Previous studies have demonstrated that ocular injury can lead to prompt infiltration of bone-marrow-derived peripheral monocytes into the retina. However, the ability of these cells to integrate into the tissue and become microglia has not been investigated. Here we show that such peripheral monocytes that infiltrate into the retina after ocular injury engraft permanently, migrate to the three distinct microglia strata, and adopt a microglia-like morphology. In the absence of ocular injury, peripheral monocytes that repopulate the retina after depletion with colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitor remain sensitive to CSF1R inhibition and can be redepleted. Strikingly, consequent to ocular injury, the engrafted peripheral monocytes are resistant to depletion by CSF1R inhibitor and likely express low CSF1R. Moreover, these engrafted monocytes remain proinflammatory, expressing high levels of MHC-II, IL-1β, and TNF-α over the long term. The observed permanent neuroglia remodeling after injury constitutes a major immunological change that may contribute to progressive retinal degeneration. These findings may also be relevant to other degenerative conditions of the retina and the central nervous system.
An agnostic high throughput search of the genome revealed a robust association between LOXL1 genetic polymorphisms and exfoliation syndrome (XFS), a discovery that likely would not have been possible with candidate or family-based gene search strategies. While questions remain regarding how LOXL1 gene variants contribute to XFS pathogenesis, it is clear that the frequencies of disease-related alleles do not track with the varying disease burden throughout the world, prompting a search for environmental risk factors. A geo-medicine approach revealed that disease load seemed to increase as a function of the distance from the equator. The exact reason for this extraequatorial disease distribution pattern remains unclear, but a greater amount of time spent outdoors is a robust risk factor for XFS, suggesting climatic factors such as ocular solar exposure and colder ambient temperature may be involved in disease pathogenesis. Prospective studies have also implicated higher coffee consumption and lower dietary folate intake in association with incident XFS. The discovery of environmental risk factors for XFS suggests that preventive measures may help to reduce ocular morbidity from XFS.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A (MDDGA3), one of a group of diseases collectively known as congenital muscular dystrophies, is an alpha-dystroglycanopathy with characteristic brain and ocular abnormalities. We report the case of a 9-month-old boy with developmental delay whose family sought evaluation for esotropia. Subsequent examination, imaging, and testing revealed significant motor and cognitive delay, marked weakness with appendicular spasticity, and a diffuse brain malformation. In addition, the patient had poor visual acuity, nystagmus, optic nerve hypoplasia, bilateral retinal dysplasia and retinal dragging with a large vertical angle kappa, and an avascular peripheral retina. Genetic testing revealed two known heterozygous mutations in the POMGnT1 gene confirming MDDGA3. He was treated with botulinum toxin injections for his strabismus and continues to be followed, with planned laser ablation of the peripheral avascular retina.
PURPOSE: To determine if preoperative Goldmann Visual Field (GVF) testing in patients with functional dermatochalasis accurately depicts the postoperative superior visual field (SVF) outcome. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was done to compare preoperative and postoperative GVF field tests in patients undergoing upper eyelid blepharoplasty for treatment of dermatochalasis. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences institutional review board. A preoperative GVF was obtained with the eyelids in the natural position (untaped) and then again with excess skin elevated (taped). One month post-blepharoplasty, another GVF was conducted with eyelids untaped. The pre- and post GVF tests were analyzed to determine if preoperative testing accurately predicts the SVF improvement post-blepharoplasty. RESULTS: Forty-six eyelids (23 patients) who underwent blepharoplasty for dermatochalasis were included. The preoperative testing underestimated 76% (35/46) of cases by a mean of 61%; and overestimated the final outcome in 24% (11/46) of cases by mean of 23%. Overall, the preoperative GVF testing underestimated the postoperative outcome by a mean of 35%. CONCLUSION: Improvement of the SVF after a blepharoplasty is typically greater than the preoperative GVF testing predicts.
