Sung YJ, Winkler TW, de Las Fuentes L, Bentley AR, Brown MR, Kraja AT, Schwander K, Ntalla I, Guo X, Franceschini N, Lu Y, Cheng C-Y, Sim X, Vojinovic D, Marten J, Musani SK, Li C, Feitosa MF, Kilpeläinen TO, Richard MA, Noordam R, Aslibekyan S, Aschard H, Bartz TM, Dorajoo R, Liu Y, Manning AK, Rankinen T, Smith AV, Tajuddin SM, Tayo BO, Warren HR, Zhao W, Zhou Y, Matoba N, Sofer T, Alver M, Amini M, Boissel M, Chai JF, Chen X, Divers J, Gandin I, Gao C, Giulianini F, Goel A, Harris SE, Hartwig FP, Horimoto ARVR, Hsu F-C, Jackson AU, Kähönen M, Kasturiratne A, Kühnel B, Leander K, Lee W-J, Lin K-H, Luan J'an, McKenzie CA, Meian H, Nelson CP, Rauramaa R, Schupf N, Scott RA, Sheu WHH, Stančáková A, Takeuchi F, van der Most PJ, Varga TV, Wang H, Wang Y, Ware EB, Weiss S, Wen W, Yanek LR, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Afaq S, Alfred T, Amin N, Arking D, Aung T, Barr GR, Bielak LF, Boerwinkle E, Bottinger EP, Braund PS, Brody JA, Broeckel U, Cabrera CP, Cade B, Caizheng Y, Campbell A, Canouil M, Chakravarti A, Chakravarti A, Chauhan G, Christensen K, Cocca M, Cocca M, Collins FS, Connell JM, de Mutsert R, de Silva JH, Debette S, Dörr M, Duan Q, Eaton CB, Ehret G, Evangelou E, Faul JD, Fisher VA, Forouhi NG, Franco OH, Friedlander Y, Gao H, Gao H, Gigante B, Graff M, Gu CC, Gu D, Gupta P, Hagenaars SP, Harris TB, He J, Heikkinen S, Heng C-K, Hirata M, Hofman A, Howard BV, Hunt S, Irvin MR, Jia Y, Joehanes R, Justice AE, Katsuya T, Kaufman J, Kerrison ND, Khor CC, Koh W-P, Koistinen HA, Komulainen P, Kooperberg C, Krieger JE, Kubo M, Kuusisto J, Langefeld CD, Langenberg C, Launer LJ, Lehne B, Lewis CE, Li Y, Li Y, Lim SH, Lin S, Liu C-T, Liu J, Liu J, Liu K, Liu Y, Loh M, Lohman KK, Long J, Louie T, Mägi R, Mahajan A, Meitinger T, Metspalu A, Milani L, Momozawa Y, Morris AP, Mosley TH, Munson P, Murray AD, Nalls MA, Nasri U, Norris JM, North K, Ogunniyi A, Padmanabhan S, Palmas WR, Palmer ND, Pankow JS, Pedersen NL, Peters A, Peyser PA, Polasek O, Raitakari OT, Renström F, Rice TK, Ridker PM, Robino A, Robinson JG, Rose LM, Rudan I, Sabanayagam C, Salako BL, Sandow K, Schmidt CO, Schreiner PJ, Scott WR, Seshadri S, Sever P, Sitlani CM, Smith JA, Snieder H, Starr JM, Strauch K, Tang H, Taylor KD, Teo YY, Tham YC, Uitterlinden AG, Waldenberger M, Wang L, Wang YX, Wei WB, Williams C, Wilson G, Wojczynski MK, Yao J, Yuan J-M, Zonderman AB, Becker DM, Boehnke M, Bowden DW, Chambers JC, Chen Y-DI, de Faire U, Deary IJ, Esko T, Farrall M, Forrester T, Franks PW, Freedman BI, Froguel P, Gasparini P, Gieger C, Horta BL, Hung Y-J, Jonas JB, Kato N, Kooner JS, Laakso M, Lehtimäki T, Liang K-W, Magnusson PKE, Newman AB, Oldehinkel AJ, Pereira AC, Redline S, Rettig R, Samani NJ, Scott J, Shu X-O, van der Harst P, Wagenknecht LE, Wareham NJ, Watkins H, Weir DR, Wickremasinghe AR, Wu T, Zheng W, Kamatani Y, Laurie CC, Bouchard C, Cooper RS, Evans MK, Gudnason V, Kardia SLR, Kritchevsky SB, Levy D, O'Connell JR, Psaty BM, van Dam RM, Sims M, Arnett DK, Mook-Kanamori DO, Kelly TN, Fox ER, Hayward C, Fornage M, Rotimi CN, Province MA, van Duijn CM, Tai SE, Wong TY, Loos RJF, Reiner AP, Rotter JI, Zhu X, Bierut LJ, Gauderman JW, Caulfield MJ, Elliott P, Rice K, Munroe PB, Morrison AC, Cupples AL, Rao DC, Chasman DI. A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure. Am J Hum Genet 2018;102(3):375-400.Abstract
Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries. We identified 15 loci that were genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10) in stage 1 and formally replicated in stage 2. A combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analysis identified 66 additional genome-wide significant loci (13, 35, and 18 loci in European, African, and trans-ancestry, respectively). A total of 56 known BP loci were also identified by our results (p < 5 × 10). Of the newly identified loci, ten showed significant interaction with smoking status, but none of them were replicated in stage 2. Several loci were identified in African ancestry, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations. The identified loci show strong evidence for regulatory features and support shared pathophysiology with cardiometabolic and addiction traits. They also highlight a role in BP regulation for biological candidates such as modulators of vascular structure and function (CDKN1B, BCAR1-CFDP1, PXDN, EEA1), ciliopathies (SDCCAG8, RPGRIP1L), telomere maintenance (TNKS, PINX1, AKTIP), and central dopaminergic signaling (MSRA, EBF2).
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major complication of preterm birth and has been associated with later visual and nonvisual impairments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate relationships between any stage of ROP, brain volumes, and developmental outcomes. METHODS: This study included 52 very preterm infants (gestational age [mean ± SD]: 26.4 ± 1.9 weeks). Total brain, gray matter, unmyelinated white matter (UWMV), and cerebellar volumes were estimated in 51 out of 52 infants by magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used to assess developmental outcomes in 49 out of 52 infants at a mean corrected age of 24.6 months. RESULTS: Nineteen out of 52 infants developed any stage of ROP. Infants with ROP had a lower median (IQR) UWMV (173 [156-181] vs. 204 [186-216] mL, p < 0.001) and cerebellar volume (18.3 [16.5-20] vs. 22.3 [20.3-24.7] mL, p < 0.001) than infants without ROP. They also had a lower median (IQR) mental developmental index (72 [56-83] vs. 100 [88-104], p < 0.001) and a lower psychomotor developmental index (80 [60-85] vs. 92 [81-103], p = 0.002). Brain volumes and developmental outcomes did not differ among infants with different stages of ROP. CONCLUSION: Any stage of ROP in preterm infants was associated with a reduced brain volume and an impaired developmental outcome. These results suggest that common pathways may lead to impaired neural and neurovascular development in the brain and retina and that all stages of ROP may be considered in future studies on ROP and development.
