A 36-year-old male, soft contact lens wearer was referred by his primary ophthalmologist for corneal ulcer of the right eye (OD), which was persistent despite topical fluoroquinolone therapy for 1 month. A ring-shaped infiltrate typically seen in Acanthamoeba infection was noted, and topical therapy with chlorhexidine and polyhexamethylene biguanide was initiated. However, the patient's condition deteriorated over the next several weeks; thus, diagnostic and therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed. The postoperative immunohistochemical analysis suggested a diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. The patient ultimately improved after initiation of oral valacyclovir following penetrating keratoplasty. We report a case of a commonly encountered clinical entity, HSV keratitis, with an atypical clinical presentation, masquerading as Acanthamoeba keratitis.
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that the brain can reorganize dramatically following sensory loss. Although the existence of such neuroplastic crossmodal changes is not in doubt, the functional significance of these changes remains unclear. The dominant belief is that reorganization is compensatory. However, results thus far do not unequivocally indicate that sensory deprivation results in markedly enhanced abilities in other senses. Here, we consider alternative reasons besides sensory compensation that might drive the brain to reorganize after sensory loss. One such possibility is that the cortex reorganizes not to confer functional benefits, but to avoid undesirable physiological consequences of sensory deafferentation. Empirical assessment of the validity of this and other possibilities defines a rich program for future research.
We report a unique case of optic nerve lymphoma after completion of chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The uncommon nature of presentation, our therapeutic dilemma and the further course of treatment are reported. In cases with extremely poor prognosis, unnecessary treatment puts additional strain both financially and psychologically on the patients and their family. Therapeutic focus should be on hospice care and family counselling. The decision to not treat is a crucial component of cancer management; however, the ethics of this decision are yet to be suitably addressed by the literature.
Importance: To facilitate drug and device development for neonates, the International Neonatal Consortium brings together key stakeholders, including pharmaceutical companies, practitioners, regulators, funding agencies, scientists, and families, to address the need for objective, standardized clinical trial outcome measurements to fulfill regulatory requirements. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that affects preterm neonates. The current International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity does not take into account all of the characteristics of ROP and does not adequately discriminate small changes in disease after treatment. These factors are critical for evaluating outcomes in clinical trials. Observations: There is need for an updated ROP acute disease activity and structure scale as well as end-stage structure and ophthalmologic outcome measures designed for use at different ages. The scale and measures, based on current diagnostic methods and treatments, could be used as a guideline for clinical intervention trials. The scale is intended to be validated against retrospective data and revised for use in future trials. An iterative revision process can be accomplished if new measures are added to clinical trials and evaluated at the end of each trial for prognostic value. The new measures would then be incorporated into a new version of the activity scale and the outcome measures revised. Conclusions and Relevance: An ROP activity scale and outcome measures to obtain the most robust and discriminatory data for clinical trials are needed. The scales should be dynamic and modified as knowledge and imaging modalities improve and then validated using data from well-documented clinical trials. This approach is relevant to improving clinical trial data quality.
Importance: Understanding the role of vitamin D-which regulates inflammatory responses-in noninfectious uveitis (an inflammatory disease) may provide insight into treatment and prevention of this disease.
Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between hypovitaminosis D and incident noninfectious uveitis.
Design, Setting, and Participants: In a retrospective case-control study, data from a health care claims database containing deidentified medical claims from a large private insurer were used to identify 558 adults enrolled from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2016, who received a diagnosis of noninfectious uveitis from an eye care clinician (with receipt of a confirmatory diagnosis within 120 days of the initial diagnosis) and who had a vitamin D level measured within 1 year before the first diagnosis. Exclusion criteria included having systemic disease or receiving medication known to lower vitamin D levels, having undergone intraocular surgery, and having infectious uveitis. Each case patient was matched with 5 controls on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and index date (2790 controls). The controls had vitamin D level determined either within 1 year before or within 6 months after receiving an eye examination with normal findings. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between hypovitaminosis D and noninfectious uveitis.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary, prespecified analysis assessed the association of noninfectious uveitis with hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D level ≤20 ng/mL).
Results: The 558 cases and 2790 controls were matched on age, and each group had a mean (SD) age of 58.9 (14.7) years. Among the cohort of 3348 patients, 2526 (75.4%) were female, and the racial/ethnic distribution in the matched samples was 2022 (60.4%) white, 552 (16.5%) black, 402 (12.0%) Hispanic, 162 (4.8%) Asian, and 210 (6.3%) unknown. Patients with normal vitamin D levels had 21% lower odds of having noninfectious uveitis than patients with low vitamin D levels (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62-0.99; P = .04). In a race-stratified analysis, an association between vitamin D and uveitis was found in black patients (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.80; P = .004) and was qualitatively similar but nonsignificant in white patients (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.62-1.21; P = .40) and Hispanic patients (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.33-1.10; P = .10).
