PURPOSE: To delineate the histopathologic appearance of gelatin-based hemostatic agents, Surgiflo, Gelfoam, and Floseal, which are used by ophthalmic plastic surgeons, and which may incidentally be found as foreign materials in histopathologic tissue samples. METHODS: Histopathologic analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Masson trichrome, and elastin staining on tissue samples in which gelatin-based agents were found. To better characterize these materials, similar analyses were performed on in vitro samples of commonly used gelatin-based hemostatic agents. RESULTS: Surgiflo and Gelfoam are composed of small stellate pieces of gelatin with a smooth, homogeneous quality. In tissues, they are faintly positive with periodic acid-Schiff staining, amphophilic with Masson trichrome staining, and ink-black with elastin staining. Floseal has a distinctly different morphology of large rectangular sheets, yet almost identical in vitro staining properties. DISCUSSION: While the morphology of the gelatin-based hemostatic agents is consistent under various conditions, the staining properties of these materials differ based on whether they have been in contact with human tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Gelatin-derived hemostatic agents are best identified based on their morphologic characteristics. Elastin staining highlights these materials prominently within tissue samples and may be helpful in distinguishing them from other foreign materials.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global epidemic and affects populations in both developing and developed countries, with differing health care and resource levels. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major complication of DM and a leading cause of vision loss in working middle-aged adults. Vision loss from DR can be prevented with broad-level public health strategies, but these need to be tailored to a country's and population's resource setting. Designing DR screening programs, with appropriate and timely referral to facilities with trained eye care professionals, and using cost-effective treatment for vision-threatening levels of DR can prevent vision loss. The International Council of Ophthalmology Guidelines for Diabetic Eye Care 2017 summarize and offer a comprehensive guide for DR screening, referral and follow-up schedules for DR, and appropriate management of vision-threatening DR, including diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative DR, for countries with high- and low- or intermediate-resource settings. The guidelines include updated evidence on screening and referral criteria, the minimum requirements for a screening vision and retinal examination, follow-up care, and management of DR and DME, including laser photocoagulation and appropriate use of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and, in specific situations, intravitreal corticosteroids. Recommendations for management of DR in patients during pregnancy and with concomitant cataract also are included. The guidelines offer suggestions for monitoring outcomes and indicators of success at a population level.
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes serious antibiotic-resistant infections. Its population structure is marked by the appearance and dissemination of successful lineages across different settings. To begin understanding the population structure of S. aureus causing ocular and otolaryngology infections, we characterized 262 isolates by antimicrobial sensitivity testing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus were subjected to SCCmec typing and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) screening. Although we detected a high level of genetic diversity among methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) isolates, (63 sequence types-STs), the population was dominated by five lineages: ST30, ST5, ST8, ST15 and ST97. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin was common among the major MSSA lineages, with fluctuations markedly impacted by genetic background. Isolates belonging to the predominant lineage, ST30, displayed high rates of resistance to penicillin (100%), erythromycin (71%), and clindamycin (63%). Overall, 21% of the isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRSA), with an apparent enrichment among otitis and orbital cellulitis isolates (>40%). MRSA isolates belonged to 14 STs grouped in 5 clonal complexes (CC), however, CC5 (56.1%) and CC8 (38.6%) dominated the population. Most CC5 strains were SCCmec type II, and resembled the hospital-adapted USA100 clone. CC8 strains were SCCmec type IV, and 86% were positive for the PVL toxin, common features of the community-acquired clone USA300. CC5 strains harboring a SCCmec type IV, typical for the USA800 clone, comprised 15.5% of the population. USA100 strains were highly resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and levofloxacin (100%), while USA300 strains were frequently resistant to erythromycin (89%) but displayed lower rates of resistance to levofloxacin (39%) and clindamycin (17%). Our data demonstrate that the ocular and otolaryngology S. aureus populations are composed of strains that are commonly resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics, and are associated with the major epidemic clonal complexes of both community and hospital origins.
This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes and described the recovery process of cryopreserved limbal lamellar keratoplasty (CLLK) for peripheral corneal and limbal diseases. Thirteen eyes of 12 patients with a mean age of 41±23.9y were included. The average follow-up was 12.1±5.6mo. Stable ocular surface was achieved in all eyes at last follow-up. Epithelialization originated from both recipient and graft in 9 eyes. We conclude that CLLK compensates for the shortage of donor corneas and cryopreserved limbal grafts provide epithelialization sources in ocular surface reconstruction.
