Fu Z, Gong Y, Liegl R, Wang Z, Liu C-H, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Saba NJ, Fredrick TW, Morss PC, Hellstrom A, Talukdar S, Smith LEH. FGF21 Administration Suppresses Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice. Cell Rep 2017;18(7):1606-1613.Abstract

Pathological neovascularization, a leading cause of blindness, is seen in retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Using a mouse model of hypoxia-driven retinal neovascularization, we find that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) administration suppresses, and FGF21 deficiency worsens, retinal neovessel growth. The protective effect of FGF21 against neovessel growth was abolished in adiponectin (APN)-deficient mice. FGF21 administration also decreased neovascular lesions in two models of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: very-low-density lipoprotein-receptor-deficient mice with retinal angiomatous proliferation and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. FGF21 inhibited tumor necrosis α (TNF-α) expression but did not alter Vegfa expression in neovascular eyes. These data suggest that FGF21 may be a therapeutic target for pathologic vessel growth in patients with neovascular eye diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration.

Fu Z, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Smith LEH, Lo AC. Lutein facilitates physiological revascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017;45(5):529-538.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the leading causes of childhood blindness worldwide, with vessel growth cessation and vessel loss in phase I followed by neovascularization in phase II. Ischaemia contributes to its pathogenesis, and lutein protects against ischaemia-induced retinal damages. We aimed to investigate the effects of lutein on a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. METHODS: Mouse pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and returned to room air for another 5 days. Vascular obliteration, neovascularization and blood vessel leakage were examined. Immunohistochemistry for glial cells and microglia were performed. RESULTS: Compared with vehicle controls, mouse pups receiving lutein treatment displayed smaller central vaso-obliterated area and reduced blood vessel leakage. No significant difference in neovascular area was found between lutein and vehicle controls. Lutein promoted endothelial tip cell formation and maintained the astrocytic template in the avascular area in oxygen-induced retinopathy. No significant changes in Müller cell gliosis and microglial activation in the central avascular area were found in lutein-treated pups. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations indicated that lutein significantly promoted normal retinal vascular regrowth in the central avascular area, possibly through promoting endothelial tip cell formation and preserving astrocytic template. Our results indicated that lutein might be considered as a supplement for the treatment of proliferative retinopathy of prematurity because of its role in facilitating the revascularization of normal vasculature.
Gaier ED, Rizzo JF, Miller JB, Cestari DM. Focal Capillary Dropout Associated With Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography. J Neuroophthalmol 2017;37(4):405-410.Abstract
Optic disc drusen may be a cause of visual field defects and visual loss. The mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We report a patient who developed decreased vision in the right eye and was found to have a heavy burden of superficial optic disc drusen. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed focal retinal nerve fiber layer thinning that corresponded with the distribution of drusen. OCT angiography, with superficial laminar segmentation, showed focal capillary attenuation overlying the most prominent drusen. These findings demonstrate alterations in the superficial retinal capillary network associated with optic disc drusen.
Gaier ED, Miller JB, Loewenstein JI. Combined Central Retinal Vein Occlusion and Central Retinal Arterial Obstruction with Cilioretinal Artery Sparing. Ophthalmology 2017;124(4):576.
Gamond L, Vecchi T, Ferrari C, Merabet LB, Cattaneo Z. Emotion processing in early blind and sighted individuals. Neuropsychology 2017;31(5):516-524.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Emotion processing is known to be mediated by a complex network of cortical and subcortical regions with evidence of specialized hemispheric lateralization within the brain. In light of prior evidence indicating that lateralization of cognitive functions (such as language) may depend on normal visual development, we investigated whether the lack of prior visual experience would have an impact on the development of specialized hemispheric lateralization in emotional processing. METHOD: We addressed this issue by comparing performance in early blind and sighted controls on a dichotic listening task requiring the detection of specific emotional vocalizations (i.e., suggestive of happiness or sadness) presented independently to either ear. RESULTS: Consistent with previous studies, we found that sighted individuals showed enhanced detection of positive vocalizations when presented in the right ear (i.e., processed within the left hemisphere) and negative vocalizations when presented in the left ear (i.e., right hemisphere). It is interesting to note that although blind individuals were as accurate as sighted controls in detecting the valance of the vocalization, performance was not consistent with any pattern of specialized hemispheric lateralization. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results suggest that although the lack of prior visual experience may not lead to impaired emotion processing performance, the underlying neurophysiological substrate (i.e., degree of special hemispheric lateralization) may depend on normal visual development. (PsycINFO Database Record
Gilbert AL, Koo EB, Heidary G. Evaluation and Management of Acute Acquired Comitant Esotropia in Children. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;32(1):8-13.Abstract

Acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) is characterized by a sudden-onset eye misalignment with an equal angle of deviation in all fields of gaze. This form of esotropia is distinct from common forms of childhood esotropia, such as infantile esotropia and accommodative esotropia, in the rapid tempo and typically later timing of onset; further, AACE is distinct from restrictive or paretic strabismus, which usually results in an incomitant angle of deviation that varies with the direction of gaze. The underlying etiologies for AACE are broad but, in some cases, it may be associated with significant neurologic disease. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine and summarize the current literature on AACE to provide a framework for the evaluation and management of this form of acquired strabismus.

Gilbert AL, Hunter DG. Duane syndrome with prominent oculo-auricular phenomenon. J AAPOS 2017;21(2):165-167.Abstract

Duane syndrome is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder involving absent or anomalous innervation of the lateral and medial rectus muscles that is sometimes associated with other manifestations of dysinnervation. We describe a patient with right esotropic Duane syndrome with a long-standing retroauricular tugging sensation in right gaze who was noted to have prominent ipsilateral oculo-auricular phenomenon, representing either abnormal enhancement of existing innervation or an uncommon dysinnervation. After successful strabismus surgery the tugging sensation improved but the phenomenon could still be elicited.

Gipson IK, Mandel U, Menon B, Michaud S, Tisdale A, Campos D, Clausen H. Generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to the cytoplasmic tail of MUC16. Glycobiology 2017;27(10):920-926.Abstract
MUC16 is a large transmembrane mucin expressed on the apical surfaces of the epithelium covering the ocular surface, respiratory system and female reproductive tract. The transmembrane mucin is overexpressed by ovarian carcinomas, it is one of the most frequently used diagnostic markers for the disease and it is considered a promising target for immunotherapeutic intervention. Immunodetection of the mucin has to date been through antibodies that recognize its exceptionally large ectodomain. Similar to other membrane anchored mucins, MUC16 has a short cytoplasmic tail (CT), but studies of the biological relevance of the C-terminal domain of MUC16 has been limited by lack of availability of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the native CT. Here, we report the development of a novel monoclonal antibody to the CT region of the molecule that recognizes native MUC16 and its enzymatically released CT region. The antibody is useful for immunoprecipitation of the released CT domain as demonstrated with the OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell line and can be used for detailed cytolocalization in cells as well as in frozen sections of ocular surface and uterine epithelium.
Gong Y, Fu Z, Liegl R, Chen J, Hellström A, Smith LEH. ω-3 and ω-6 long-chain PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;106(1):16-26.Abstract
Neovascular eye diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, threaten the visual health of children and adults. Current treatment options, including anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and laser retinal photocoagulation, have limitations and are associated with adverse effects; therefore, the identification of additional therapies is highly desirable. Both clinical and experimental studies show that dietary ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) reduce retinal and choroidal angiogenesis. The ω-3 LC-PUFA metabolites from 2 groups of enzymes, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, inhibit [and the ω-6 (n-6) LC-PUFA metabolites promote] inflammation and angiogenesis. However, both of the ω-3 and the ω-6 lipid products of cytochrome P450 oxidase 2C promote neovascularization in both the retina and choroid, which suggests that inhibition of this pathway might be beneficial. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles of ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases.
González-Andrades M, Mata R, González-Gallardo MDC, Medialdea S, Arias-Santiago S, Martínez-Atienza J, Ruiz-García A, Pérez-Fajardo L, Lizana-Moreno A, Garzón I, Campos A, Alaminos M, Carmona G, Cuende N. A study protocol for a multicentre randomised clinical trial evaluating the safety and feasibility of a bioengineered human allogeneic nanostructured anterior cornea in patients with advanced corneal trophic ulcers refractory to conventional treatment. BMJ Open 2017;7(9):e016487.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: There is a need to find alternatives to the use of human donor corneas in transplants because of the limited availability of donor organs, the incidence of graft complications, as well as the inability to successfully perform corneal transplant in patients presenting limbal deficiency, neo-vascularized or thin corneas, etc. We have designed a clinical trial to test a nanostructured fibrin-agarose corneal substitute combining allogeneic cells that mimics the anterior human native cornea in terms of optical, mechanical and biological behaviour. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a phase I-II, randomised, controlled, open-label clinical trial, currently ongoing in ten Spanish hospitals, to evaluate the safety and feasibility, as well as clinical efficacy evidence, of this bioengineered human corneal substitute in adults with severe trophic corneal ulcers refractory to conventional treatment, or with sequelae of previous ulcers. In the initial phase of the trial (n=5), patients were sequentially recruited, with a safety period of 45 days, receiving the bioengineered corneal graft. In the second phase of the trial (currently ongoing), subjects are block randomised (2:1) to receive either the corneal graft (n=10), or amniotic membrane (n=5), as the control treatment. Adverse events, implant status, infection signs and induced neovascularization are evaluated as determinants of safety and feasibility of the bioengineered graft (main outcomes). Study endpoints are measured along a follow-up period of 24 months, including 27 post-implant assessment visits according to a decreasing frequency. Intention to treat, and per protocol, and safety analysis will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial protocol received written approval by the corresponding Ethics Committee and the Spanish Regulatory Authority and is currently recruiting subjects. On completion of the trial, manuscripts with the results of phases I and II of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CT.gov identifier: NCT01765244 (Jan2013). EudraCT number: 2010-024290-40 (Dec2012).
Gouveia RM, González-Andrades E, Cardona JC, González-Gallardo C, Ionescu AM, Garzon I, Alaminos M, González-Andrades M, Connon CJ. Controlling the 3D architecture of Self-Lifting Auto-generated Tissue Equivalents (SLATEs) for optimized corneal graft composition and stability. Biomaterials 2017;121:205-219.Abstract

Ideally, biomaterials designed to play specific physical and physiological roles in vivo should comprise components and microarchitectures analogous to those of the native tissues they intend to replace. For that, implantable biomaterials need to be carefully designed to have the correct structural and compositional properties, which consequently impart their bio-function. In this study, we showed that the control of such properties can be defined from the bottom-up, using smart surface templates to modulate the structure, composition, and bio-mechanics of human transplantable tissues. Using multi-functional peptide amphiphile-coated surfaces with different anisotropies, we were able to control the phenotype of corneal stromal cells and instruct them to fabricate self-lifting tissues that closely emulated the native stromal lamellae of the human cornea. The type and arrangement of the extracellular matrix comprising these corneal stromal Self-Lifting Analogous Tissue Equivalents (SLATEs) were then evaluated in detail, and was shown to correlate with tissue function. Specifically, SLATEs comprising aligned collagen fibrils were shown to be significantly thicker, denser, and more resistant to proteolytic degradation compared to SLATEs formed with randomly-oriented constituents. In addition, SLATEs were highly transparent while providing increased absorption to near-UV radiation. Importantly, corneal stromal SLATEs were capable of constituting tissues with a higher-order complexity, either by creating thicker tissues through stacking or by serving as substrate to support a fully-differentiated, stratified corneal epithelium. SLATEs were also deemed safe as implants in a rabbit corneal model, being capable of integrating with the surrounding host tissue without provoking inflammation, neo-vascularization, or any other signs of rejection after a 9-months follow-up. This work thus paves the way for the de novo bio-fabrication of easy-retrievable, scaffold-free human tissues with controlled structural, compositional, and functional properties to replace corneal, as well as other, tissues.

