BACKGROUND: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies (eDCRs) show patency rates between 81% and 94%. However, dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) failure and the need for revision remain a significant challenge. One of the principal challenges in revision eDCR is the need to surgically identify the correct osteotomy site and maintain long-term patency in the setting of previously instrumented and potentially scarred tissue. At the same time, the surgeon must assume that the blood supply to the commonly described anterior and posteriorly pedicled flaps has been compromised. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to describe a novel flap technique for revision eDCR. METHODS: The superior based mucosal flap is a novel technique that provides a vascularized mucosa preserving technique in revision eDCR despite previous instrumentation of the lacrimal system. This technique provides wide exposure of the revision osteotomy site while simultaneously allowing a viable mucosal flap to be replaced at the conclusion of the procedure, thereby minimizing bone exposure and cicatricial restenosis. RESULTS: The authors have utilized this technique in 13 procedures with 100% positive identification of the lacrimal sac, a 0% complication rate, and a 100% success rate after a mean follow-up of 26.93 ± 10.33 months (range 6-35 months). CONCLUSION: The eDCR using the superior pedicled mucosal flap provides excellent exposure of the maxillary bone and the lacrimal sac. This method preserves vascularity of the flap using a superiorly based pedicle which is typically inviolate during both open and endoscopic primary DCR. The mucosal flap can then be replaced, thereby minimizing bone exposure and optimizing patency.
Nanji KC, Fain B, Morley MG, Bayes J. In Response. Anesth Analg 2018;127(4):e69-e70.
Nanji KC, Fain B, Morley MG, Bayes J. In Response. Anesth Analg 2018;127(4):e67-e68.
PURPOSE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis is a rare but challenging complication of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This study was conducted to determine the source(s) of infection in a cluster of cases of keratitis after LASIK and to describe this outbreak and patients' outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective, case series, single-center study, 86 patients were included who underwent LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy between December 2011 and February 2012. Corneal scrapes from the affected eyes, samples of tap and distilled water, water from the reservoir of the distilling equipment, steamer, and autoclave cassette; antiseptic and anesthetic solutions and surgical instrument imprints were cultivated in liquid and on solid media. Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts were identified using automated systems and mycobacteria by polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) and DNA sequencing. Mycobacterial isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The cases and outcomes are described. The main outcome measure was identification of the source(s) of the mycobacterial infections. RESULTS: Eight (15 eyes) of 86 patients (172 eyes) who underwent LASIK developed infections postoperatively; no patients who underwent photorefractive keratectomy developed infections. Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from 4 eyes. The distilled water collected in the surgical facility contained the same M. chelonae strain isolated from the patients' eyes. Different gram-negative bacteria and yeasts were isolated from samples collected at the clinic but not from the patients' eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Tap water distilled locally in surgical facilities may be a source of infection after ocular surgery and its use should be avoided.
AIM: Our aim was to perform an in-depth analysis of the composition of fatty acids in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm babies. We investigated longitudinal changes in milk fatty acid profiles and the relationship between several types of fatty acids, including omega-3 and omega-6.
METHODS: Milk samples were collected at three stages of lactation from 78 mothers who delivered at less than 28 weeks of pregnancy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, from April 2013 to September 2015. Fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: A reduction in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) was observed during the lactation period. The concentrations of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid declined from medians of 0.34 to 0.22 mol% and 0.29 to 0.15 mol%, respectively, between postnatal day 7 and a postmenstrual age of 40 weeks. Strong correlations were found between the intermediates of several classes of fatty acids, including omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9.
CONCLUSION: A rapid reduction in LCPUFA content in the mother's milk during the lactation period emphasises the importance of fatty acid supplementation to infants born extremely preterm, at least during the period corresponding to the third trimester, when rapid development of the brain and adipose tissue requires high levels of LCPUFAs.