The meibomian gland (MG) is a sebaceous gland that secretes through a holocrine process. Because such secretion requires the destruction of MG acinar epithelial cells, they need constant renewal and differentiation. The processes that promote these regenerative events in the human MG are unknown, nor is it known how to distinguish MG progenitor and differentiated cells. We discovered that Lrig1 and DNase2 serve as biomarkers for human MG progenitor and differentiated cells, respectively. Lrig1 is expressed in MG basal epithelial cells in the acinar periphery, a location where progenitor cells originate in sebaceous glands. DNase2 is expressed in the differentiated epithelial cells of the MG central acinus. Furthermore, proliferation stimulates, and differentiation suppresses, Lrig1 expression in human MG epithelial cells. The opposite is true for DNase2 expression. Our biomarker identification may have significant value in clinical efforts to restore MG function and to regenerate MGs after disease-induced dropout. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:887-892.
Dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and lutein each protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We here examined the effects of ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein supplementation in a mouse model of AMD. Mice were assigned to four groups: (1) a control group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-free diet, (2) a lutein group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-free diet with oral administration of lutein, (3) an ω-3 group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-supplemented diet, and (4) an ω-3 + lutein group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-supplemented diet with oral administration of lutein. Mice were fed the defined diets beginning 2 weeks before, and received lutein with an oral gavage needle beginning 1 week before, induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by laser photocoagulation. The area of CNV measured in choroidal flat-mount preparations was significantly reduced in mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs or lutein compared with those in the control group, and it was reduced in an additive manner in those receiving both ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein. The concentrations of various inflammatory mediators in the retina or choroid were reduced in mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs or lutein, but no additive effect was apparent. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chorioretinal lesions revealed by dihydroethidium staining as well as the expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in the retina revealed by immunohistofluorescence and immunoblot analyses were attenuated by ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein in a synergistic manner. Our results thus show that dietary intake of ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein attenuated CNV in an additive manner and in association with suppression of inflammatory mediator production, ROS generation, and Nox4 expression. Dietary supplementation with both ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein warrants further study as a means to protect against AMD.
PURPOSE: To determine if the Schirmer I test (without anesthesia) cut-off value is a predictor of dry eye severity in a large Norwegian cohort of dry eye disease (DED) patients, which are grouped into six levels of tear production. METHODS: Patients (n = 1090) with DED of different etiologies received an extensive dry eye work-up: osmolarity (Osm), tear meniscus height (TMH), tear film break-up time (TFBUT), ocular protection index (OPI), ocular surface staining (OSS), Schirmer I test (ST), meibum expressibility (ME), and meibum quality (MQ). Classification of dry eye severity level (DESL) and diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) were also included. The cohort was divided into six groups: below and above cut-off values of 5 (groups 1 and 2), 10 (groups 3 and 4), and 15 mm (groups 5 and 6) of ST. Mann-Whitney test and Chi-Square test were used for group comparison of parameters (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: The groups 1, 3, and 5 had values indicating more severe DED than the groups 2, 4, 6 with significant difference in DESL, Osm, TFBUT, OPI, OSS, and TMH. Regardless of the choice of cut-off values, there was no statistically significant difference in ME, MQ, and MGD between groups below and above selected cut-off value. When gender difference was considered in each group, significant difference was only observed for DESL (groups 2, 4, and 5), TFBUT (groups 2, 4, and 5), OPI (groups 2 and 6), and ME (group1). CONCLUSIONS: Schirmer I is a robust discriminator for DESL, Osm, TFBUT, OPI, OSS, and TMH, but not for ME, MQ, and MGD. Patients with lower tear production levels presented with more severe DED at all three defined cut-off values. Interestingly, the differences in the mean values of DESL were minimal although statistically significant. Thus, the clinical value of different Schirmer levels appears to be limited.
Glaucoma is marked by a progressive degeneration of the optic nerve and delayed loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye. Because RGCs are not replaced and because surviving RGCs cannot regenerate their axons, the visual loss in glaucoma is largely irreversible. Here, we describe methods to evaluate treatments that may be beneficial for treating glaucoma using in vitro cell culture models (immunopanning to isolate neonatal RGCs, dissociated mature retinal neurons, retinal explants) and in vivo models that test potential treatments or investigate underlying molecular mechanisms in an intact system. Potentially, use of these models can help investigators continue to improve treatments to preserve RGCs and restore visual function in patients with glaucoma.