Gradstein L, Hansen RM, Cox GF, Altschwager P, Fulton AB. Progressive retinal degeneration in a girl with Knobloch syndrome who presented with signs of ocular albinism. Doc Ophthalmol 2017;134(2):135-140.Abstract

PURPOSE: We report for the first time electroretinographic (ERG) evidence of progressive retinal abnormalities in a girl who presented in infancy with ocular features of albinism and gradually developed choroidal sclerosis and patchy retinal atrophy leading to a diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS, OMIM 267750, COL18A1). METHODS: At age 2 months, nystagmus and esotropia prompted ophthalmic evaluation. The appearance of choroidal sclerosis and atrophic retinal patches led to further evaluation at age 8 years. Genetics consultation was obtained in infancy and again at age 8 years as retinal findings evolved. Full field ERG responses in both scotopic and photopic conditions were recorded at both ages and compared to those in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: At age 2 months ERG response parameters were within normal limits for age and tyrosinase (TYR) gene sequencing revealed one novel mutation, p.S466F, and the temperature-sensitive polymorphism, p.R402Q, suggesting the diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1). At age 8 years, there was significant attenuation of both scotopic and photopic ERG responses. Genetic re-analysis led to the identification of a homozygous mutation, c.3213dupC, in the COL18A1 gene, thus confirming the diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our patient with Knobloch syndrome developed abnormal ERG responses similar to those found in col18a1 knockout mice. Thus, we have documented progressive attenuation of the scotopic and photopic responses in KS.

Greiner JV, Lindsay ME, Kenyon KR, Herman JP, Reddy CV. Meesmann epithelial corneal dystrophy: recurrence following photorefractive keratectomy. Can J Ophthalmol 2017;52(6):e211-e213.
Grob SR, Campbell AA, Gross A, Cestari DM. Hemorrhage Within the Optic Nerve From a Cavernous Hemangioma of the Optic Disc. J Neuroophthalmol 2015;35(3):277-9.Abstract

A 49-year-old woman with a known right optic disc cavernous hemangioma experienced pain with eye movements and worsening of a superior visual field defect. While she retained 20/20 visual acuity in each eye, findings on magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a hemorrhage in the anterior portion of the right intraorbital optic nerve. Her visual function stabilized spontaneously. We are unaware of previous reports of hemorrhage into the optic nerve from a cavernous hemangioma of the optic disc.