Conclusions and Relevance: This and other reports have found an association between hypovitaminosis D and noninfectious uveitis. However, these studies cannot establish a causal relationship. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate whether hypovitaminosis D causes increased risk of uveitis and the role of vitamin D supplementation in prevention and treatment of uveitis.
Purpose: To evaluate the collective user experience with an image-guided femtosecond laser (FSL) for cataract surgery in a high-volume, multi-surgeon, ambulatory surgical center. Subjects and methods: A detailed online survey was distributed to all surgeons in a single ambulatory surgical center who had performed cataract surgery using a FSL since its acquisition in December 2012. Information collected included the number of cases performed, typical surgical techniques and parameters, satisfaction with individual features of the laser (rated on a scale from 1=completely unsatisfied to 10=extremely satisfied) and commentary on ease of use and suggested improvements. Results: Seventeen of 30 surgeons (56.7%) completed the survey, representing a case volume of 1,967 eyes. Fourteen surgeons (82.4%) felt they required ≤10 cases with the FSL to operate with the same safety and control as in standard phacoemulsification surgery. Satisfaction was highest for capsulotomies, lens fragmentation, lens softening, arcuate incisions and the graphic user interface (mean scores 9.4, 8.7, 8.7, 7.2 and 8.9, respectively). Preferred capsulotomy diameter was 4.8-5.2 mm (64.7% of respondents). About half (52.9%) of respondents centered the capsulotomy on the pupil and the other 47.1% centered the capsulotomy using optical coherence tomography. Most respondents (81.3%) preferred transepithelial arcuate incisions compared to intrastromal incisions. Satisfaction was lowest with FSL-created, main, clear corneal incisions and paracenteses (mean scores 4.4 and 4.2, respectively). Conclusion: Laser-assisted cataract surgery has a short learning curve and a high rate of user satisfaction. Further software and hardware development is warranted to improve user satisfaction with peripheral and clear corneal incisions.
PURPOSE: To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease associated with hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 43-year-old Caucasian male presented with a three-week history of blurry vision, pain, photophobia, and redness in both eyes. Three days prior to the onset of symptoms, he had received the hepatitis B virus vaccine. Clinical evaluation revealed multifocal placoid lesions in the posterior pole, choroidal thickening, and serous macular detachment. Targeted laboratory investigations were negative for infectious or autoimmune markers. After treatment with oral corticosteroids, the patient had resolution of symptoms with near-total recovery of visual function. The patient later reported systemic findings of hearing loss, tinnitus, and integumentary changes. A diagnosis of VKH disease was made and inflammation was managed with oral corticosteroids followed by methotrexate for long-term disease control. CONCLUSIONS: VKH disease is an inflammatory condition primarily affecting the choroid, retinal pigment epithelium, and outer retina. The underlying etiology is unclear, but it can be associated with a viral prodrome suggesting an infectious trigger in a genetically susceptible individual. Our case suggests that hepatitis B vaccination may trigger a similar inflammatory response.
An infant presented with right upper eyelid ptosis and was subsequently diagnosed with acquired Horner syndrome. Further evaluation revealed a right-sided cervicothoracic lymphatic malformation. At 13 weeks of age, the child underwent percutaneous intracystic sclerotherapy with a mixture of sodium tetradecyl sulphate and ethanol. Twenty-one weeks after initial treatment, ophthalmic examination showed complete resolution of the blepharoptosis and pupillary miosis. Percutaneous sclerotherapy not only effectively treated the space-occupying lymphatic malformation but also reversed the Horner syndrome that was presumably induced by neural tension (more likely) or compression.
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical safety, tolerability, and efficacy of topically administered MGV354, a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activator, in patients with ocular hypertension (OH) or glaucoma. DESIGN: Double-masked, randomized, and vehicle-controlled study. METHODS: Parts 1 and 2 evaluated safety and tolerability to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of once-daily MGV354 in 32 healthy volunteers (Part 1) and 16 patients with OH or glaucoma (Part 2) at a single clinical site. Part 3 was a multisite trial that evaluated intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of the MTD administered nightly for 1 week in 50 patients with minimum IOP of 24 mm Hg at 8 AM, with a main outcome measure of mean diurnal IOP at day 8 compared to baseline (ClinicalTrials.govNCT02743780). RESULTS: There was no difference in favor of MGV354 for IOP lowering; change from baseline to day 8 in mean diurnal IOP was -0.6 mm Hg for MGV354-treated patients and -1.1 mm Hg for vehicle-treated patients in Part 3, with a confidence interval of -0.7 to 1.7. The most common adverse events reported after MGV354 administration were conjunctival and ocular hyperemia. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, MGV354 0.1% demonstrated no statistically significant effect compared to vehicle in lowering IOP based on the study's main outcome measure. MGV354 produced ocular hyperemia consistent with its pharmacology.