PURPOSE: To compare the response of dry eye disease (DED) to treatment with topical steroid in patients with and without graft-vs-host disease (GVHD).
DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a double-masked, randomized clinical trial.
METHODS: This single-center study included 42 patients with moderate-to-severe DED associated with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) chronic GVHD. In each group, patients received either loteprednol etabonate 0.5% ophthalmic suspension or artificial tears twice daily for 4 weeks. Clinical data, including Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), conjunctival lissamine green staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), and Schirmer test, were evaluated before and after treatment.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in signs and symptoms of DED between the groups at baseline. In non-GVHD patients receiving loteprednol treatment, the average OSDI score decreased by 34% from 49.5 ± 5.9 to 32.6 ± 4.8 (mean ± standard error of the mean, P = .001) and the average CFS score decreased by 41% from 5.6 ± 0.6 to 3.3 ± 0.9 (P = .02). On the other hand, loteprednol treatment in GVHD patients resulted in minimal change in OSDI (59.2 ± 6.7 to 61.1 ± 7.1, 3% increase, P = .66) and CFS (5.5 ± 0.5 to 5.3 ± 1.1, 4% decrease, P = .85) scores. Treatment with artificial tears resulted in 22% decrease of OSDI (P = .10) and 32% decrease of CFS (P = .02) scores in non-GVHD patients, and had minimal effect in patients with GVHD.
CONCLUSIONS: DED patients with ocular GVHD have a less favorable response to a low-dose topical steroid regimen compared with those without ocular GVHD even with similar baseline disease severity.
PURPOSE: To describe a case of a central retinal vein occlusion in a young patient with a history of eosinophilic pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective case report of a 45-year-old woman with acute painless vision loss for 9 days after multiple episodes of eosinophilic pneumonia and thalamic stroke. Fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and clinical examination were performed. She was then treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and pan-retinal photocoagulations. RESULTS: Retinal examination revealed tortuosity and dilatation of all branches of the central retinal vein and flame-shaped hemorrhages in all four quadrants of the right eye associated with cystoid macular edema, optic disc edema, and cotton wool spots. The left eye had mild venous dilatation and tortuosity with a few dot retinal hemorrhages in the far temporal periphery. The cystoid macular edema resolved after one intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and remained resolved at the most recent follow-up. Fluorescein angiography at the most recent follow-up revealed vasculitis in the far periphery of the nontreated eye. CONCLUSION: Central retinal vein occlusion in young patients is a rare condition often presenting as a manifestation of an underlying inflammatory or hematological disorder. Combined anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment and pan-retinal photocoagulation may have resolved the associated cystoid macular edema in this case, although continued observation is necessary.
Breast milk (BM) hormones have been hypothesised as a nutritional link between maternal and infant metabolic health. This study aimed to evaluate hormone concentrations in BM of women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the relationship between maternal factors, BM hormones and infant growth. We studied ninety-six nulliparous women with (n 48) and without GDM and their exclusively breastfed term singletons. Women with GDM received dietary therapy or insulin injection for euglycaemia during pregnancy. Hormone concentrations in BM, maternal BMI and infant growth were longitudinally evaluated on postnatal days 3, 42 and 90. Mothers with GDM had decreased concentrations of adiponectin (P colostrum<0·001; P mature-milk=0·009) and ghrelin (P colostrum=0·011; P mature-milk<0·001) and increased concentration of insulin in BM (P colostrum=0·047; P mature-milk=0·021). Maternal BMI was positively associated with adiponectin (β=0·06; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·1; P=0·001), leptin (β=0·16; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·2; P<0·001) and insulin concentrations (β=0·06; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·1; P<0·001), and inversely associated with ghrelin concentration in BM (β=-0·08; 95 % CI -0·1, -0·06; P<0·001). Among the four hormones, adiponectin was inversely associated with infant growth in both the GDM (β weight-for-height=-2·49; 95 % CI -3·83, -1·15; P<0·001; β head-circumference=-0·39; 95 % CI -0·65, -0·13; P=0·003) and healthy groups (β weight-for-height=-1·42; 95 % CI -2·38, -0·46; P=0·003; β head-circumference=-0·15; 95 % CI -0·27, -0·03; P=0·007). Maternal BMI and GDM are important determinants of BM hormone concentrations. Milk-borne adiponectin is determined by maternal metabolic status and plays an independent down-regulating role in early infant growth.
