification were enrolled at two different eye centers between January 2011 and January 2013. Patients were followed up at baseline and at 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Ocular symptom scores (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI) and tear film function including tear film stability (tear film break-up time, TBUT), corneal epithelium integrity (corneal fluorescein staining, CFS), and tear secretion (Schirmer's I test, SIT) were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 83.9% of the diabetic patients (146 cases with 185 eyes) and 89.0% of the nondiabetic patients (422 cases with 463 eyes) completed all check-ups after the interventions (P = 0.095). The incidence of DES was 17.1% in the diabetic patients and 8.1% in the nondiabetic patients at 7 days after cataract surgery. In the diabetic patients, the incidence of DES remained 4.8% at 1 month postoperatively and decreased to zero at 3 months after surgery. No DES was diagnosed in nondiabetic patients at either the 1-month or 3-month follow-up. Compared with the baseline, the diabetic patients had worse symptom scores and lower TBUT values at 7 days and 1 month but not at 3 months postoperatively. In the nondiabetic patients, symptom scores and TBUT values had returned to preoperative levels at 1-month check-up. CFS scores and SIT values did not change significantly postoperatively in either group (P = 0.916 and P = 0.964, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients undergoing cataract surgery are prone to DES. Ocular symptoms and tear film stability are transiently worsened in diabetic patients and are restored more slowly than those in nondiabetic patients.

Joshi AD, Andersson C, Buch S, Stender S, Noordam R, Weng L-C, Weeke PE, Auer PL, Boehm B, Chen C, Choi H, Curhan G, Denny JC, De Vivo I, Eicher JD, Ellinghaus D, Folsom AR, Fuchs C, Gala M, Haessler J, Hofman A, Hu F, Hunter DJ, Janssen HLA, Kang JH, Kooperberg C, Kraft P, Kratzer W, Lieb W, Lutsey PL, Darwish Murad S, Nordestgaard BG, Pasquale LR, Reiner AP, Ridker PM, Rimm E, Rose LM, Shaffer CM, Schafmayer C, Tamimi RM, Uitterlinden AG, Völker U, Völzke H, Wakabayashi Y, Wiggs JL, Zhu J, Roden DM, Stricker BH, Tang W, Teumer A, Hampe J, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Chasman DI, Chan AT, Johnson AD. Four Susceptibility Loci for Gallstone Disease Identified in a Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies. Gastroenterology 2016;151(2):351-363.e28.Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 280 cases identified the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 as a locus associated with risk for gallstone disease, but findings have not been reported from any other GWAS of this phenotype. We performed a large-scale, meta-analysis of GWASs of individuals of European ancestry with available prior genotype data, to identify additional genetic risk factors for gallstone disease. METHODS: We obtained per-allele odds ratio (OR) and standard error estimates using age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models within each of the 10 discovery studies (8720 cases and 55,152 controls). We performed an inverse variance weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis of study-specific estimates to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated independently with gallstone disease. Associations were replicated in 6489 cases and 62,797 controls. RESULTS: We observed independent associations for 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABCG8 locus: rs11887534 (OR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.86; P = 2.44 × 10(-60)) and rs4245791 (OR, 1.27; P = 1.90 × 10(-34)). We also identified and/or replicated associations for rs9843304 in TM4SF4 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P = 6.09 × 10(-11)), rs2547231 in SULT2A1 (encodes a sulfoconjugation enzyme that acts on hydroxysteroids and cholesterol-derived sterol bile acids) (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21; P = 2.24 × 10(-10)), rs1260326 in glucokinase regulatory protein (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.17; P = 2.55 × 10(-10)), and rs6471717 near CYP7A1 (encodes an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to primary bile acids) (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15; P = 8.84 × 10(-9)). Among individuals of African American and Hispanic American ancestry, rs11887534 and rs4245791 were associated positively with gallstone disease risk, whereas the association for the rs1260326 variant was inverse. CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale GWAS of gallstone disease, we identified 4 loci in genes that have putative functions in cholesterol metabolism and transport, and sulfonylation of bile acids or hydroxysteroids.