Purpose: Peripheral field loss (PFL) due to retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, or glaucoma often results in a highly constricted residual central field, which makes it difficult for patients to avoid collision with approaching pedestrians. We developed a virtual environment to evaluate the ability of patients to detect pedestrians and judge potential collisions. We validated the system with both PFL patients and normally sighted subjects with simulated PFL. We also tested whether properly placed high-power prisms may improve pedestrian detection. Methods: A virtual park-like open space was rendered using a driving simulator (configured for walking speeds), and pedestrians in testing scenarios appeared within and outside the residual central field. Nine normally sighted subjects and eight PFL patients performed the pedestrian detection and collision judgment tasks. The performance of the subjects with simulated PFL was further evaluated with field of view expanding prisms. Results: The virtual system for testing pedestrian detection and collision judgment was validated. The performance of PFL patients and normally sighted subjects with simulated PFL were similar. The prisms for simulated PFL improved detection rates, reduced detection response times, and supported reasonable collision judgments in the prism-expanded field; detections and collision judgments in the residual central field were not influenced negatively by the prisms. Conclusions: The scenarios in a virtual environment are suitable for evaluating PFL and the impact of field of view expanding devices. Translational Relevance: This study validated an objective means to evaluate field expansion devices in reproducible near-real-life settings.
PURPOSE: To examine the efficacy and complications of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in subjects with primary angle closure (PAC). METHODS: Literature searches in the PubMed and Cochrane databases were last conducted in August 2017 and yielded 300 unique citations. Of these, 36 met the inclusion criteria and were rated according to the strength of evidence; 6 articles were rated level I, 11 articles were rated level II, and 19 articles were rated level III. RESULTS: Reported outcomes were change in angle width, effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) control, disease progression, and complications. Most of the studies (29/36, 81%) included only Asian subjects. Angle width (measured by gonioscopy, ultrasound biomicroscopy, and anterior segment OCT) increased after LPI in all stages of angle closure. Gonioscopically defined persistent angle closure after LPI was reported in 2% to 57% of eyes across the disease spectrum. Baseline factors associated with persistent angle closure included narrower angle and parameters representing nonpupillary block mechanisms of angle closure, such as a thick iris, an anteriorly positioned ciliary body, or a greater lens vault. After LPI, further treatment to control IOP was reported in 0%-8% of PAC suspect (PACS), 42% to 67% of PAC, 21% to 47% of acute PAC (APAC), and 83%-100% of PAC glaucoma (PACG) eyes. Progression to PACG ranged from 0% to 0.3% per year in PACS and 0% to 4% per year in PAC. Complications after LPI included IOP spike (8-17 mmHg increase from baseline in 6%-10%), dysphotopsia (2%-11%), anterior chamber bleeding (30%-41%), and cataract progression (23%-39%). CONCLUSIONS: Laser peripheral iridotomy increases angle width in all stages of primary angle closure and has a good safety profile. Most PACS eyes do not receive further intervention, whereas many PAC and APAC eyes, and most PACG eyes, receive further treatment. Progression to PACG is uncommon in PACS and PAC. There are limited data on the comparative efficacy of LPI versus other treatments for the various stages of angle closure; 1 randomized controlled trial each demonstrated superiority of cataract surgery over LPI in APAC and of clear lens extraction over LPI in PACG or PAC with IOP above 30 mmHg.
Importance: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a specific learning disability of neurobiological origin whose core cognitive deficit is widely believed to involve language (phonological) processing. Although reading is also a visual task, the potential role of vision in DD has been controversial, and little is known about the integrity of visual function in individuals with DD. Objective: To assess the frequency of visual deficits (specifically vergence, accommodation, and ocular motor tracking) in children with DD compared with a control group of typically developing readers. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, uncontrolled observational study was conducted from May 28 to October 17, 2016, in an outpatient ophthalmology ambulatory clinic among 29 children with DD and 33 typically developing (TD) children. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were frequencies of deficits in vergence (amplitude, fusional ranges, and facility), accommodation (amplitude, facility, and accuracy), and ocular motor tracking (Developmental Eye Movement test and Visagraph eye tracker). Results: Among the children with DD (10 girls and 19 boys; mean [SD] age, 10.3 [1.2] years) and the TD group (21 girls and 12 boys; mean [SD] age, 9.4 [1.4] years), accommodation deficits were more frequent in the DD group than the TD group (16 [55%] vs 3 [9%]; difference = 46%; 95% CI, 25%-67%; P < .001). For ocular motor tracking, 18 children in the DD group (62%) had scores in the impaired range (in the Developmental Eye Movement test, Visagraph, or both) vs 5 children in the TD group (15%) (difference, 47%; 95% CI, 25%-69%; P < .001). Vergence deficits occurred in 10 children in the DD group (34%) and 5 children in the TD group (15%) (difference, 19%; 95% CI, -2.2% to 41%; P = .08). In all, 23 children in the DD group (79%) and 11 children in the TD group (33%) had deficits in 1 or more domain of visual function (difference, 46%; 95% CI, 23%-69%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that deficits in visual function are far more prevalent in school-aged children with DD than in TD readers, but the possible cause and clinical relevance of these deficits are uncertain. Further study is needed to determine the extent to which treating these deficits can improve visual symptoms and/or reading parameters.