Aversion to light is common among migraineurs undergoing acute attacks. Using psychophysical assessments in patients with episodic migraine, we reported that white, blue, amber, and red lights exacerbate migraine headache in a significantly larger percentage of patients and to a greater extent compared with green light. This study aimed at determining whether these findings are phase-dependent-namely, manifested exclusively during migraine (ictally) but not in its absence (interictally), or condition-dependent-ie, expressed uniquely in migraineurs but not in healthy controls. To determine whether the color preference of migraine-type photophobia is phase- or condition-dependent, we compared the effects of each color of light in each intensity between migraineurs during and in-between attacks and healthy controls. During the ictal and interictal phases, the proportion of migraineurs reporting changes in headache severity when exposed to the different colors of light increased in accordance with elevated light intensities. During the ictal phase, white, blue, amber, and red lights exacerbated headaches in ∼80% of the patients; however, during the interictal phase, light initiated headache in only 16% to 19%. Notably, green light exacerbated headaches in 40% and triggered headaches in 3% of the patients studied during the ictal and interictal phases, respectively. With one exception (highest red light intensity), no control subject reported headache in response to the light stimuli. These findings suggest that color preference is unique to migraineurs-as it was not found in control subjects-and that it is independent of whether or not the patients are in their ictal or interictal phase.
Nowak-Sliwinska P, Alitalo K, Allen E, Anisimov A, Aplin AC, Auerbach R, Augustin HG, Bates DO, van Beijnum JR, Bender HRF, Bergers G, Bikfalvi A, Bischoff J, Böck BC, Brooks PC, Bussolino F, Cakir B, Carmeliet P, Castranova D, Cimpean AM, Cleaver O, Coukos G, Davis GE, De Palma M, Dimberg A, Dings RPM, Djonov V, Dudley AC, Dufton NP, Fendt S-M, Ferrara N, Fruttiger M, Fukumura D, Ghesquière B, Gong Y, Griffin RJ, Harris AL, Hughes CCW, Hultgren NW, Iruela-Arispe LM, Irving M, Jain RK, Kalluri R, Kalucka J, Kerbel RS, Kitajewski J, Klaassen I, Kleinmann HK, Koolwijk P, Kuczynski E, Kwak BR, Marien K, Melero-Martin JM, Munn LL, Nicosia RF, Noel A, Nurro J, Olsson A-K, Petrova TV, Pietras K, Pili R, Pollard JW, Post MJ, Quax PHA, Rabinovich GA, Raica M, Randi AM, Ribatti D, Ruegg C, Schlingemann RO, Schulte-Merker S, Smith LEH, Song JW, Stacker SA, Stalin J, Stratman AN, Van de Velde M, van Hinsbergh VWM, Vermeulen PB, Waltenberger J, Weinstein BM, Xin H, Yetkin-Arik B, Yla-Herttuala S, Yoder MC, Griffioen AW. Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays. Angiogenesis 2018;Abstract
The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The surgical approach to eyes needing a secondary intraocular lens have evolved rapidly in recent years. Here, we will focus on techniques for scleral-fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs), and will review the evidence for their safety and efficacy.
RECENT FINDINGS: Transscleral fixation of IOLs refers the placement of lens haptics within scleral tunnels to stabilize the lens in eyes that lack adequate capsular support. Various surgical techniques have been reported recently to accomplish this goal. These include the use of a trocar, microvitreoretinal blade, or hypodermic needle to create the scleral tunnels, as well as several methods for placing the haptics through the tunnels. Although long-term data is lacking, each technique has been shown to have good visual outcomes without significant side effects.
SUMMARY: Surgical approaches for the transscleral fixation of secondary IOLs provide a safe and effective technique for the management of eyes with insufficient capsular support.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the association of lifestyle and nutritional risk profiles with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in two subpopulations with differing AMD prevalence. METHODS: This case-control study (n = 1992) included 768 patients with AMD and 1224 age- and sex-matched participants without AMD with a single visit at a primary health care unit. Enrolled participants completed a validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire. A score to measure adherence to the Mediterranean diet (mediSCORE; Range, 0-9) was constructed from individual food intakes, which were further analyzed by conversion to nutrient consumption. RESULTS: Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (mediSCORE ≥6) was significantly associated with no AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73; P = 0.009). The subpopulation with lower AMD prevalence presented significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet in relation to all individual food groups that comprised the mediSCORE (P < 0.014) with the exception of cereals. Food group analysis showed significant associations between the increased consumption of vegetables (OR = 0.63; P < 0.001) and fruit and nuts (OR = 0.78; P = 0.010) with no AMD. Nutrient analysis revealed that an increased ingestion of water, fibers, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, vitamins A and C, carotene, alpha-tocopherol, folate, magnesium, iron, and zinc were significantly associated with no AMD (P < 0.0013). Finally, regular physical activity was associated with no AMD (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: High adherence to a Mediterranean diet and regular physical activity seem to be protective factors for AMD in a Portuguese population. The effect of the diet is likely driven by the increased consumption of vegetables, fruits, and nuts.
