PURPOSE: Inherited retinal dystrophies are a significant cause of vision loss and are characterized by the loss of photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Mutations in approximately 250 genes cause inherited retinal degenerations with a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. New techniques in next-generation sequencing are allowing the comprehensive analysis of all retinal disease genes thus changing the approach to the molecular diagnosis of inherited retinal dystrophies. This review serves to analyze clinical progress in genetic diagnostic testing and implications for retinal gene therapy. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and OMIM was conducted to relevant articles in inherited retinal dystrophies. RESULTS: Next-generation genetic sequencing allows the simultaneous analysis of all the approximately 250 genes that cause inherited retinal dystrophies. Reported diagnostic rates range are high and range from 51% to 57%. These new sequencing tools are highly accurate with sensitivities of 97.9% and specificities of 100%. Retinal gene therapy clinical trials are underway for multiple genes including RPE65, ABCA4, CHM, RS1, MYO7A, CNGA3, CNGB3, ND4, and MERTK for which a molecular diagnosis may be beneficial for patients. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive next-generation genetic sequencing of all retinal dystrophy genes is changing the paradigm for how retinal specialists perform genetic testing for inherited retinal degenerations. Not only are high diagnostic yields obtained, but mutations in genes with novel clinical phenotypes are also identified. In the era of retinal gene therapy clinical trials, identifying specific genetic defects will increasingly be of use to identify patients who may enroll in clinical studies and benefit from novel therapies.

Haleem MS, Han L, van Hemert J, Li B, Fleming A, Pasquale LR, Song BJ. A Novel Adaptive Deformable Model for Automated Optic Disc and Cup Segmentation to Aid Glaucoma Diagnosis. J Med Syst 2017;42(1):20.Abstract
This paper proposes a novel Adaptive Region-based Edge Smoothing Model (ARESM) for automatic boundary detection of optic disc and cup to aid automatic glaucoma diagnosis. The novelty of our approach consists of two aspects: 1) automatic detection of initial optimum object boundary based on a Region Classification Model (RCM) in a pixel-level multidimensional feature space; 2) an Adaptive Edge Smoothing Update model (AESU) of contour points (e.g. misclassified or irregular points) based on iterative force field calculations with contours obtained from the RCM by minimising energy function (an approach that does not require predefined geometric templates to guide auto-segmentation). Such an approach provides robustness in capturing a range of variations and shapes. We have conducted a comprehensive comparison between our approach and the state-of-the-art existing deformable models and validated it with publicly available datasets. The experimental evaluation shows that the proposed approach significantly outperforms existing methods. The generality of the proposed approach will enable segmentation and detection of other object boundaries and provide added value in the field of medical image processing and analysis.
Hamrah P, Qazi Y, Shahatit B, Dastjerdi MH, Pavan-Langston D, Jacobs DS, Rosenthal P. Corneal Nerve and Epithelial Cell Alterations in Corneal Allodynia: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Case Series. Ocul Surf 2017;15(1):139-151.Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate morphological changes of the corneal epithelium and subbasal nerves in patients with corneal allodynia using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). DESIGN: Case-control study of patients with corneal allodynia and healthy controls. METHODS: Ten eyes of six patients were diagnosed with corneal allodynia at a single center and compared to fifteen healthy eyes. IVCM of the central cornea was performed on all subjects and controls. Images were retrospectively analyzed numbers of total corneal subbasal nerves, main trunks and branches, total nerve length and density, nerve branching, and tortuosity, superficial and basal epithelial cell densities, and superficial epithelial cell size. RESULTS: Corneal allodynia was seen in patients with dry eye disease, recurrent corneal erosion syndrome, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and Accutane use. Compared to controls, patients with corneal allodynia had a significant decrease in the total numbers of subbasal nerves (P=.014), nerve branches (P=.006), total nerve length (P=.0029), total nerve density (P=.0029) and superficial and basal epithelial cell densities (P=.0004, P=.0036) with an increase in superficial epithelial cell size (P=.016). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of subbasal nerve main trunks (P=.09), nerve branching (P=.21), and nerve tortuosity (P=.05). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal IVCM enables near-histological visualization and quantification of the cellular and neural changes in corneal allodynia. Regardless of etiology, corneal allodynia is associated with decreased corneal epithelial cell densities, increased epithelial cell size, and decreased numbers and lengths of subbasal nerves despite an unremarkable slit-lamp examination. Therefore, IVCM may be useful in the management of patients with corneal allodynia.