Importance: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are a novel treatment option in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Data on dosing, efficacy, and safety are insufficient. Objective: To investigate lower doses of anti-VEGF therapy with ranibizumab, a substance with a significantly shorter systemic half-life than the standard treatment, bevacizumab. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, investigator-initiated trial at 9 academic medical centers in Germany compared ranibizumab doses of 0.12 mg vs 0.20 mg in infants with bilateral aggressive posterior ROP; ROP stage 1 with plus disease, 2 with plus disease, or 3 with or without plus disease in zone I; or ROP stage 3 with plus disease in posterior zone II. Patients were recruited between September 2014 and August 2016. Twenty infants were screened and 19 were randomized. Interventions: All infants received 1 baseline ranibizumab injection per eye. Reinjections were allowed in case of ROP recurrence after at least 28 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the number of infants who did not require rescue therapy at 24 weeks. Key secondary end points included time-to-event analyses, progression of physiologic vascularization, and plasma VEGF levels. Stages of ROP were photodocumented and reviewed by an expert committee. Results: Nineteen infants with ROP were enrolled (9 [47.4%] female; median [range] postmenstrual age at first treatment, 36.4 [34.7-39.7] weeks), 3 of whom died during the study (1 in the 0.12-mg group and 2 in the 0.20-mg group). Of the surviving infants, 8 (88.9%) (17 eyes [94.4%]) in the 0.12-mg group and 6 (85.7%) (13 eyes [92.9%]) in the 0.20-mg group did not require rescue therapy. Both ranibizumab doses were equally successful in controlling acute ROP (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel analysis; odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.26-13.49; P = .53). Physiologic intraretinal vascularization was superior in the 0.12-mg group. The VEGF plasma levels were not systematically altered in either group. Conclusions and Relevance: This pilot study demonstrates that ranibizumab is effective in controlling acute ROP and that 24% of the standard adult dose (0.12 mg) appears equally effective as 40% (0.20 mg). Superior vascularization of the peripheral retina with 0.12 mg of ranibizumab indicates that the lower dose may be favorable. Unchanged plasma VEGF levels point toward a limited systemic drug exposure after ranibizumab. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02134457 and clinicaltrialsregister.eu Identifier: 2013-002539-13.
Ocular regenerative therapies are on track to revolutionize treatment of numerous blinding disorders, including corneal disease, cataract, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and age-related macular degeneration. A variety of transplantable products, delivered as cell suspensions or as preformed 3D structures combining cells and natural or artificial substrates, are in the pipeline. Here we review the status of clinical and preclinical studies for stem cell-based repair, covering key eye tissues from front to back, from cornea to retina, and including bioengineering approaches that advance cell product manufacturing. While recognizing the challenges, we look forward to a deep portfolio of sight-restoring, stem cell-based medicine. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
BACKGROUND: Since the first evidence suggesting existence of stem-like cancer cells, the process of cells reprogramming to the stem cell state remains as an attractive tool for cancer stemness research. Current knowledge in the field of cancer stemness, indicates that the microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of cell behavior. With regard to this, we investigated the changes of genome wide gene expression in reprogrammed human colon normal epithelial CRL-1831 and colon carcinoma DLD1 cell lines grown under more physiologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture microenvironment compared to 2D monolayer. METHODS: Whole genome gene expression changes were evaluated in both cell lines cultured under 3D conditions over a 2D monolayer by gene expression microarray analysis. To evaluate the biological significance of gene expression changes, we performed pathway enrichment analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Gene network analysis was used to study relationships between differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in functional categories by the GeneMANIA Cytoscape toolkit. RESULTS: In total, we identified 3228 and 2654 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for colon normal and cancer reprogrammed cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of 1097 genes was commonly regulated in both cell lines. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that in total 129 and 101 pathways for iPSC-CRL-1831 and for CSC-DLD1, respectively, were enriched. Next, we grouped these pathways into three functional categories: cancer transformation/metastasis, cell interaction, and stemness. β-catenin (CTNNB1) was confirmed as a hub gene of all three functional categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our present findings suggest common pathways between reprogrammed human colon normal epithelium (iPSC-CRL-1831) and adenocarcinoma (CSC-DLD1) cells grown under 3D microenvironment. In addition, we demonstrated that pathways important for cancer transformation and tumor metastatic activity are altered both in normal and cancer stem-like cells during the transfer from 2D to 3D culture conditions. Thus, we indicate the potential of cell culture models enriched in normal and cancer stem-like cells for the identification of new therapeutic targets in cancer treatment.