PURPOSE: To characterize the lifestyle and nutritional risk profile associated with the Mediterranean diet in a Portuguese population with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Nested case-control study (n = 883) within the Coimbra Eye Study, including 434 subjects with AMD and 449 age- and sex-matched subjects without AMD. All enrolled subjects underwent a full risk assessment, including lifestyle-related risk factors and a thorough food frequency questionnaire. This allowed us to build an adherence score to the Mediterranean diet (mediSCORE, range 0-9) constructed from individual food intakes. Food intake was also further analysed by conversion to micronutrient consumption. RESULTS: Our results suggest that physical activity has a protective role in AMD [p = 0.018 after multivariate adjustment, OR: 0.69 (0.51-0.93)]. High (mediSCORE ≥6) was also found to be protective [p = 0.041, OR: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.38-0.97)]. Food group analysis unveiled a specific protective role for increased fruits consumption (p = 0.029). Finally, micronutrient analysis revealed a protective role associated with increased consumption of caffeine, fibres, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High mediSCORE appears to confer protection against the development of AMD in a Mediterranean population. This effect is driven by increased consumption of fruits and some antioxidant micronutrients, which emerged as statistically significant protective factors. Further studies are required to establish dietary recommendations with clinical application.
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf) is a potent immunosuppressant, which inhibits cytokine synthesis and blocks T-cell development. Optic neuropathy from tacrolimus toxicity is very uncommon but, when present, can result in severe vision loss.
METHODS: Case series and review of the literature.
RESULTS: We present 3 patients with tacrolimus optic neuropathy after bone marrow transplantation complicated by graft-vs-host disease and demonstrate the differing clinical and radiologic presentation of this presumed toxic optic neuropathy.
CONCLUSIONS: Tacrolimus optic neuropathy can manifest in a multitude of clinical presentations and can have devastating visual consequences.
The Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare clinical condition characterized by painful opthalmoparesis associated with idiopathic granulomatous inflammation of the orbital apex and cavernous sinus. Historically, this condition was thought to result from arteritic changes in the internal carotid artery and cavernous sinus. Modern digital angiographic techniques were unavailable when THS was initially described, and few reports exist on its high-resolution angiographic findings. Painful ophthalmoparesis, especially of the oculomotor nerve, warrants vascular imaging because of the concern for an underlying aneurysm. Here, we describe angiographic findings of THS which may be useful for clinicians when encountering patients presenting with painful ophthalmoplegia.
Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre with ophthalmic findings has been previously described in the literature on numerous occasions. A 57-year-old woman presented with focal trichiasis secondary to tarsal thinning, adjacent to a linear brow and forehead deformity consistent with linear scleroderma en coup de sabre. Cases of linear scleroderma en coup de sabre involving the eyelids have been reported, most often with madarosis, ptosis, or skin atrophy; however, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of linear scleroderma associated with trichiasis and involvement of the deeper eyelid tissues, particularly the tarsus.
PURPOSE: To describe a phenomenon, depression in attempted abduction, not previously recognized as a feature of Duane syndrome (DS). DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case series. METHODS: Setting: Institutional practice. PATIENT POPULATION: Patients diagnosed with esotropic DS at Boston Children's Hospital from 2002 to 2015. Patients with clinical photographs documenting horizontal gaze were included. Patients with prior strabismus surgery were excluded. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Patients were classified into 3 groups according to their vertical eye position in attempted abduction: midline group, depression group, and elevation group. Group assignment was performed by 3 independent ophthalmologists. Baseline characteristics, eye movement, and ocular deviation were compared among the 3 groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Horizontal and vertical deviation on attempted abduction in the DS eye. RESULTS: Depression in attempted abduction was present in 74 of 113 unilateral patients (66%) and 18 of 42 gradable eyes (43%) of bilateral patients. Abduction limitation was significantly less severe in the midline group (median: -3.0) than in the depression group (median: -4.0) (P = .01). Vertical deviation in attempted abduction was more severe in the elevation group than in the depression group (P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Depression of the eye in attempted abduction has not been widely described, yet it is present in the majority of DS patients. It is more likely to occur with more severe abduction limitation. This phenomenon is likely another form of dysinnervation in DS, the result either of anomalous vertical rectus muscle activation or asymmetric lateral rectus muscle innervation during attempted abduction. Awareness of vertical deviation in attempted abduction may facilitate surgical planning in affected patients.