PURPOSE: In this study, we examine the expression of corneal epithelium-derived thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its immunomodulatory functions in a validated murine model of dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: DED was induced in female C57BL/6 using a controlled environment chamber (CEC) for 14 days. mRNA and protein expression of TSP-1 by corneal epithelial cells was quantified using real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Corneal epithelial cells from either naïve or DED mice were cultured with bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in the presence of IFNγ for 48 h, and BMDC expression of MHC-II and CD86 was determined using flow cytometry. Next, either recombinant TSP-1 or anti-TSP-1 antibody was added to the co-culture, and BMDC expression of above activation markers was evaluated. Finally, either DED mice were topically treated with either recombinant TSP-1 or human serum albumin (HSA), and maturation of corneal DCs, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and DED severity were investigated. RESULTS: mRNA expression of TSP-1 by the corneal epithelium was upregulated in DED. Corneal epithelial cells derived from mice with DED demonstrated an enhanced capacity in suppressing BMDC expression of MHC-II and CD86 relative to wild type mice, and this effect was abrogated by TSP-1 blockade and potentiated by recombinant TSP-1. Finally, topical application of recombinant TSP-1 significantly suppressed corneal DC maturation and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and ameliorated disease severity in mice with DED. CONCLUSIONS: Our study elucidates the function of epithelium-derived TSP-1 in inhibiting DC maturation and shows its translational potential to limit corneal epitheliopathy in DED.
Hearing loss, including genetic hearing loss, is one of the most common forms of sensory deficits in humans with limited options of treatment. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer has been shown to recover auditory functions effectively in mouse models of genetic deafness when delivered at neonatal stages. However, the mouse cochlea is still developing at those time points, whereas in humans, the newborn inner ears are already fully mature. For effective gene therapy to treat genetic deafness, it is necessary to determine whether AAV-mediated therapy can be equally effective in the fully mature mouse inner ear without causing damage to the inner ear. This study tested several AAV serotypes by canalostomy in adult mice. It is shown that most AAVs transduce the sensory inner hair cells efficiently, but are less efficient at transducing outer hair cells. A subset of AAVs also transduces non-sensory cochlear cell types. Neither the surgical procedure of canalostomy nor the AAV serotypes damage hair cells or impair normal hearing. The studies indicate that canalostomy can be a viable route for safe and efficient gene delivery, and they expand the repertoire of AAVs to target diverse cell types in the adult inner ear.
Thrombospondin-1-deficient (TSP-1) mice are used as an animal model of Sjögren's Syndrome because they exhibit many of the symptoms associated with the autoimmune type of dry eye found in primary Sjögren's Syndrome. This type of dry eye is linked to the inflammation of the lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, and cornea, and is thought to involve dysfunction of the complex neuronal reflex arc that mediates tear production in response to noxious stimuli on the ocular surface. This study characterizes the structural and functional changes to the corneal nerves that are the afferent arm of this arc in young and older TSP-1 and wild type (WT) mice. The structure and subtype of nerves were characterized by immunohistochemistry, in vivo confocal microscopy, and confocal microscopy. Cytokine expression analysis was determined by Q-PCR and the number of monocytes was measured by immunohistochemistry. We found that only the pro-inflammatory cytokine MIP-2 increased in young corneas of TSP-1 compared to WT mice, but tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) all increased in older TSP-1 mouse corneas. In contrast, CD11b+ pro-inflammatory monocytes did not increase even in older mouse corneas. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, but not Substance P (SubP)-containing corneal nerves decreased in older, but not younger TSP-1 compared to WT mouse corneas. We conclude that CGRP-containing corneal sensory nerves exhibit distinct structural deficiencies as disease progresses in TSP-1 mice, suggesting that: (1) TSP-1 is needed for the development or repair of these nerves and (2) impaired afferent corneal nerve structure and hence function may contribute to ocular surface dysfunction that develops as TSP-1 mice age.
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a heritable vitreoretinopathy characterized by anomalous retinal vascular development. The principal feature of the disease is an avascular peripheral retina. This in turn can cause further pathological changes including neovascularization, exudation, hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. The biological basis of the disease is thought to be from defects in the Wnt signaling pathway. Many gene mutations have been implicated, and these can be inherited in an autosomal dominant (most common), autosomal recessive, and X-linked recessive fashion. Examination with wide-field fluorescein angiography is essential and can identify the disease in its earlier stages, enabling timely treatment, in addition to helping identify asymptomatic family members. The current treatment paradigm involves laser photocoagulation of the avascular peripheral retina for neovascular sequelae and vitreoretinal surgery for progressive retinal detachment. Further studies are underway to better characterize this complex vitreoretinopathy.