Hamrah P, Sahin A, Oaklander AL. Widespread effects of clinically unilateral focal nerve injuries. Pain 2017;158(6):1175-1176.
Han K-Y, Tran JA, Chang J-H, Azar DT, Zieske JD. Potential role of corneal epithelial cell-derived exosomes in corneal wound healing and neovascularization. Sci Rep 2017;7:40548.Abstract

Specific factors from the corneal epithelium underlying the stimulation of stromal fibrosis and myofibroblast formation in corneal wound healing have not been fully elucidated. Given that exosomes are known to transfer bioactive molecules among cells and play crucial roles in wound healing, angiogenesis, and cancer, we hypothesized that corneal epithelial cell-derived exosomes may gain access to the underlying stromal fibroblasts upon disruption of the epithelial basement membrane and that they induce signaling events essential for corneal wound healing. In the present study, exosome-like vesicles were observed between corneal epithelial cells and the stroma during wound healing after corneal epithelial debridement. These vesicles were also found in the stroma following anterior stromal keratectomy, in which surgical removal of the epithelium, basement membrane, and anterior stroma was performed. Exosomes secreted by mouse corneal epithelial cells were found to fuse to keratocytes in vitro and to induce myofibroblast transformation. In addition, epithelial cell-derived exosomes induced endothelial cell proliferation and ex vivo aortic ring sprouting. Our results indicate that epithelial cell-derived exosomes mediate communication between corneal epithelial cells and corneal keratocytes as well as vascular endothelial cells. These findings demonstrate that epithelial-derived exosomes may be involved in corneal wound healing and neovascularization, and thus, may serve as targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

Hansen RM, Moskowitz A, Akula JD, Fulton AB. The neural retina in retinopathy of prematurity. Prog Retin Eye Res 2017;56:32-57.Abstract

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP.