Joyal J-S, Sun Y, Gantner ML, Shao Z, Evans LP, Saba N, Fredrick T, Burnim S, Kim JS, Patel G, Juan AM, Hurst CG, Hatton CJ, Cui Z, Pierce KA, Bherer P, Aguilar E, Powner MB, Vevis K, Boisvert M, Fu Z, Levy E, Fruttiger M, Packard A, Rezende FA, Maranda B, Sapieha P, Chen J, Friedlander M, Clish CB, Smith LEH. Retinal lipid and glucose metabolism dictates angiogenesis through the lipid sensor Ffar1. Nat Med 2016;22(4):439-45.Abstract

Tissues with high metabolic rates often use lipids, as well as glucose, for energy, conferring a survival advantage during feast and famine. Current dogma suggests that high-energy-consuming photoreceptors depend on glucose. Here we show that the retina also uses fatty acid β-oxidation for energy. Moreover, we identify a lipid sensor, free fatty acid receptor 1 (Ffar1), that curbs glucose uptake when fatty acids are available. Very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), which is present in photoreceptors and is expressed in other tissues with a high metabolic rate, facilitates the uptake of triglyceride-derived fatty acid. In the retinas of Vldlr(-/-) mice with low fatty acid uptake but high circulating lipid levels, we found that Ffar1 suppresses expression of the glucose transporter Glut1. Impaired glucose entry into photoreceptors results in a dual (lipid and glucose) fuel shortage and a reduction in the levels of the Krebs cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). Low α-KG levels promotes stabilization of hypoxia-induced factor 1a (Hif1a) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) by starved Vldlr(-/-) photoreceptors, leading to neovascularization. The aberrant vessels in the Vldlr(-/-) retinas, which invade normally avascular photoreceptors, are reminiscent of the vascular defects in retinal angiomatous proliferation, a subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is associated with high vitreous VEGFA levels in humans. Dysregulated lipid and glucose photoreceptor energy metabolism may therefore be a driving force in macular telangiectasia, neovascular AMD and other retinal diseases.

Jun G, Ibrahim-Verbaas CA, Vronskaya M, Lambert J-C, Chung J, Naj AC, Kunkle BW, Wang L-S, Bis JC, Bellenguez C, Harold D, Lunetta KL, Destefano AL, Grenier-Boley B, Sims R, Beecham GW, Smith AV, Chouraki V, Hamilton-Nelson KL, Ikram MA, Fievet N, Denning N, Martin ER, Schmidt H, Kamatani Y, Dunstan ML, Valladares O, Laza AR, Zelenika D, Ramirez A, Foroud TM, Choi S-H, Boland A, Becker T, Kukull WA, van der Lee SJ, Pasquier F, Cruchaga C, Beekly D, Fitzpatrick AL, Hanon O, Gill M, Barber R, Gudnason V, Campion D, Love S, Bennett DA, Amin N, Berr C, Tsolaki M, Buxbaum JD, Lopez OL, Deramecourt V, Fox NC, Cantwell LB, Tárraga L, Dufouil C, Hardy J, Crane PK, Eiriksdottir G, Hannequin D, Clarke R, Evans D, Mosley TH, Letenneur L, Brayne C, Maier W, De Jager P, Emilsson V, Dartigues J-F, Hampel H, Kamboh MI, de Bruijn RFAG, Tzourio C, Pastor P, Larson EB, Rotter JI, O'Donovan MC, Montine TJ, Nalls MA, Mead S, Reiman EM, Jonsson PV, Holmes C, St George-Hyslop PH, Boada M, Passmore P, Wendland JR, Schmidt R, Morgan K, Winslow AR, Powell JF, Carasquillo M, Younkin SG, Jakobsdóttir J, Kauwe JSK, Wilhelmsen KC, Rujescu D, Nöthen MM, Hofman A, Jones L, Jones L, Haines JL, Psaty BM, Van Broeckhoven C, Holmans P, Launer LJ, Mayeux R, Lathrop M, Goate AM, Escott-Price V, Seshadri S, Pericak-Vance MA, Amouyel P, Williams J, van Duijn CM, Schellenberg GD, Farrer LA. A novel Alzheimer disease locus located near the gene encoding tau protein. Mol Psychiatry 2016;21(1):108-117.Abstract

