Mathys H, Davila-Velderrain J, Peng Z, Gao F, Mohammadi S, Young JZ, Menon M, He L, Abdurrob F, Jiang X, Martorell AJ, Ransohoff RM, Hafler BP, Bennett DA, Kellis M, Tsai L-H. Author Correction: Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of Alzheimer's disease. Nature 2019;571(7763):E1.Abstract
Change history: In this Article, the Acknowledgements section should have included that the work was supported in part by the Cure Alzheimer's Fund (CAF), and the final NIH grant acknowledged should have been 'U01MH119509' instead of 'RF1AG054012'. In Supplementary Table 2, the column labels 'early.pathology.mean' and 'late.pathology.mean' were reversed in each worksheet (that is, columns Y and Z). These errors have been corrected online.
Mathys H, Davila-Velderrain J, Peng Z, Gao F, Mohammadi S, Young JZ, Menon M, He L, Abdurrob F, Jiang X, Martorell AJ, Ransohoff RM, Hafler BP, Bennett DA, Kellis M, Tsai L-H. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of Alzheimer's disease. Nature 2019;570(7761):332-337.Abstract
Alzheimer's disease is a pervasive neurodegenerative disorder, the molecular complexity of which remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed 80,660 single-nucleus transcriptomes from the prefrontal cortex of 48 individuals with varying degrees of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Across six major brain cell types, we identified transcriptionally distinct subpopulations, including those associated with pathology and characterized by regulators of myelination, inflammation, and neuron survival. The strongest disease-associated changes appeared early in pathological progression and were highly cell-type specific, whereas genes upregulated at late stages were common across cell types and primarily involved in the global stress response. Notably, we found that female cells were overrepresented in disease-associated subpopulations, and that transcriptional responses were substantially different between sexes in several cell types, including oligodendrocytes. Overall, myelination-related processes were recurrently perturbed in multiple cell types, suggesting that myelination has a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Our single-cell transcriptomic resource provides a blueprint for interrogating the molecular and cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.
Maurer AC, Cepeda Diaz AK, Vandenberghe LH. Residues on Adeno-associated Virus Capsid Lumen Dictate Interactions and Compatibility with the Assembly-Activating Protein. J Virol 2019;93(7)Abstract
The adeno-associated virus (AAV) serves as a broadly used vector system for gene delivery. The process of AAV capsid assembly remains poorly understood. The viral cofactor assembly-activating protein (AAP) is required for maximum AAV production and has multiple roles in capsid assembly, namely, trafficking of the structural proteins (VP) to the nuclear site of assembly, promoting the stability of VP against multiple degradation pathways, and facilitating stable interactions between VP monomers. The N-terminal 60 amino acids of AAP (AAPN) are essential for these functions. Presumably, AAP must physically interact with VP to execute its multiple functions, but the molecular nature of the AAP-VP interaction is not well understood. Here, we query how structurally related AAVs functionally engage AAP from AAV serotype 2 (AAP2) toward virion assembly. These studies led to the identification of key residues on the lumenal capsid surface that are important for AAP-VP and for VP-VP interactions. Replacing a cluster of glutamic acid residues with a glutamine-rich motif on the conserved VP beta-barrel structure of variants incompatible with AAP2 creates a gain-of-function mutant compatible with AAP2. Conversely, mutating positively charged residues within the hydrophobic region of AAP2 and conserved core domains within AAPN creates a gain-of-function AAP2 mutant that rescues assembly of the incompatible variant. Our results suggest a model for capsid assembly where surface charge/neutrality dictates an interaction between AAPN and the lumenal VP surface to nucleate capsid assembly. Efforts to engineer the AAV capsid to gain desirable properties for gene therapy (e.g., tropism, reduced immunogenicity, and higher potency) require that capsid modifications do not affect particle assembly. The relationship between VP and the cofactor that facilitates its assembly, AAP, is central to both assembly preservation and vector production. Understanding the requirements for this compatibility can inform manufacturing strategies to maximize production and reduce costs. Additionally, library-based approaches that simultaneously examine a large number of capsid variants would benefit from a universally functional AAP, which could hedge against overlooking variants with potentially valuable phenotypes that were lost during vector library production due to incompatibility with the cognate AAP. Studying interactions between the structural and nonstructural components of AAV enhances our fundamental knowledge of capsid assembly mechanisms and the protein-protein interactions required for productive assembly of the icosahedral capsid.