Hark LA, Katz JL, Myers JS, Waisbourd M, Johnson D, Pizzi LT, Leiby BE, Fudemberg SJ, Mantravadi AV, Henderer JD, Zhan T, Molineaux J, Doyle V, Divers M, Burns C, Murchison AP, Reber S, Resende A, Bui TDV, Lee J, Crews JE, Saaddine JB, Lee PP, Pasquale LR, Haller JA. Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study: Methods and Screening Results. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;181:114-124.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe methodology and screening results from the Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study. DESIGN: Screening program results for a prospective randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Individuals were recruited who were African-American, Hispanic/Latino, or Asian over age 40 years; white individuals over age 65 years; and any ethnicity over age 40 years with a family history of glaucoma or diabetes. Primary care offices and Federally Qualified Health Centers were used for telemedicine (Visit 1). Two posterior fundus photographs and 1 anterior segment photograph were captured per eye in each participant, using a nonmydriatic, autofocus, hand-held fundus camera (Volk Optical, Mentor, Ohio, USA). Medical and ocular history, family history of glaucoma, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure measurements using the ICare rebound tonometer (ICare, Helsinki, Finland) were obtained. Images were read remotely by a trained retina reader and a glaucoma specialist. RESULTS: From April 1, 2015, to February 6, 2017, 906 individuals consented and attended Visit 1. Of these, 553 participants were female (61.0%) and 550 were African-American (60.7%), with a mean age of 58.7 years. A total of 532 (58.7%) participants had diabetes, and 616 (68%) had a history of hypertension. During Visit 1, 356 (39.3%) participants were graded with a normal image. Using image data from the worse eye, 333 (36.8%) were abnormal and 155 (17.1%) were unreadable. A total of 258 (28.5%) had a suspicious nerve, 62 (6.8%) had ocular hypertension, 102 (11.3%) had diabetic retinopathy, and 68 (7.5%) had other retinal abnormalities. CONCLUSION: An integrated telemedicine screening intervention in primary care offices and Federally Qualified Health Centers detected high rate of suspicious optic nerves, ocular hypertension, and retinal pathology.
Haruta M, Arai M, Sueda J, Hirose T, Yamakawa R. Patching retinal breaks with Seprafilm for treating retinal detachments in humans: 9 years of follow-up. Eye (Lond) 2017;31(5):776-780.Abstract
PurposeTo describe the long-term surgical outcomes of four patients treated for retinal detachment using Seprafilm as a novel technique.MethodsRetinal breaks in four eyes were covered with Seprafilm using a transvitreal approach after cataract surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, fluid-air exchange, and laser photocoagulation. Neither long-standing gas nor silicone oil was used. The patients were not instructed to maintain a specific head positioning postoperatively.ResultsSuccessful retinal reattachment was achieved with a single surgery in all four eyes, and none developed proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The mean best-corrected visual acuity preoperatively and 9 years postoperatively were 20/97 and 20/33, respectively. The intraocular pressure increased several days postoperatively that lasted no longer than 2 weeks. Visual field defects either in the inferonasal or inferotemporal quadrant were detected postoperatively. The mean electroretinogram a- and b-wave amplitude ratios of the operated eyes to the fellow eyes were 0.68 and 0.64 preoperatively and 0.87 and 0.92 postoperatively, respectively. The mean corneal endothelial cell density was 2365 cells/mm(2) preoperatively and 2592 cells/mm(2) postoperatively.ConclusionCovering retinal breaks with Seprafilm may promote retinal reattachment without gas tamponade and postoperative head positioning. The visual outcomes 9 years postoperatively showed no apparent adverse effects of intraocular application of Seprafilm.
Hasegawa E, Inafuku S, Mulki L, Okunuki Y, Yanai R, Smith KE, Kim CB, Klokman G, Bielenberg DR, Puli N, Falck JR, Husain D, Miller JW, Edin ML, Zeldin DC, Stephen Lee KS, Hammock BD, Schunck W-H, Connor KM. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase lipid metabolites are significant second messengers in the resolution of choroidal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017;114(36):E7545-E7553.Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness for individuals age 50 and above in the developed world. Abnormal growth of choroidal blood vessels, or choroidal neovascularization (CNV), is a hallmark of the neovascular (wet) form of advanced AMD and leads to significant vision loss. A growing body of evidence supports a strong link between neovascular disease and inflammation. Metabolites of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase pathway serve as vital second messengers that regulate a number of hormones and growth factors involved in inflammation and vascular function. Using transgenic mice with altered CYP lipid biosynthetic pathways in a mouse model of laser-induced CNV, we characterized the role of these lipid metabolites in regulating neovascular disease. We discovered that the CYP-derived lipid metabolites epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) and epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs) are vital in dampening CNV severity. Specifically, overexpression of the monooxygenase CYP2C8 or genetic ablation or inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme led to increased levels of EDP and EEQ with attenuated CNV development. In contrast, when we promoted the degradation of these CYP-derived metabolites by transgenic overexpression of sEH, the protective effect against CNV was lost. We found that these molecules work in part through their ability to regulate the expression of key leukocyte adhesion molecules, on both leukocytes and endothelial cells, thereby mediating leukocyte recruitment. These results suggest that CYP lipid signaling molecules and their regulators are potential therapeutic targets in neovascular diseases.
Heidary G. Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations of Pediatric Neurodegenerative Disease. J Neuroophthalmol 2017;37 Suppl 1:S4-S13.Abstract
The topic of pediatric neurodegenerative disease is broad and ever expanding. Children who suffer from neurodegenerative disease often have concomitant visual dysfunction. Neuro-ophthalmologists may become involved in clinical care to identify corroborating eye findings when a specific condition is suspected, to monitor for disease progression, and in some cases, to assess treatment efficacy. Ophthalmic findings also may be the harbinger of a neurodegenerative process so a keen awareness of the possible manifestations of these conditions is important. The purpose of this review is to highlight common examples of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of pediatric neurodegenerative disease using a case-based approach in an effort to provide a framework for approaching these complex patients.
PURPOSE: To investigate choroidal involvement in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE). METHODS: A retrospective observational case series using multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. RESULTS: Five patients with APMPPE were included. In most acute lesions, OCT angiography revealed outer retinal and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) hyperreflective lesions with attenuated OCT signal in the underlying choroid, but careful examination allowed us to identify a single lesion with decreased choriocapillaris flow outside the signal attenuation. Optical coherence tomography angiography obtained after healing of lesions revealed areas of hypointense circular flow voids clustered in groups surrounded by either isointense or hyperintense signal background. Point-by-point evaluation revealed these flow voids did not correspond to areas of RPE thickening or focal pigmentary changes. Larger hypointense lesions were observed and did correlate with pigmentary changes. CONCLUSION: Our case series demonstrates choriocapillaris flow abnormalities in acute APMPPE extending beyond the OCT lesions, and distinct residual vascular abnormalities in healed APMPPE lesions on OCT angiography. Our findings support a primary ischemic insult to the photoreceptors and RPE, but choriocapillaris flow abnormalities could be secondary to (OCT invisible) retinal and RPE involvement. The lack of understanding of the etiology along with the inability to visualize most of the choroid in acute lesions precludes definite conclusions about the true pathogenesis of APMPPE.
Hellstrom A, Ley D, Hallberg B, Lofqvist C, Hansen-Pupp I, Ramenghi LA, Borg J, Smith LEH, Hard A-L. IGF-1 as a drug for preterm infants: a step-wise clinical development. Curr Pharm Des 2017;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a mitogenic hormone involved in many processes such as growth, metabolism, angiogenesis and differentiation. After very preterm birth, energy demands increase while maternal supplies of nutrients and other factors are lost and the infant may become dependent on parenteral nutrition for weeks. Low postnatal IGF-1 concentrations in preterm infants are associated with poor weight gain, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other morbidities. We will describe the process by which we aim to develop supplementation with recombinant human (rh) IGF-1 and its binding protein rhIGFBP-3 as a possible therapy to promote growth and maturation and reduce morbidities in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: In order to calculate a dose of IGF-1 tolerated by neonates, a pharmacokinetic study of transfusion with fresh frozen plasma was performed, which provided a relatively low dose of IGF-1, (on average 1.4 μg/kg), that increased serum IGF-1 to levels close to those observed in fetuses and preterm infants of similar GAs. Thereafter, a Phase I 3 hours IV infusion of rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 was conducted in 5 infants, followed by a Phase II study with four sections (A-D). In the Phase II, sections A-D studies, time on infusion increased and younger gestational ages were included. RESULTS: IV infusion increased IGF-1 but with short half-life (0.5h) implying a need for continuous infusion. In order to obtain in utero levels of IGF-I, the dose was increased from 100 to 250 μg/kg/24 h and the infusion was prolonged from 3 weeks postnatal age until a postmenstrual age of 29 weeks and 6 days. CONCLUSION: The purpose has been to ensure high-quality research into the development of a new drug for preterm infants. We hope that our work will help to establish a new standard for the testing of medications for preterm infants.
Hodges RR, Li D, Shatos MA, Bair JA, Lippestad M, Serhan CN, Dartt DA. Lipoxin A4 activates ALX/FPR2 receptor to regulate conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Mucosal Immunol 2017;10(1):46-57.Abstract