Grotting LA, Davoudi S, Uchiyama E, Lobo A-M, Papaliodis GN, Sobrin L. Pre-papillary vitreous opacities associated with Behçet's disease: a case series and review of the literature. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
PURPOSE: To present pre-papillary vitreous opacity as an uncommon manifestation of inflammation in Behçet's disease that may be specific to this uveitic entity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 67 patients with Behçet's disease examined at our clinic between 2005 and 2016. Behçet's disease was diagnosed based on established clinical criteria of inflammation involving the eyes, mucocutaneous junctions, and skin. Patients with Behçet's disease who presented with papillitis and a pre-papillary vitreous opacity were identified. Response to anti-inflammatory treatment on examination and optical coherence tomography imaging were evaluated. PubMed searches were performed for (1) other cases with pre-papillary vitreous opacities in uveitic entities and (2) reports of optic nerve involvement specifically in Behçet's disease. RESULTS: We identified three patients with Behçet's disease who presented with unilateral papillitis and a pre-papillary vitreous opacity. The pre-papillary vitreous opacity had a funnel-shaped appearance on optical coherence tomography. All patients were initially treated with steroids, which led to resolution of the opacity clinically and on imaging. We identified one previous report of such a pre-papillary opacity in a patient with Behçet's disease, and no reports of this finding in other uveitic entities. CONCLUSION: This study expands the number of Behçet's disease cases presenting with a pre-papillary vitreous opacity and demonstrates novel optical coherence imaging of this finding. This finding may be specific to Behçet's disease as it was not identified in other uveitic entities in a review of the existing literature.
for the and Group WCMUST (MUST) TF-up SR, Kempen JH, Altaweel MM, Holbrook JT, Sugar EA, Thorne JE, Jabs DA. Association Between Long-Lasting Intravitreous Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant vs Systemic Anti-inflammatory Therapy and Visual Acuity at 7 Years Among Patients With Intermediate, Posterior, or Panuveitis. JAMA 2017;317(19):1993-2005.Abstract
Importance: A randomized clinical trial comparing fluocinolone acetonide implant vs systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppression for treatment of severe noninfectious intermediate, posterior, and panuveitides did not result in a significant difference in visual acuity at 2 and 4.5 years; longer-term outcomes are not known. Objective: To compare the association between intravitreous fluocinolone acetonide implant vs systemic therapy and long-term visual and other outcomes in patients with uveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Nonprespecified 7-year observational follow-up of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) randomized clinical trial comparing the alternative treatments. Follow-up was conducted in tertiary uveitis subspecialty practices in the United States (21), the United Kingdom (1), and Australia (1). Of 255 patients 13 years or older with intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis (active within ≤60 days) enrolled in the MUST trial between December 6, 2005, and December 9, 2008, 215 consented to ongoing follow-up through at least 7 years postrandomization (last visit, February 10, 2016). Interventions: Participants had been randomized to receive a surgically placed intravitreous fluocinolone acetonide implant or systemic corticosteroids supplemented by immunosuppression. When both eyes required treatment, both eyes were treated. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity in uveitic eyes (5 letters = 1 visual acuity chart line; potential range of change in letters read, -121 to +101; minimal clinically important difference, 7 letters), analyzed by treatment assignment accounting for nonindependence of eyes when patients had 2 uveitic eyes. Secondary outcomes included potential systemic toxicities of corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy and death. Results: Seven-year data were obtained for 161 uveitic eyes (70% of 90 patients assigned to implant) and 167 uveitic eyes (71% of 90 patients assigned to systemic therapy) (77% female; median age at enrollment, 48 [interquartile range, 36-56] years). Change in mean visual acuity from baseline (implant, 61.7; systemic therapy, 65.0) through 7 years (implant, 55.8; systemic therapy, 66.2) favored systemic therapy by 7.2 (95% CI, 2.1-12) letters. Among protocol-specified, prospectively collected systemic adverse outcomes, the cumulative 7-year incidence in the implant and systemic therapy groups, respectively, was less than 10%, with the exceptions of hyperlipidemia (6.1% vs 11.2%), hypertension (9.8% vs 18.4%), osteopenia (41.5% vs 43.1%), fractures (11.3% vs 18.6%), hospitalization (47.6% vs 42.3%), and antibiotic-treated infection (57.4% vs 72.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: In 7-year extended follow-up of a randomized trial of patients with severe intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis, those randomized to receive systemic therapy had better visual acuity than those randomized to receive intravitreous fluocinolone acetonide implants. Study interpretation is limited by loss to follow-up. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00132691.