PURPOSE: To present 2 patients in whom orbital radiation preceded the development of periorbital extranodal marginal zone lymphoma by more than a decade and to investigate the likelihood of this representing irradiation-induced malignancy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and histopathologic study with immunohistochemistry of 2 cases. RESULTS: The first patient was a 58-year-old woman who developed an orbital mass within the vicinity of the lateral rectus muscle 17 years after external beam proton radiation therapy for an inferotemporal choroidal melanoma. The second patient was a 32-year-old woman who developed a mass in the right lacrimal gland 12 years after external beam photon radiation therapy for chronic inflammatory dacryoadenitis. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies confirmed orbital extranodal marginal zone lymphoma in both cases. Retrospective review of older histopathologic slides from the second patient revealed underlying immunoglobulin G4-related disease. DISCUSSION: The unusual sequence of events in these 2 cases raises the question of whether orbital radiation may in rare instances promote the development of orbital extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. The literature pertaining to irradiation-induced secondary malignancy in the orbit is reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider the possibility of a secondary malignancy when evaluating a patient with an orbital mass and a history of prior local radiation exposure.
Purpose: Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disease that occurs primarily in women, and is associated with lacrimal gland inflammation and aqueous-deficient dry eye. We hypothesize that sex-associated differences in lacrimal gland gene expression are very important in promoting lymphocyte accumulation in this tissue and contribute to the onset, progression, and/or severity of the inflammatory disease process. To test our hypothesis, we explored the nature and extent of sex-related differences in gene expression in autoimmune lacrimal glands. Methods: Lacrimal glands were collected from age-matched, adult, male and female MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL/lpr) and nonobese diabetic/LtJ (NOD) mice. Glands were processed for the analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs by using CodeLink Bioarrays and Affymetrix GeneChips. Data were evaluated with bioinformatics and statistical software. Results: Our results show that sex significantly influences the expression of thousands of genes in lacrimal glands of MRL/lpr and NOD mice. The immune nature of this glandular response is very dependent on the Sjögren syndrome model. Lacrimal glands of female, as compared with male, MRL/lpr mice contain a significant increase in the expression of genes related to inflammatory responses, antigen processing, and chemokine pathways. In contrast, it is the lacrimal tissue of NOD males, and not females, that presents with a significantly greater expression of immune-related genes. Conclusions: These data support our hypothesis that sex-related differences in gene expression contribute to lacrimal gland disease in Sjögren syndrome. Our findings also suggest that factors in the lacrimal gland microenvironment are critically important in mediating these sex-associated immune effects.
Schwannomas of cranial nerves in the absence of systemic neurofibromatosis are relatively rare. Among these, schwannomas of the trochlear nerve are even less common. They can be found incidentally or when they cause diplopia or other significant neurological deficits. Treatment options include observation only, neuro-ophthalmological intervention, and/or neurosurgical management via resection or sterotactic radiosurgery (SRS). In recent years, the latter has become an attractive therapeutic tool for a number of benign skull base neoplasm including a small number of reports on its successful use for trochlear Schwannomas. However, no treatment algorithm for the management of these tumors has been proposed so far. The goal of this manuscript is to illustrate a case series of this rare entity and to suggest a rational treatment algorithm for trochlear schwannomas, based on our institutional experience of recent cases, and a pertinent review of the literature. Including our series of 5 cases, a total of 85 cases reporting on the management of trochlear schwannomas have been published. Of those reported, less than half (40 %) of patients underwent surgical resection, whereas the remainder were managed conservatively or with SRS. Seventy-six percent (65/85) of the entire cohort presented with diplopia, which was the solitary symptom in over half of the cases (n = 39). All patients who presented with symptoms other than diplopia or headaches as solitary symptoms underwent surgical resection. Patients in the non-surgical group were mostly male (M/F = 3.5:1), presented at an older age and had shorter mean diameter (4.6 vs. 30.4 mm, p < 0.0001) when compared to the surgical group. Twelve patients in the entire cohort were treated with SRS, none of whom had undergone surgical resection before or after radiation treatment. Trochlear schwannoma patients without systemic neurofibromatosis are rare and infrequently reported in the literature. Of those, patients harboring symptomatic trochlear Schwannomas do not form a single homogenous group, but fall into two rather distinct subgroups regarding demographics and clinical characteristics. Among those patients in need of intervention, open microsurgical resection as well as less invasive treatment options exist, which all aim at safe relief of symptoms and prevention of progression. Both open microsurgical removal as well as SRS can achieve good long-term local control. Consequently, a tailored multidisciplinary treatment algorithm, based on the individual presentation and tumor configuration, is proposed.