Conjunctival goblet cells play a major role in maintaining the mucus layer of the tear film under physiological conditions as well as in inflammatory diseases like dry eye and allergic conjunctivitis. Resolution of inflammation is mediated by proresolution agonists such as lipoxin A4 (LXA4) that can also function under physiological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the actions of LXA4 on cultured rat conjunctival goblet cell mucin secretion, intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i), and identify signaling pathways activated by LXA4. ALX/FPR2 (formyl peptide receptor2) was localized to goblet cells in rat conjunctiva and in cultured goblet cells. LXA4 significantly increased mucin secretion, [Ca(2+)]i, and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activation. These functions were inhibited by ALX/FPR2 inhibitors. Stable analogs of LXA4 increased [Ca(2+)]i to the same extent as LXA4. Sequential addition of either LXA4 or resolvin D1 followed by the second compound decreased [Ca(2+)]i of the second compound compared with its initial response. LXA4 activated phospholipases C, D, and A2 and downstream molecules protein kinase C, ERK 1/2, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase to increase mucin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i. We conclude that conjunctival goblet cells respond to LXA4 to maintain the homeostasis of the ocular surface and could be a novel treatment for dry eye diseases.

Homer N, Jakobiec FA, Stagner A, Cunnane ME, Freitag SK, Fay A, Yoon MK. Periocular breast carcinoma metastases: correlation of clinical, radiologic and histopathologic features. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract

IMPORTANCE: To describe presenting patterns of breast cancer metastases to the orbit and eyelids BACKGROUND: To provide clinical, radiographic, and pathologic correlations of breast metastases to the orbit or eyelids and evaluate radiographic volumetric orbital changes DESIGN: Retrospective review in an academic center PARTICIPANTS: Ten female patients with periocular metastatic breast carcinoma who were seen at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Oculoplastics Clinic METHODS: Retrospective review of patient records, imaging and pathology findings. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presenting clinical characteristics, radiographic findings, and histopathological features were assessed and correlated to discover distinctive presenting patterns. Volumetric measurements of the tumors and orbital soft tissue structures were made on magnetic resonance imaging studies. RESULTS: The breast metastases included 9 orbital and 1 eyelid lesions. Two distinct clinical presentations were observed. The first consisted of seven patients who had either enophthalmos or euphthalmos in the setting of a retrobulbar lesion, a radiographically indistinct lesion, and a classic microscopic invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILBC) with a prominent fibrotic stroma. The second group consisted of two proptotic patients with mass lesions on imaging and an atypical ILBC pathological subtype (pleomorphic or alveolar). One patient had diffusely indurated eyelid fullness. Volumetric analyses demonstrated variable tumor sizes with an inconsistent impact on the orbital volume and fat. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This correlative study provides the clinical-radiographic-histopathologic basis for separating two overarching phenotypic presentations of metastatic breast carcinoma to the orbit. Previously postulated mechanisms for the distinctive finding of tumor-induced enophthalmos are re-examined in the light of the foregoing conclusions.