APOE ɛ4, the most significant genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), may mask effects of other loci. We re-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) Consortium in APOE ɛ4+ (10 352 cases and 9207 controls) and APOE ɛ4- (7184 cases and 26 968 controls) subgroups as well as in the total sample testing for interaction between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and APOE ɛ4 status. Suggestive associations (P<1 × 10(-4)) in stage 1 were evaluated in an independent sample (stage 2) containing 4203 subjects (APOE ɛ4+: 1250 cases and 536 controls; APOE ɛ4-: 718 cases and 1699 controls). Among APOE ɛ4- subjects, novel genome-wide significant (GWS) association was observed with 17 SNPs (all between KANSL1 and LRRC37A on chromosome 17 near MAPT) in a meta-analysis of the stage 1 and stage 2 data sets (best SNP, rs2732703, P=5·8 × 10(-9)). Conditional analysis revealed that rs2732703 accounted for association signals in the entire 100-kilobase region that includes MAPT. Except for previously identified AD loci showing stronger association in APOE ɛ4+ subjects (CR1 and CLU) or APOE ɛ4- subjects (MS4A6A/MS4A4A/MS4A6E), no other SNPs were significantly associated with AD in a specific APOE genotype subgroup. In addition, the finding in the stage 1 sample that AD risk is significantly influenced by the interaction of APOE with rs1595014 in TMEM106B (P=1·6 × 10(-7)) is noteworthy, because TMEM106B variants have previously been associated with risk of frontotemporal dementia. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed that rs113986870, one of the GWS SNPs near rs2732703, is significantly associated with four KANSL1 probes that target transcription of the first translated exon and an untranslated exon in hippocampus (P⩽1.3 × 10(-8)), frontal cortex (P⩽1.3 × 10(-9)) and temporal cortex (P⩽1.2 × 10(-11)). Rs113986870 is also strongly associated with a MAPT probe that targets transcription of alternatively spliced exon 3 in frontal cortex (P=9.2 × 10(-6)) and temporal cortex (P=2.6 × 10(-6)). Our APOE-stratified GWAS is the first to show GWS association for AD with SNPs in the chromosome 17q21.31 region. Replication of this finding in independent samples is needed to verify that SNPs in this region have significantly stronger effects on AD risk in persons lacking APOE ɛ4 compared with persons carrying this allele, and if this is found to hold, further examination of this region and studies aimed at deciphering the mechanism(s) are warranted.

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Kammerdiener LL, Speiser JL, Aquavella JV, Harissi-Dagher M, Dohlman CH, Chodosh J, Ciolino JB. Protective effect of soft contact lenses after Boston keratoprosthesis. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(4):549-52.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate associations between preoperative diagnosis, soft contact lens (SCL) retention and complications. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 92 adult patients (103 eyes) who received a Boston keratoprosthesis type I at the Massachusetts's Eye and Ear Infirmary or the Flaum Eye Institute. Records were reviewed for preoperative diagnosis, SCL retention and subsequent complications. Preoperative categories included 16 autoimmune (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, rheumatoid arthritis and uveitis), 9 chemical injury and 67 'other' (aniridia, postoperative infection, dystrophies, keratopathies) patients. RESULTS: 50% of the lenses had been lost the first time after about a year. A subset (n=17) experienced more than 2 SCL losses per year; this group is comprised of 1 patient with autoimmune diseases, 2 patients with chemical injuries and 14 patients with 'other' diseases. The preoperative diagnosis was not predictive of contact lens retention. However, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the absence of a contact lens was an independent risk factor for postoperative complications, such as corneal melts with or without aqueous humour leak/extrusion and infections. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of a contact lens after Boston keratoprosthesis implantation decreases the risk of postoperative complications; this has been clinically experienced by ophthalmologists, but never before has the benefit of contact lens use in this patient population been statistically documented.

Kang JH, Wu J, Cho E, Ogata S, Jacques P, Taylor A, Chiu C-J, Wiggs JL, Seddon JM, Hankinson SE, Schaumberg DA, Pasquale LR. Contribution of the Nurses' Health Study to the Epidemiology of Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Glaucoma. Am J Public Health 2016;106(9):1684-9.Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to understanding the genetic and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: The NHS has helped to elucidate the roles of genetics, lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking associated with cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration), medical conditions (e.g., diabetes associated with cataract extraction and glaucoma), and dietary factors (e.g., greater carotenoid intake and lower glycemic diet associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration) in the etiology of degree and progression of lens opacities, cataract extraction, age-related macular degeneration, primary open-angle glaucoma, and exfoliation glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the NHS, combined with those of other studies, have provided compelling evidence to support public health recommendations for helping to prevent age-related eye diseases: abstinence from cigarette smoking, maintenance of healthy weight and diabetes prevention, and a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

Katikireddy KR, Jurkunas UV. Limbal Stromal Tissue Specific Stem Cells and Their Differentiation Potential to Corneal Epithelial Cells. Methods Mol Biol 2016;1341:437-44.Abstract

From the derivation of the first human embryonic stem (hES) cell line to the development of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells; it has become evident that tissue specific stem cells are able to differentiate into a specific somatic cell types. The understanding of key processes such as the signaling pathways and the role of the microenvironment in epidermal/epithelial development has provided important clues for the derivation of specific epithelial cell types.Various differentiation protocols/methods were used to attain specific epithelial cell types. Here, we describe in detail the procedure to follow for isolation of tissue specific stem cells, mimicking their microenvironment to attain stem cell characteristics, and their potential differentiation to corneal epithelial cells.