The inability of axons to regenerate over long-distances in the central nervous system (CNS) limits the recovery of sensory, motor, and cognitive functions after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although pre-clinical studies have identified a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon growth after CNS damage, the extent of recovery remains quite limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Here, we used traumatic injury to the mouse optic nerve as a model system to test the effects of combining several treatments that have recently been found to promote axon regeneration without the risks associated with manipulating known tumor suppressors or oncogenes. The treatments tested here include TPEN, a chelator of mobile (free) zinc (Zn); shRNA against the axon growth-suppressing transcription factor Klf9; and the atypical growth factor oncomodulin combined with a cAMP analog. Whereas some combinatorial treatments produced only marginally stronger effects than the individual treatments alone, co-treatment with TPEN and Klf9 knockdown had a substantially stronger effect on axon regeneration than either one alone. This combination also promoted a high level of cell survival at longer time points. Thus, Znchelation in combination with Klf9 suppression holds therapeutic potential for promoting axon regeneration after optic nerve injury, and may also be effective for treating other CNS injuries and diseases.
Retinal detachment (RD) leads to photoreceptor cell death secondary to the physical separation of the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Intensifying photoreceptor survival in the detached retina could be remarkably favorable for many retinopathies in which RD can be seen. BNN27, a blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeable, C17-spiroepoxy derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has shown promising neuroprotective activity through interaction with nerve growth factor receptors, TrkA and p75. Here, we administered BNN27 systemically in a murine model of RD. TUNEL photoreceptors were significantly decreased 24 hours post injury after a single administration of 200 mg/kg BNN27. Furthermore, BNN27 increased inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as, two markers of gliosis 24 hours post RD. However, single or multiple doses of BNN27 were not able to protect the overall survival of photoreceptors 7 days post injury. Additionally, BNN27 did not induce the activation/phosphorylation of TrkA in the detached retina although the mRNA levels of the receptor were increased in the photoreceptors post injury. Together, these findings, do not demonstrate neuroprotective activity of BNN27 in experimentally-induced RD. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the paradox/contradiction of these results and the mechanism of action of BNN27 in this model of photoreceptor cell damage.
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent mediator of innate immunity commonly up-regulated in a broad spectrum of inflammatory diseases. When bound to its cell surface receptor, IL-1β initiates a signalling cascade that cooperatively induces the expression of canonical IL-1 target genes such as IL-8 and IL-6. Here, we present galectin-3 as a novel regulator of IL-1β responses in corneal keratinocytes. Using the SNAP-tag system and digitonin semi-permeabilization, we show that recombinant exogenous galectin-3 binds to the plasma membrane of keratinocytes and is internalized into cytoplasmic compartments. We find that exogenous galectin-3, but not a dominant negative inhibitor of galectin-3 polymerization lacking the N-terminal domain, exacerbates the response to IL-1β by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The activity of galectin-3 could be reduced by a novel d-galactopyranoside derivative targeting the conserved galactoside-binding site of galectins and did not involve interaction with IL-1 receptor 1 or the induction of endogenous IL-1β. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrate that small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of endogenous galectin-3 expression is sufficient to impair the IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 in a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent manner. Collectively, our findings provide a novel role for galectin-3 as an amplifier of IL-1β responses during epithelial inflammation through an as yet unidentified mechanism.