Homer N, Yoon MK. Evaluation of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) Fellowship Program Website Content and Quality. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;33(6):471-473.Abstract
PURPOSE: The qualities that applicants value in the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) fellowship programs have been studied, but the availability of this information on program websites has not yet been reviewed. The authors evaluated the availability of resident-valued ASOPRS fellowship program information on the Internet. METHODS: The authors performed an Internet search of the 53 ASOPRS fellowship program websites and evaluated websites for 20 characteristics of interest to ASOPRS fellowship applicants such as teaching faculty, program description, rotation schedule, operative cases, and interview information. RESULTS: Of the 53 ASOPRS fellowship programs, 43 (81.1%) had a fellowship program-dedicated website. The fellowship websites contained a mean 7.6 characteristics (38.1%, range 0-15). Faculty listing, program description, and case diversity were the most commonly included data (74.4%, 72.1%, and 69.8%, respectively). Fellow selection process, interview information, and graduate job placement were least commonly included (7.0%, 2.3%, and 0.0%, respectively). There was no significant difference in website inclusiveness based on fellowship region or faculty number. Programs affiliated with an ophthalmology residency were more complete than those that were not (40.3% vs. 20.0%, p = 0.0098). CONCLUSIONS: This review found that most programs had websites and contained a reasonable number of characteristics. However, applicant-valued information regarding surgical volume, procedure variety, application information, and postgraduate employment history were often missing. American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery fellowship programs may improve match outcomes by providing and enhancing program websites with details that their applicants seek.
Hong J, Yang Y, Cursiefen C, Mashaghi A, Wu D, Liu Z, Sun X, Dana R, Xu J. Optimising keratoplasty for Peters' anomaly in infants using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Br J Ophthalmol 2017;101(6):820-827.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present in vivo anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of infants with Peters' anomaly obtained during presurgical examination under general anaesthesia, and to evaluate the impact of OCT features on surgical decision making. METHODS: This is a single-centre, consecutive, observational case series including 44 eyes of 27 infants with Peters' anomaly (5-18 months) undergoing keratoplasty. Medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical features and OCT findings, along with their impact on surgical decision-making were analysed. RESULTS: Of 27 patients, 10 had unilateral and 17 had bilateral disease. Two patients with mild disease (three eyes) had a posterior corneal defect with leukoma (2/27, 7.4%). Twenty patients (32 eyes) with iridocorneal adhesions were classified as having moderate Peters' anomaly (20/27, 74.1%) and five patients (nine eyes) with lenticulocorneal adhesions were classified as having severe Peters' anomaly (5/27, 18.5%). The range of angle closure, anterior chamber depth and maximum iridocorneal adhesion length (all p<0.001) were significantly different among groups, indicating that they might serve as novel OCT parameters for assessing the severity of Peters' anomaly. The surgical approach in seven patients (21.2%) was altered in response to intraoperative OCT findings, which provided information regarding the anatomical structure of the anterior chamber not provided by the surgical microscope. The use of OCT prevented unnecessary cataract surgeries in five patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that information gained from OCT under anaesthesia allows surgeons to classify type and severity of Peters' anomaly and supports surgical decision making.
Houston KE, Paschalis EI, Angueira DC, Bronstad MP, Barrett AM, Iaccarino MA. Restoration of Vision After Brain Injury Using Magnet Glasses. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2017;96(4):e70-e74.Abstract

Visual impairments are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and negatively affect quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old woman with a severe TBI who was evaluated by the inpatient optometry and vision rehabilitation service with findings of complete right homonymous hemianopia and right cranial nerve III palsy with 30-degree right exotropia (eye turn out) and complete right ptosis (eyelid will not open). The 30-degree exotropia advantageously generated 30 degrees of right visual field expansion when the right ptosis was treated with a magnetic levator prosthesis, which restores eyelid opening. Once opened, the patient used visual field expansion derived from a right exotropia to overcome functional impairments caused by right hemianopia. Field expansion improved the patient's wheelchair mobility and reaching tasks during inpatient therapy. This is the first report of visual field expansion by strabismus facilitated by correction of ptosis. Strabismus should be considered for its potential field expansion benefits when homonymous visual deficits are present, before considering patching. A multidisciplinary vision rehabilitation team is well suited to make this determination.