Katikireddy KR, Schmedt T, Price MO, Price FW, Jurkunas UV. Existence of Neural Crest-Derived Progenitor Cells in Normal and Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy Corneal Endothelium. Am J Pathol 2016;186(10):2736-50.Abstract

Human corneal endothelial cells are derived from neural crest and because of postmitotic arrest lack competence to repair cell loss from trauma, aging, and degenerative disorders such as Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Herein, we identified a rapidly proliferating subpopulation of cells from the corneal endothelium of adult normal and FECD donors that exhibited features of neural crest-derived progenitor (NCDP) cells by showing absence of senescence with passaging, propensity to form spheres, and increased colony forming efficacy compared with the primary cells. The collective expression of stem cell-related genes SOX2, OCT4, LGR5, TP63 (p63), as well as neural crest marker genes PSIP1 (p75(NTR)), PAX3, SOX9, AP2B1 (AP-2β), and NES, generated a phenotypic footprint of endothelial NCDPs. NCDPs displayed multipotency by differentiating into microtubule-associated protein 2, β-III tubulin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive neurons and into p75(NTR)-positive human corneal endothelial cells that exhibited transendothelial resistance of functional endothelium. In conclusion, we found that mitotically incompetent ocular tissue cells contain adult NCDPs that exhibit a profile of transcription factors regulating multipotency and neural crest progenitor characteristics. Identification of normal NCDPs in FECD-affected endothelium holds promise for potential autologous cell therapies.

Kempen JH, Gewaily DY, Newcomb CW, Liesegang TL, Kaçmaz OR, Levy-Clarke GA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Sen NH, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Foster SC, Jabs DA, Payal A, Fitzgerald TD, for Group SITED (SITE) R. Remission of Intermediate Uveitis: Incidence and Predictive Factors. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;164:110-117.e2.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of remission among patients with intermediate uveitis; to identify factors potentially predictive of remission. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Involved eyes of patients with primary noninfectious intermediate uveitis at 4 academic ocular inflammation subspecialty practices, followed sufficiently long to meet the remission outcome definition, were studied retrospectively by standardized chart review data. Remission of intermediate uveitis was defined as a lack of inflammatory activity at ≥2 visits spanning ≥90 days in the absence of any corticosteroid or immunosuppressant medications. Factors potentially predictive of intermediate uveitis remission were evaluated using survival analysis. RESULTS: Among 849 eyes (of 510 patients) with intermediate uveitis followed over 1934 eye-years, the incidence of intermediate uveitis remission was 8.6/100 eye-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4-10.1). Factors predictive of disease remission included prior pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (hazard ratio [HR] [vs no PPV] = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.42-4.00), diagnosis of intermediate uveitis within the last year (HR [vs diagnosis >5 years ago] =3.82; 95% CI, 1.91-7.63), age ≥45 years (HR [vs age <45 years] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.11), female sex (HR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.04-2.49), and Hispanic race/ethnicity (HR [vs white race] = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.23-6.41). Presence/absence of a systemic inflammatory disease, laterality of uveitis, and smoking status were not associated with differential incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that intermediate uveitis is a chronic disease with an overall low rate of remission. Recently diagnosed patients and older, female, and Hispanic patients were more likely to remit. With regard to management, pars plana vitrectomy was associated with increased probability of remission.