Mazel EC, Bailin ES, Tietjen MW, Palmer PA. A Questionnaire Assessing What Teachers of the Visually Impaired Know About Cortical/Cerebral Vision Impairment. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2019;31:41-47.Abstract
Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is now the main cause of visual impairment in developed countries, yet it remains poorly understood. Four hundred and ninteen teachers of the visually impaired (TVIs) from across the United States responded to a questionnaire targeted at evaluating the preparedness of TVIs to serve their students with CVI. The TVIs were asked about their background knowledge, their abilities to assess a student with CVI, and their abilities to apply what they know to best help their students. The primary finding was that there is a perceived unmet need for TVIs to receive formal training in CVI during their certification. The results of this survey provide a foundation for future research on CVI knowledge and education among TVIs.
McHugh KJ, Li D, Wang JC, Kwark L, Loo J, Macha V, Farsiu S, Kim LA, Saint-Geniez M. Computational modeling of retinal hypoxia and photoreceptor degeneration in patients with age-related macular degeneration. PLoS One 2019;14(6):e0216215.Abstract
Although drusen have long been acknowledged as a primary hallmark of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) their role in the disease remains unclear. We hypothesize that drusen accumulation increases the barrier to metabolite transport ultimately resulting in photoreceptor cell death. To investigate this hypothesis, a computational model was developed to evaluate steady-state oxygen distribution in the retina. Optical coherence tomography images from fifteen AMD patients and six control subjects were segmented and translated into 3D in silico representations of retinal morphology. A finite element model was then used to determine the steady-state oxygen distribution throughout the retina for both generic and patient-specific retinal morphology. Oxygen levels were compared to the change in retinal thickness at a later time point to observe possible correlations. The generic finite element model of oxygen concentration in the retina agreed closely with both experimental measurements from literature and clinical observations, including the minimal pathological drusen size identified by AREDS (64 μm). Modeling oxygen distribution in the outer retina of AMD patients showed a substantially stronger correlation between hypoxia and future retinal thinning (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.2162) than between drusen height and retinal thinning (r = 0.0303) indicating the potential value of this physiology-based approach. This study presents proof-of-concept for the potential utility of finite element modeling in evaluating retinal health and also suggests a potential link between transport and AMD pathogenesis. This strategy may prove useful as a prognostic tool for predicting the clinical risk of AMD progression.
McKay TB, Priyadarsini S, Karamichos D. Mechanisms of Collagen Crosslinking in Diabetes and Keratoconus. Cells 2019;8(10)Abstract
Collagen crosslinking provides the mechanical strength required for physiological maintenance of the extracellular matrix in most tissues in the human body, including the cornea. Aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) are processes that are both associated with increased collagen crosslinking that leads to increased corneal rigidity. By contrast, keratoconus (KC) is a corneal thinning disease associated with decreased mechanical stiffness leading to ectasia of the central cornea. Studies have suggested that crosslinking mediated by reactive advanced glycation end products during DM may protect the cornea from KC development. Parallel to this hypothesis, riboflavin-mediated photoreactive corneal crosslinking has been proposed as a therapeutic option to halt the progression of corneal thinning by inducing intra- and intermolecular crosslink formation within the collagen fibrils of the stroma, leading to stabilization of the disease. Here, we review the pathobiology of DM and KC in the context of corneal structure, the epidemiology behind the inverse correlation of DM and KC development, and the chemical mechanisms of lysyl oxidase-mediated crosslinking, advanced glycation end product-mediated crosslinking, and photoreactive riboflavin-mediated corneal crosslinking. The goal of this review is to define the biological and chemical pathways important in physiological and pathological processes related to collagen crosslinking in DM and KC.