Houston KE, Barrett AM. Patching for Diplopia Contraindicated in Patients with Brain Injury?. Optom Vis Sci 2017;94(1):120-124.Abstract

PURPOSE: Patching for double vision is a common palliative treatment for head-trauma patients with acquired strabismus when prisms are not feasible. METHODS: We review literature on spatial neglect and discuss possible effects of monocular occlusion on spatial attention. RESULTS: Patching the left eye has been shown to worsen spatial judgments in some brain-injured patients with left neglect by inhibiting the right superior colliculus further impairing contralateral leftward orienting (the Sprague Effect). CONCLUSIONS: Because more peripheral parts of the visual field increasingly project to the contralateral superior colliculus with the temporal crescent being entirely contralateral, avoiding patching of the temporal crescent was advised, and in most cases can be achieved by taping off the spectacle lens and avoiding an elastic eye patch.

Howell DR, OʼBrien MJ, Raghuram A, Shah AS, Meehan WP. Near Point of Convergence and Gait Deficits in Adolescents After Sport-Related Concussion. Clin J Sport Med 2018;28(3):262-267.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine gait characteristics of participants acutely after concussion with and without receded near point of convergence (NPC), compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sports-medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients examined after concussion (n = 33; mean ± SD = 7.2 ± 3.1 days) and a group of uninjured athletes (n = 31) completed a Postconcussion Symptom Scale, underwent NPC testing, and single/dual-task gait assessments. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Near point of convergence was defined as the patient-reported diplopia distance when a fixation target moved toward the nose. Receded NPC was defined as a distance >5 cm from the tip of the nose. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Spatiotemporal gait characteristics in single-task and dual-task conditions were evaluated with analysis of variance; correlations were calculated between NPC and gait measures. RESULTS: Eighteen of 33 (55%) patients with concussion presented with receded NPC. Those with receded NPC exhibited slower gait speed (single-task = 1.06 ± 0.14 m/s vs 1.19 ± 0.15 m/s; dual-task = 0.80 ± 0.13 m/s vs 0.94 ± 0.13 m/s; P = 0.003) and shorter stride lengths (single-task = 1.11 ± 0.10 m vs 1.24 ± 0.11 m; dual-task = 0.97 ± 0.11 m vs 1.09 ± 0.11 m; P = 0.001) than healthy controls. Near point of convergence was moderately correlated with dual-task average walking speed for the normal NPC group (ρ = -0.56; P = 0.05). Postconcussion Symptom Scale scores did not significantly differ between groups (27 ± 18 vs 28 ± 16). CONCLUSIONS: After concussion, adolescents with receded NPC exhibited significant gait-related deficits compared with healthy controls, whereas those with normal NPC did not. Vergence and gross motor system dysfunction may be associated after concussion. Gait and vergence measures may contribute useful information to postconcussion evaluations.
Huang X, Zhou G, Wu W, Duan Y, Ma G, Song J, Xiao R, Vandenberghe L, Zhang F, D'Amore PA, Lei H. Genome editing abrogates angiogenesis in vivo. Nat Commun 2017;8(1):112.Abstract
Angiogenesis, in which vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 plays an essential role, is associated with a variety of human diseases including proliferative diabetic retinopathy and wet age-related macular degeneration. Here we report that a system of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) is used to deplete VEGFR2 in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), whereby the expression of SpCas9 is driven by an endothelial-specific promoter of intercellular adhesion molecule 2. We further show that recombinant AAV serotype 1 (rAAV1) transduces ECs of pathologic vessels, and that editing of genomic VEGFR2 locus using rAAV1-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 abrogates angiogenesis in the mouse models of oxygen-induced retinopathy and laser-induced choroid neovascularization. This work establishes a strong foundation for genome editing as a strategy to treat angiogenesis-associated diseases.Abnormal angiogenesis causes many ocular diseases. Here the authors employ CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to silence VEGFR2, a major regulator of angiogenesis, in retinal endothelium and abrogate angiogenesis in the mouse models of oxygen-induced retinopathy and laser-induced choroid neovascularization.