Guerriero RM, Patel AA, Walsh B, Baumer FM, Shah AS, Peters JM, Rodan LH, Agrawal PB, Pearl PL, Takeoka M. Systemic Manifestations in Pyridox(am)ine 5'-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency. Pediatr Neurol 2017;76:47-53.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Pyridoxine is converted to its biologically active form pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) by the enzyme pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase and serves as a cofactor in nearly 200 reactions in the central nervous system. Pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency leads to P5P dependent epilepsy, typically a neonatal- or infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy treatable with P5P or in some cases, pyridoxine. Following identification of retinopathy in a patient with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency that was reversible with P5P therapy, we describe the systemic manifestations of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency. METHODS: A series of six patients with homozygous mutations of PNPO, the gene coding pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase, were evaluated in our center over the course of two years for phenotyping of neurological and systemic manifestations. RESULTS: Five of six were born prematurely, three had anemia and failure to thrive, and two had elevated alkaline phosphatase. A movement disorder was observed in two children, and a reversible retinopathy was observed in the most severely affected infant. All patients had neonatal-onset epilepsy and were on a continuum of developmental delay to profound encephalopathy. Electroencephalographic features included background slowing and disorganization, absent sleep features, and multifocal and generalized epileptiform discharges. All the affected probands carried a homozygous PNPO mutation (c.674 G>T, c.686 G>A and c.352G>A). CONCLUSION: In addition to the well-described epileptic encephalopathy, pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency causes a range of neurological and systemic manifestations. A movement disorder, developmental delay, and encephalopathy, as well as retinopathy, anemia, and failure to thrive add to the broadening clinical spectrum of P5P dependent epilepsy.
Gupta MP, Talcott KE, Kim DY, Agarwal S, Mukai S. Retinal findings and a novel TINF2 mutation in Revesz syndrome: Clinical and molecular correlations with pediatric retinal vasculopathies. Ophthalmic Genet 2017;:1-10.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Revesz syndrome is a telomere disorder in the dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) spectrum characterized by exudative retinopathy, bone marrow failure, neuroradiographic abnormalities, and integumentary findings. MATERIALS/METHODS: We report the ophthalmologic findings, documented by examinations under anesthesia with clinical photography and fluorescein angiography, as well as the systemic manifestations and genetic and molecular testing, in identical twins with Revesz syndrome, and compare and contrast these features to those of other pediatric retinal vasculopathies. RESULTS: Both twins exhibited widespread avascularity and anomalous vasculature of the retinal periphery, retinal telangiectasias, and exudation. One twin developed a combination exudative/tractional/rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, while the other exhibited a focal collection of buds of retinal neovascularization. Both twins developed bone marrow failure and were found to have cerebellar hypoplasia and widespread cerebral calcifications. Telomere testing in lymphocytes and granulocytes revealed telomere length less than the 1st percentile for age, and gene sequencing revealed a novel mutation in the TINF2 gene, resulting in the T284P TIN2 protein variant. CONCLUSIONS: We report ophthalmic findings in twins with Revesz syndrome due to a previously unreported mutation in TINF2 and propose that phenotypic and molecular overlaps between DKC spectrum disorders and pediatric retinal vasculopathies may reflect a shared pathophysiologic basis.