Importance: Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Environmental air pollution has been suggested as a potential contributor to elevated intraocular pressure; however, no studies have demonstrated such an association to date. Objective: To investigate the association of long-term ambient black carbon exposure with intraocular pressure in community-dwelling older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based analysis, conducted from October 18, 2017, through March 22, 2018, used data from the all-male, New England-based Normative Aging Study of the US Department of Veterans Affairs. The analysis included 419 older men with a total of 911 follow-up study visits between January 1, 2000, and December 30, 2011. Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry during the study visits. Validated spatiotemporal models were used to generate 1-year black carbon exposure levels at the addresses of the participants. Main Outcomes and Measures: An independently developed genetic score approach was used to calculate allelic risk scores for 3 pathways associated with black carbon toxicity: endothelial function, oxidative stress, and metal processing. The associations among black carbon exposure, allelic risk scores, and intraocular pressure were explored using linear mixed-effects models. Results: All 419 participants were men with a mean (SD) age of 75.3 (6.9) years. The mean (SD) 1-year black carbon exposure was 0.51 (0.18) μg/m3, and the mean (SD) intraocular pressure for the left eye was 14.1 (2.8) mm Hg and for the right eye was 14.1 (3.0) mm Hg. Of the 911 visits, 520 (57.1%) had a high endothelial function allelic risk score, 644 (70.7%) had a high metal-processing allelic risk score, and 623 (68.4%) had a high oxidative stress allelic risk score. In fully adjusted linear mixed-effects models, the association of black carbon with intraocular pressure was greater in individuals with a high oxidative stress allelic score (β = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.003-0.73) compared with individuals with a low score (β = -0.35; 95% CI, -0.86 to 0.15). Conclusions and Relevance: Ambient black carbon exposure may be a risk factor for increased intraocular pressure in individuals susceptible to other biological oxidative stressors. If additional studies confirm these results, monitoring ambient black carbon exposure and physiological oxidative stress may prevent the development and progression of intraocular pressure-related disease.
Homozygous nonsense mutations in WNT2B were identified in three individuals from two unrelated families with severe, neonatal-onset osmotic diarrhea after whole-exome sequencing was performed on trios from the two families. Intestinal biopsy samples from affected individuals were used for histology and immunofluorescence and to generate enteroids ex vivo. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated chronic inflammatory changes in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Immunofluorescence demonstrated diminished staining for OLFM4, a marker for intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The enteroids generated from WNT2B-deficient intestinal epithelium could not be expanded and did not survive passage. Addition of CHIR-99021 (a GSK3A and GSK3B inhibitor and activator of canonical WNT/β-CATENIN signaling) could not rescue WNT2B-deficient enteroids. Addition of supplemental recombinant murine WNT2B was able to perpetuate small enteroids for multiple passages but failed to expand their number. Enteroids showed a 10-fold increase in the expression of LEF1 mRNA and a 100-fold reduction in TLR4 expression, compared with controls by quantitative RT-PCR, indicating alterations in canonical WNT and microbial pattern-recognition signaling. In summary, individuals with homozygous nonsense mutations in WNT2B demonstrate severe intestinal dysregulation associated with decreased ISC number and function, likely explaining their diarrheal phenotype. WNT2B deficiency should be considered for individuals with neonatal-onset diarrhea.