Microbial keratitis (MK) is a potentially blinding condition which must be treated emergently to preserve vision. Although long recognized as a significant cause of corneal blindness, our understanding of its true global scale, associated burden of disease, and etiological patterns remains somewhat limited. Current epidemiological data suggests that MK may be epidemic in parts of the world--particularly within South, South-East and East Asia--and may exceed two million cases per year world-wide. Etiological patterns vary between economically developed and developing countries, with bacterial predominance in the former and fungal predominance in the latter. The key to effective management lies in timely diagnosis; however, the current gold standard of stain and culture remains time consuming and often yields no clinically useful results. For this reason, there are attempts to develop highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostic tools to provide rapid diagnosis, inform treatment decision making, and minimize the threat of antimicrobial resistance. We provide an overview of these key areas and of avenues for further research toward the goal of more effectively addressing the problem of MK on both an individual and public health level.
Limbal stem cell deficiency can be treated with transplantation of cultured human limbal epithelial cells (LEC). It can be advantageous to produce LEC in centralized labs and thereafter ship them to eye clinics. The present study used transport simulations of LEC to determine if vigorous shaking during transport altered the viability, morphology and phenotype during a 4 day-long storage of LEC with a previously described serum-free storage method. Inserts with LEC cultured on amniotic membranes were sutured to caps inside air-tight containers with generous amounts of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-buffered minimal essential medium (MEM). The containers were distributed among the following testing conditions: 6 hours with full containers, 36 hours with full containers, 36 hours with container three quarters full of medium, and 36 hours with container full of medium containing a shear-protecting agent (Pluronic-F68). Compared to stored, but non-transported controls, no statistically significant changes in viability and immunohistochemical staining were observed. The epithelial sheets remained intact. However, an air-liquid interface in the containers reduced the number of desmosomes and hemi-desmosomes compared to the controls. In conclusion, cultured LEC sheets appear to endure vigorous shaking for at least 36 hours if the container is full.
Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment. Next, they performed a change detection task, usually looking for the same change as in the study period. Scene recognition memory was found to be similar in all experiments, regardless of the study task. In Experiment 1, more difficult change detection produced better scene memory. Experiments 2 and 3 supported a "depth-of-processing" account for the effects of initial search and change detection on incidental memory for scenes. Of most interest, change detection was faster during the test phase than during the study phase, even when the observer had no explicit memory of having found that change previously. This result was replicated in two of our three change detection experiments. We conclude that scenes can be encoded incidentally as well as explicitly and that changes in those scenes can leave measurable traces even if they are not explicitly recalled.
PURPOSE: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to test if hormone therapy (HT) altered the risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG), and if the risk reduction varied by race. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of randomized controlled trial data. METHODS: We linked Medicare claims data to 25 535 women in the Women's Health Initiative. Women without a uterus were randomized to receive either oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and women with a uterus received oral CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE 0.625 mg/day + MPA 2.5 mg/day) or placebo. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: After exclusion of women with prevalent glaucoma or without claims for eye care provider visits, the final analysis included 8102 women (mean age = 68.5 ± 4.8 years). The OAG incidence was 7.6% (mean follow-up = 11.5 ± 5.2 years; mean HT duration = 4.4 ± 2.3 years). Increased age (P trend = .01) and African-American race (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.13-3.42; white as a reference) were significant risk factors for incident OAG. We found no overall benefit of HT in reducing incident OAG (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.79-1.29 in the CEE trial, and HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.85-1.29 in the CEE + MPA trial). However, race modified the relationship between CEE use and OAG risk (P interaction = .01), and risk was reduced in African-American women treated with CEE (HR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27-0.88), compared to placebo. Race did not modify the relation between CEE + MPA use and OAG risk (P interaction = .68). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis suggests that HT containing estrogen, but not a combination of estrogen and progesterone, reduces the risk of incident OAG among African-American women. Further investigation is needed.