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the multicenter, prospective natural history study of Stargardt disease type 4. METHODS: Fifteen eligible patients aged 6 years and older at baseline, harboring disease-causing variants in the PROM1 gene, and with specified ocular lesions were enrolled. They were examined at baseline using a standard protocol, with 6 monthly follow-up visits for a 2-year period including best-corrected ETDRS visual acuity, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), mesopic and scotopic microperimetry (MP). Areas of definitely decreased FAF (DDAF) and questionably decreased FAF were outlined and quantified on FAF images. RESULTS: Amongst the 15 patients (29 eyes) that were enrolled at 5 centers in the USA and Europe, 10 eyes (34.5%) had areas of DDAF with an average lesion area of 3.2 ± 3.5 mm2 (range 0.36-10.39 mm2) at baseline. The mean retinal sensitivity of the posterior pole derived from mesopic MP was 8.8 ± 5.8 dB. CONCLUSIONS: Data on disease progression in PROM1-related retinopathy from this study will contribute to the characterization of the natural history of disease and the exploration of the utility of several modalities to track progression and therefore to potentially be used in future interventional clinical trials.
The present study was designed to identify genomic loci modulating the susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strain set. IOP was elevated by injecting magnetic microspheres into the anterior chamber and blocking the trabecular meshwork using a handheld magnet to impede drainage. The IOP was then measured over the next 21 days. Only animals with IOP greater than 25 mmHg for two consecutive days or an IOP above 30 mmHg on a single day after microsphere-injection were used in this study. On day 21, mice were sacrificed and the optic nerve was processed for histology. Axons were counted for both the injected and the control eye in 49 BXD strains, totaling 181 normal counts and 191 counts associated with elevated IOP. The axon loss for each strain was calculated and the data were entered into genenetwork.org. The average number of normal axons in the optic nerve across all strains was 54,788 ± 16% (SD), which dropped to 49,545 ± 20% in animals with artificially elevated IOP. Interval mapping demonstrated a relatively similar genome-wide map for both conditions with a suggestive Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) on proximal Chromosome 3. When the relative axon loss was used to generate a genome-wide interval map, we identified one significant QTL (p < 0.05) on Chromosome 18 between 53.6 and 57 Mb. Within this region, the best candidate gene for modulating axon loss was Aldh7a1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated ALDH7A1 expression in mouse RGCs. ALDH7A1 variants were not significantly associated with glaucoma in the NEIGHBORHOOD GWAS dataset, but this enzyme was identified as part of the butanoate pathway previously associated with glaucoma risk. Our results suggest that genomic background influences susceptibility to RGC degeneration and death in an inducible glaucoma model.
Astrocytes make up approximately 30% of all the cells in the mammalian central nervous system. They are not passive, as once thought, but are integral to brain physiology and perform many functions that are important for normal neuronal development and metabolism, synapse formation, synaptic transmission, and in repair following injury/disease. Astrocytes also communicate with neurons, blood vessels, and other types of glial cells. Astrocytes within the optic nerve head region play a key role in glaucomatous axon degeneration. In this chapter, we describe ways in which astrocytes of the optic nerve head can be visualized, beginning with basic immunohistochemical staining methods, to single-cell dye injections and then to transgenic animals. We will also discuss the pros and cons of each method. Many of the methods were initially developed to visualize brain astrocytes; in some cases, the method has translated well to astrocytes of the optic nerve, and in others, it remains unclear.
The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body, consuming high levels of oxygen and nutrients. A well-organized ocular vascular system adapts to meet the metabolic requirements of the retina to ensure visual function. Pathological conditions affect growth of the blood vessels in the eye. Understanding the neuronal biological processes that govern retinal vascular development is of interest for translational researchers and clinicians to develop preventive and interventional therapeutics for vascular eye diseases that address early drivers of abnormal vascular growth. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the cellular and molecular processes governing both physiological and pathological retinal vascular development, which is dependent on the interaction among retinal cell populations, including neurons, glia, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells. We also review animal models currently used for studying retinal vascular development.