The spatial representation of numerical and temporal information is thought to be rooted in our multisensory experiences. Accordingly, we may expect visual or auditory deprivation to affect the way we represent numerical magnitude and time spatially. Here, we systematically review recent findings on how blind and deaf individuals represent abstract concepts such as magnitude and time (e.g., past/future, serial order of events) in a spatial format. Interestingly, available evidence suggests that sensory deprivation does not prevent the spatial "re-mapping" of abstract information, but differences compared to normally sighted and hearing individuals may emerge depending on the specific dimension considered (i.e., numerical magnitude, time as past/future, serial order). Herein we discuss how the study of sensory deprived populations may shed light on the specific, and possibly distinct, mechanisms subserving the spatial representation of these concepts. Furthermore, we pinpoint unresolved issues that need to be addressed by future studies to grasp a full understanding of the spatial representation of abstract information associated with visual and auditory deprivation.
Blink is a complex phenomenon that is profoundly affected by diverse endogenous and exogenous stimuli. It has been studied in the context of cognition, emotional, and psychological states, as an indicator of fatigue and sleepiness, particularly in the automobile and transportation industry, in visual tasking, and finally, as it relates to tear film stability and ocular surface health. The fact that it is highly variable and has input from so many sources makes it very difficult to study. In the present review, the behavior of blink in many of these systems is discussed, ultimately returning in each instance to a discussion of how these factors affect blink in the context of dry eyes. Blink is important to ocular surface health and to an individual's optimal functioning and quality of life. Disturbances in blink, as cause or effect, result in a breakdown of tear film stability, optical clarity, and visual function.
Glycosylation is a major form of enzymatic modification of organic molecules responsible for multiple biological processes in an organism. The biosynthesis of glycans is controlled by a series of glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and glycan-modifying enzymes that collectively assemble and process monosaccharide moieties into a diverse array of structures. Many studies have provided insight into various pathways of glycosylation at the ocular surface, such as those related to the biosynthesis of mucin-type -glycans and -glycans on proteins, but many others still remain largely unknown. This review provides an overview of the different classes of glycans described at the ocular surface focusing on their biosynthetic pathways and biological relevance. A precise understanding of these pathways under physiological and pathological conditions could help identify biomarkers and novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
PURPOSE: Vision loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a profound effect on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). The pupose of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with VRQoL using the Rasch- calibrated NEI VFQ-25 scales in bilateral advanced AMD patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients (mean age 83.2 years) with bilateral advanced AMD. Clinical assessment included age, gender, type of AMD, high contrast visual acuity (VA), history of medical conditions, contrast sensitivity (CS), central visual field loss, report of Charles Bonnet Syndrome, current treatment for AMD and Rasch-calibrated NEI VFQ-25 visual function and socioemotional function scales. The NEI VFQ visual function scale includes items of general vision, peripheral vision, distance vision and near vision-related activity while the socioemotional function scale includes items of vision related-social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, and mental health. Multiple regression analysis (structural regression model) was performed using fixed item parameters obtained from the one-parameter item response theory model. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that high contrast VA and CS were two factors influencing VRQoL visual function scale (β = -0.25, 95% CI-0.37 to -0.12, p<0.001 and β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.46, p<0.001) and socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.2, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.03, p = 0.023, and β = 0.3, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.43, p = 0.001). Central visual field loss was not assoicated with either VRQoL visual or socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.08, 95% CI-0.28 to 0.12,p = 0.44 and β = -0.09, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.16, p = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with vision impairment secondary to bilateral advanced AMD, high contrast VA and CS are two important factors affecting VRQoL.