Gupta A, Cavallerano J, Sun JK, Silva PS. Evidence for Telemedicine for Diabetic Retinal Disease. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;32(1):22-28.Abstract

According to current projections, the number of Americans with diabetes mellitus will increase from 27.8 million in 2007 to 60.7 million in 2030. With the increasing gap between demand for eye care and supply of ophthalmologists and optometrists, and the non-uniform distribution of eye care providers in US counties, barriers to eye examinations will likely increase. Telemedicine assessment of diabetic retinal disease through remote retinal imaging and diagnosis has the potential to meet these growing demands. To establish evidence for a telemedicine program as an effective modality for diabetic retinopathy (DR) assessment, the interpretation of teleretinal images should compare favorably with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study film or digital photographs. We review the current evidence on the critical features and characteristics of ocular telehealth programs for DR in the following categories: image gradability, mydriasis, sensitivity and specificity, cost-effectiveness, long-term effectiveness, patient comfort and satisfaction, and improvement of patient related outcomes.

Gupta PR, Huckfeldt RM. Gene therapy for inherited retinal degenerations: initial successes and future challenges. J Neural Eng 2017;14(5):051002.Abstract
Inherited retinal degenerations are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions that have historically shared an untreatable course. In recent years, however, a wide range of therapeutic strategies have demonstrated efficacy in preclinical studies and entered clinical trials with a common goal of improving visual function for patients affected with these conditions. Gene therapy offers a particularly elegant and precise opportunity to target the causative genetic mutations underlying these monogenic diseases. The present review will provide an overview of gene therapy with particular emphasis on key clinical results to date and challenges for the future.