Purpose: To report the resolution of a fluoroquinolone-resistant keratitis with use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) device for enhanced targeted delivery of moxifloxiacin. Observations: A 62-year-old female presented with a 3-day history of pain, photophobia, and declining vision in left eye. The patient had a 2-year history of binocular PROSE treatment for ocular chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD). A corneal ulcer was diagnosed and treated with topical 0.5% moxifloxacin solution 6 times per day, with continued wear of the PROSE device. After 4 days, worsening symptoms led to an increase in application of moxifloxicin to every 2 hours while awake. The drug was administered by removal of the device, cleaning and replenishing the reservoir with sterile saline, and adding one drop of the drug to the reservoir prior to reinsertion. Four days later, the corneal surface was epithelialized with only small subepithelial infiltrate remaining. The corneal culture grew an isolate carrying multiple mutations in the topoisomerase genes. These mutations were correlated with varying levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin (256 μg/mL), levofloxacin (8 μg/mL), and moxifloxacin (16 μg/mL). Conclusions and Importance: Although the infecting strain exhibited resistance to fluoroquinolones, the infection resolved when moxifloxacin was combined with PROSE therapy. Frequent dosing to the PROSE reservoir is likely to increase fluoroquinolone bioavailability and may represent a valuable approach to overcome antibiotic resistance.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by various Clostridium strains, are a family of potent bacterial toxins and potential bioterrorism agents. Here we report that an Enterococcus faecium strain isolated from cow feces carries a BoNT-like toxin, designated BoNT/En. It cleaves both VAMP2 and SNAP-25, proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons, at sites distinct from known BoNT cleavage sites on these two proteins. Comparative genomic analysis determines that the E. faecium strain carrying BoNT/En is a commensal type and that the BoNT/En gene is located within a typical BoNT gene cluster on a 206 kb putatively conjugative plasmid. Although the host species targeted by BoNT/En remains to be determined, these findings establish an extended member of BoNTs and demonstrate the capability of E. faecium, a commensal organism ubiquitous in humans and animals and a leading cause of hospital-acquired multi-drug-resistant (MDR) infections, to horizontally acquire, and possibly disseminate, a unique BoNT gene cluster.
Superior oblique myokymia (SOM) is an uncommon condition of unclear etiology that results in episodes of oscillopsia and diplopia. There is no established treatment protocol for SOM. We present 2 cases of SOM successfully managed with topical levobunolol 0.5%; both patients responded to a short course of medication administration and required minimal ongoing therapy. Case 1 was a 69-year-old woman with left SOM who had previously undergone a left Harada-Ito procedure. Her SOM improved immediately on administration of levobunolol and was maintained at follow-up 1 year later. Case 2 was a 49-year-old man with right SOM that affected his ability to work. After 2 days of topical levobunolol 0.5% nightly in the right eye, SOM episodes ceased; he continues to use drops intermittently for occasional recurrences.
Purpose: To study age- and intraocular pressure-induced changes in the glial lamina of the murine optic nerve on the ultrastructural level. Methods: Naïve C57bl/6 mice at various ages spanning the time between early adulthood (3 months) and senescence (30 months) were used in this study. In addition, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was increased in a group of young mice by injection of microbeads into the anterior chamber. The unmyelinated segments of the optic nerve containing the glial lamina were prepared for transmission electron microscopy and imaged at high resolution. Results: Axon packing density decreased slightly with age. Aging nerves contained higher numbers of enlarged and degenerating axons. Mean axonal diameter and in particular the variance of axonal diameter correlated well with age. Axonal mitochondria also showed age-dependent signs of pathology. The mean diameter of axonal mitochondria increased, and aged axons often contained profiles of mitochondria with very few or no cristae. Astrocytic mitochondria remained normal even in very old nerves. Changes to axons and axonal mitochondria in young glaucomatous nerves were comparable with those of 18- to 30-month-old naïve mice. In addition to axons and mitochondria, aged and glaucomatous nerves showed thickening of the blood vessel basement membranes and increased deposition of basement membrane collagen. Conclusions: On the ultrastructural level, the effects of age and elevated IOP are quite similar. One month of elevated IOP seems to have as strongly detrimental effects on the nerve as at least 18 months of normal aging.