Currently available treatment options for non-infectious scleritis, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies, have both efficacy and side effect limitations. Iontophoretic delivery of corticosteroids has been demonstrated to be effective for anterior uveitis and represents a potential new approach to scleritis therapy. We hypothesised that iontophoretic delivery would provide effective and precise medication delivery to the sclera, while limiting systemic exposure and side effects. This first-in-human randomised, double-masked, dose-escalating study of iontophoretic administration of dexamethasone phosphate for scleritis suggests the treatment to be well tolerated and safe (within the limitations of the 18 patients sample size). There was a suggestion of efficacy in the lowest (1.2 mA/min at 0.4 mA) dose group (corresponding to the superficial location of scleritis compared with anterior uveitis), with 5/7 eyes meeting the primary efficacy outcome within 28 days. Our results suggest iontophoretic delivery of corticosteroids is a promising potential treatment for scleritis, with favourable safety and preliminary efficacy results in this phase 1 trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01059955.
PURPOSE: To evaluate low- vs high-dose plaque brachytherapy for juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: Setting: Single institution. STUDY POPULATION: Forty-seven patients with juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. INTERVENTION: Iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy. Eyes were divided into apex low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) groups (≤ or > median apex dose 84.35 Gy). Main outcome measures were time to distant failure, local failure, death, enucleation, radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). RESULTS: Freedom from distant failure rates were 96% and 95% in apex LD and HD groups at 5 years and 77% and 95% at 10 years, respectively (P = .84). Freedom from local failure rates were 90% in the apex LD group vs 89% in the HD group at 5 and 10 years (P = .96). Apex LD and HD groups did not differ for time to death or enucleation. Five- and 10-year freedom from radiation retinopathy and optic neuropathy rates were higher in the apex LD than HD group. Loss of ≥3 BCVA lines, final BCVA 20/40 or better, and final BCVA 20/200 or worse were more favorable in the 5 mm LD compared to HD group. Visual acuity outcomes did not differ between apex LD and HD groups. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy (67.5-81 Gy at tumor apex) provides safe and effective tumor control for juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma and may be associated with reduced radiation toxicity. Larger trials are needed to determine the optimal therapeutic dose for juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma.
Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical pathologic correlation in a hemorrhagic choroidal melanoma. Observations: A 52 year old patient presented with a large choroidal mass associated with vitreous and retinal hemorrhage. The eye was enucleated and histopathology demonstrated epithelioid-type MART1 positive tumor cells consistent with choroidal melanoma. The tumor had broken through Bruch's membrane, which led to localized vascular compression with bleeding into the subretinal space, retina and vitreous. Conclusions and importance: Choroidal melanoma rarely presents with hemorrhage. Tumor rupture through Bruch's membrane may result in a tourniquet effect on the tumor vasculature leading to massive hemorrhage, as in this case. A high level of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis.
Retinal detachment (RD) is a sight-threatening complication common in many highly prevalent retinal disorders. RD rapidly leads to photoreceptor cell death beginning within 12 h following detachment. In patients with sustained RD, progressive visual decline due to photoreceptor cell death is common, leading to significant and permanent loss of vision. Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, including the retina, and function in the homeostatic maintenance of the neuro-retinal microenvironment. It is known that microglia become activated and change their morphology in retinal diseases. However, the function of activated microglia in RD is incompletely understood, in part because of the lack of microglia-specific markers. Here, using the newly identified microglia marker P2ry12 and microglial depletion strategies, we demonstrate that retinal microglia are rapidly activated in response to RD and migrate into the injured area within 24 h post-RD, where they closely associate with infiltrating macrophages, a population distinct from microglia. Once in the injured photoreceptor layer, activated microglia can be observed to contain autofluorescence within their cell bodies, suggesting they function to phagocytose injured or dying photoreceptors. Depletion of retinal microglia results in increased disease severity and inhibition of macrophage infiltration, suggesting that microglia are involved in regulating neuroinflammation in the retina. Our work identifies that microglia mediate photoreceptor survival in RD and suggests that this effect may be due to microglial regulation of immune cells and photoreceptor phagocytosis.