Vavvas DG, Dryja TP, Wilson EM, Olsen TW, Shah A, Jurkunas U, Pineda R, Poulaki V, Palioura S, Veldman P, Moreno-Montañés J, Pinazo-Duran MD, Pastor JC, Tsilimbaris M, Rhee D, Colby K, Hunter DG, Thanos S, Sakamoto T, Pasquale LR, Miller JW, Vanderveen D, Lambert SR. Lens regeneration in children. Nature 2018;556(7699):E2-E3.
We evaluated the influence of an antioxidant and zinc nutritional supplement [the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation] on delaying or preventing progression to neovascular AMD (NV) in persons with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AREDS subjects (n = 802) with category 3 or 4 AMD at baseline who had been treated with placebo or the AREDS formulation were evaluated for differences in the risk of progression to NV as a function of complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) genotype groups. We used published genetic grouping: a two-SNP haplotype risk-calling algorithm to assess CFH, and either the single SNP rs10490924 or 372_815del443ins54 to mark ARMS2 risk. Progression risk was determined using the Cox proportional hazard model. Genetics-treatment interaction on NV risk was assessed using a multiiterative bootstrap validation analysis. We identified strong interaction of genetics with AREDS formulation treatment on the development of NV. Individuals with high CFH and no ARMS2 risk alleles and taking the AREDS formulation had increased progression to NV compared with placebo. Those with low CFH risk and high ARMS2 risk had decreased progression risk. Analysis of CFH and ARMS2 genotype groups from a validation dataset reinforces this conclusion. Bootstrapping analysis confirms the presence of a genetics-treatment interaction and suggests that individual treatment response to the AREDS formulation is largely determined by genetics. The AREDS formulation modifies the risk of progression to NV based on individual genetics. Its use should be based on patient-specific genotype.
PURPOSE: To determine the demographic features of patients affected by limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), and to identify the underlying causes of LSCD DESIGN: Retrospective, multi-center case series SETTING: Two large tertiary care ophthalmology hospitals SUBJECTS: Patients with a diagnosis of LSCD presenting from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014 METHODS: Records of patients with a clinical diagnosis of LSCD were reviewed. Demographic details and clinical features at presentation, as well as the underlying cause of LSCD (if identified) were noted. Descriptive statistical analysis and chart preparation were done. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type of LSCD (unilateral or bilateral), age and sex of patients, extent of LSCD (clock hours of limbus involved) and underlying cause of LSCD RESULTS: We found 1331 patients with LSCD in the ten year period under study. Unilateral LSCD was more common (791 patients) than bilateral LSCD (540 patients). Out of 1331 patients, 875 (65.74%) were male. The median age of patients was 24 years. Extent of LSCD could be determined in 1849 eyes, of which 1239 eyes (67%) had total LSCD. The underlying cause of LSCD could be identified in 1512 eyes. In cases of unilateral LSCD, ocular surface burns was the commonest identifiable cause ( 83.73%). The leading identifiable causes of bilateral LSCD were ocular surface burns (29.95%), allergic conjunctivitis (29.48%), Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) (23.11%), aniridia (9.43%) and mucous membrane pemphigoid (3.54%). Lime ("chuna") injury was responsible for ocular surface burns in 352 (62.08%) out of 567 cases in which the agent was identified. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, unilateral LSCD was more common than bilateral LSCD. Young males were commonly affected, with a majority of eyes suffering from total LSCD. Overall, ocular surface burns are the leading cause of LSCD.Unilateral and bilateral LSCD had a markedly different distribution of causes, necessitating different approaches to management.