Khan AO, Almutlaq M, Oystreck DT, Engle EC, Abu-Amero K, Bosley T. Retinal Dysfunction in Patients with Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 2. Ophthalmic Genet 2016;37(2):130-6.Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2 (CFEOM2) is a distinct non-syndromic form of congenital incomitant strabismus secondary to orbital dysinnervation from recessive mutations in the gene PHOX2A. The phenotype includes bilateral ptosis, very large angle exotropia, ophthalmoplegia, and poorly-reactive pupils. Other than amblyopia, afferent visual dysfunction has not been considered part of CFEOM2; however, we have repeatedly observed non-amblyopic subnormal vision in affected patients. The purpose of this study was to document this recurrent feature of the phenotype. METHODS: A retrospective case series (2002-2012). RESULTS: Eighteen patients (four families) were identified; all affected individuals had confirmed homozygous recessive PHOX2A mutations except one individual for whom genetic testing was not done because of multiple genetically confirmed family members. Age at assessment ranged from 5-62 years old (median 10 years old). All patients had decreased best-corrected visual acuity not completely explainable by amblyopia in both the preferred and non-preferred eye. In those patients who had further ancillary testing, visual fields (five patients) and electroretinography (10 patients) confirmed abnormalities not ascribable to amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to a distinct form of congenital incomitant strabismus, the phenotype of CFEOM2 includes subnormal vision consistent with retinal dysfunction. This could be the direct result of PHOX2A mutations or a secondary effect of orbital dysinnervation.

Khawaja AP, Cooke Bailey JN, Kang JH, Allingham RR, Hauser MA, Brilliant M, Budenz DL, Christen WG, Fingert J, Gaasterland D, Gaasterland T, Kraft P, Lee RK, Lichter PR, Liu Y, Medeiros F, Moroi SE, Richards JE, Realini T, Ritch R, Schuman JS, Scott WK, Singh K, Sit AJ, Vollrath D, Wollstein G, Zack DJ, Zhang K, Pericak-Vance M, Weinreb RN, Haines JL, Pasquale LR, Wiggs JL. Assessing the Association of Mitochondrial Genetic Variation With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using Gene-Set Analyses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016;57(11):5046-5052.Abstract

Purpose: Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In this study, we examined the association between POAG and common variations in gene-encoding mitochondrial proteins. Methods: We examined genetic data from 3430 POAG cases and 3108 controls derived from the combination of the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR studies. We constructed biological-system coherent mitochondrial nuclear-encoded protein gene-sets by intersecting the MitoCarta database with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. We examined the mitochondrial gene-sets for association with POAG and with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and high-tension glaucoma (HTG) subsets using Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. Results: We identified 22 KEGG pathways with significant mitochondrial protein-encoding gene enrichment, belonging to six general biological classes. Among the pathway classes, mitochondrial lipid metabolism was associated with POAG overall (P = 0.013) and with NTG (P = 0.0006), and mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism was associated with NTG (P = 0.030). Examining the individual KEGG pathway mitochondrial gene-sets, fatty acid elongation and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, both lipid metabolism pathways, were significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and NTG (P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Butanoate metabolism, a carbohydrate metabolism pathway, was significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.004), NTG (P = 0.001), and HTG (P = 0.010). Conclusions: We present an effective approach for assessing the contributions of mitochondrial genetic variation to open-angle glaucoma. Our findings support a role for mitochondria in POAG pathogenesis and specifically point to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways as being important.

Kheirkhah A, Saboo US, Marmalidou A, Dana R. Overestimation of Corneal Endothelial Cell Density in Smaller Frame Sizes in In Vivo Confocal Microscopy. Cornea 2016;35(3):363-9.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of frame size on the calculated corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) in images of laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: Forty-nine corneal endothelial images acquired by laser scanning IVCM (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 with Rostock Corneal Module) with different endothelial cell densities were analyzed. In each image (160,000 μm), the CECD was calculated using the fixed-frame method by counting cells in the following frame sizes: 80,000 μm, 40,000 μm, 20,000 μm, 10,000 μm, 5000 μm, and 2500 μm. The calculated CECD was then compared with that of the variable-frame method as the reference value. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the calculated CECD between the variable-frame method (2004 ± 832 cells/mm), and the fixed-frame method using a 40,000-μm frame (2023 ± 810 cells/mm). On the other hand, the calculated CECD showed significant overestimations in frame sizes of 20,000 μm (2066 ± 820 cells/mm), 10,000 μm (2156 ± 785 cells/mm), 5000 μm (2352 ± 783 cells/mm), and 2500 μm (2715 ± 754 cells/mm), with P < 0.001 in all. This resulted in overestimations of 4.8 ± 9.8%, 11.9 ± 16.2%, 24.9 ± 23.1%, and 49.1 ± 38.8% for these frame sizes, respectively. Images with lower CECD demonstrated higher overestimations of cell density in smaller frame sizes. CONCLUSIONS: In laser scanning IVCM images, there is significant overestimation of CECD if the cells are counted in frames smaller than 25% of the image. Similar frame sizes should be used when monitoring CECD over time.

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