In visual search tasks, observers can guide their attention towards items in the visual field that share features with the target item. In this series of studies, we examined the time course of guidance toward a subset of items that have the same color as the target item. Landolt Cs were placed on 16 colored disks. Fifteen distractor Cs had gaps facing up or down while one target C had a gap facing left or right. Observers searched for the target C and reported which side contained the gap as quickly as possible. In the absence of other information, observers must search at random through the Cs. However, during the trial, the disks changed colors. Twelve disks were now of one color and four disks were of another color. Observers knew that the target C would always be in the smaller color set. The experimental question was how quickly observers could guide their attention to the smaller color set. Results indicate that observers could not make instantaneous use of color information to guide the search, even when they knew which two colors would be appearing on every trial. In each study, it took participants 200-300 ms to fully utilize the color information once presented. Control studies replicated the finding with more saturated colors and with colored C stimuli (rather than Cs on colored disks). We conclude that segregation of a display by color for the purposes of guidance takes 200-300 ms to fully develop.
In 1955, Human adenovirus type 14 (HAdV-B14p) was firstly identified in a military trainee diagnosed as acute respiratory disease (ARD) in the Netherlands. Fifty years later, a genomic variant, HAdV-B14p1, re-emerged in the U.S. and caused large and fatal ARD outbreaks. Subsequently, more and more ARD outbreaks occurred in Canada, the UK, Ireland, and China, in both military and civil settings. To generate a tool for the efficient characterization of this new genomic variant, a full-length infectious genomic clone of HAdV-B14 was successfully constructed using one-step Gibson Assembly method in this study. Firstly, the full genome of HAdV-B14p1 strain GZ01, the first HAdV-B14 isolate in China, was assembled into pBR322 plasmid by Gibson Assembly. The pBRAdV14 plasmid, generated by Gibson Assembly, was analyzed and verified by PCR, restriction enzymes digestion and the sequencing. Secondly, viruses were rescued from pBRAdV14-transfected A549 cells. The integrity of the rescued viruses was identified by restriction enzyme analysis. The complete sequence of the infectious clone was further sequenced. No mutation was found in the infectious clone during the construction when compared with the parental virus and pBR322 sequences. The direct immunofluorescence assay indicated the expression of the hexon protein. Finally, typical virions were observed; the one-step growth curves further showed that the DNA replication and viral reproduction efficiency of pBRAd14 derived viruses was similar with that of wild-type HAdV-B14 strain. The successful construction of the replication-competent infectious clone of pBRAdV14 facilitates the development of vaccine and antiviral drugs against HAdV-B14, as well as provides a novel strategy for rapid construction of infectious viral clones for other large-genome DNA viruses.
We present the first reported case of Graves' orbitopathy induced by pembrolizumab, a new FDA-approved drug used for the treatment of multiple refractory solid tumors and classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Pembrolizumab elicits T-lymphocyte proliferation; we suspect that thyroid eye disease may result in some cases.
Eyes that have experienced alkali burn to the surface are excessively susceptible to subsequent severe glaucoma and retinal ganglion cell loss, despite maximal efforts to prevent or slow down the disease. Recently, we have shown, in mice and rabbits, that such retinal damage is neither mediated by the alkali itself reaching the retina nor by intraocular pressure elevation. Rather, it is caused by the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which rapidly diffuses posteriorly, causing retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and CD45 cell activation. Herein, we investigated the involvement of peripheral blood monocytes and microglia in retinal damage. Using CX3CR1::CCR2 reporter mice and bone marrow chimeras, we show that peripheral CX3CR1CD45CD11bMHC-II monocytes infiltrate into the retina from the optic nerve at 24 hours after the burn and release further TNF-α. A secondary source of peripheral monocyte response originates from a rare population of patrolling myeloid CCR2 cells of the retina that differentiate into CX3CR1 macrophages within hours after the injury. As a result, CX3CR1CD45CD11b microglia become reactive at 7 days, causing further TNF-α release. Prompt TNF-α inhibition after corneal burn suppresses monocyte infiltration and microglia activation, and protects the retina. This study may prove relevant to other injuries of the central nervous system.