McKay TB, Karamichos D, Hutcheon AEK, Guo X, Zieske JD. Corneal Epithelial-Stromal Fibroblast Constructs to Study Cell-Cell Communication in Vitro. Bioengineering (Basel) 2019;6(4)Abstract
Cell-cell communication plays a fundamental role in mediating corneal wound healing following injury or infection. Depending on the severity of the wound, regeneration of the cornea and the propensity for scar development are influenced by the acute resolution of the pro-fibrotic response mediated by closure of the wound via cellular and tissue contraction. Damage of the corneal epithelium, basement membrane, and anterior stroma following a superficial keratectomy is known to lead to significant provisional matrix deposition, including secretion of fibronectin and thrombospondin-1, as well as development of a corneal scar. In addition, corneal wounding has previously been shown to promote release of extracellular vesicles from the corneal epithelium, which, in addition to soluble factors, may play a role in promoting tissue regeneration. In this study, we report the development and characterization of a co-culture system of human corneal epithelial cells and corneal stromal fibroblasts cultured for 4 weeks to allow extracellular matrix deposition and tissue maturation. The secretion of provisional matrix components, as well as small and large extracellular vesicles, was apparent within the constructs, suggesting cell-cell communication between epithelial and stromal cell populations. Laminin-1β was highly expressed by the corneal epithelial layer with the presence of notable patches of basement membrane identified by transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, we identified expression of collagen type III, fibronectin, and thrombospondin-1 along the epithelial-stromal interface similar to observations seen in vivo following a keratectomy, as well as expression of the myofibroblast marker, α-smooth muscle actin, within the stroma. Our results suggest that this corneal epithelial-stromal model may be useful in the study of the biochemical phenomena that occur during corneal wound healing.
Menon M, Mohammadi S, Davila-Velderrain J, Goods BA, Cadwell TD, Xing Y, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Shalek AK, Love JC, Kellis M, Hafler BP. Single-cell transcriptomic atlas of the human retina identifies cell types associated with age-related macular degeneration. Nat Commun 2019;10(1):4902.Abstract
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly. However, it has been challenging to identify the cell types associated with AMD given the genetic complexity of the disease. Here we perform massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of human retinas using two independent platforms, and report the first single-cell transcriptomic atlas of the human retina. Using a multi-resolution network-based analysis, we identify all major retinal cell types, and their corresponding gene expression signatures. Heterogeneity is observed within macroglia, suggesting that human retinal glia are more diverse than previously thought. Finally, GWAS-based enrichment analysis identifies glia, vascular cells, and cone photoreceptors to be associated with the risk of AMD. These data provide a detailed analysis of the human retina, and show how scRNA-seq can provide insight into cell types involved in complex, inflammatory genetic diseases.
Miller JW. Developing Therapies for Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Art and Science of Problem-solving: The 2018 Charles L. Schepens, MD, Lecture. Ophthalmol Retina 2019;3(10):900-909.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the roles of analytic and innovative thought in advancing knowledge, using past examples in ophthalmology, and to explore potential strategies to improve our understanding of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and develop new therapies. DESIGN: Presented as the 2018 Charles L. Schepens, MD, Lecture at the American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Subspecialty Day, Chicago, Illinois, on October 26, 2018. PARTICIPANTS: None. METHODS: Review of published literature and sources on creativity and innovation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recommendations for future AMD research. RESULTS: Innovative solutions to problems often seem intuitively obvious in hindsight. Yet, some problems seem impossible to solve. In the 1990s, AMD was a significant unmet need, with only destructive therapies for neovascular disease. This changed with the development of 2 therapies: (1) verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and (2) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies, which are now administered to millions of people annually around the world. Now, we are frustrated by the lack of therapies for early and intermediate AMD and geographic atrophy. Photodynamic therapy and anti-VEGF drug development occurred through a combination of analytic thought and creative disruption through innovation. To get past our current impasse in understanding and treating AMD, we need to harness both analysis and innovation. We have many important building blocks in place-information on genetics, clinical findings, imaging, and histology-and have identified key pathways and potential therapeutic targets. Perhaps we need additional investigation, analysis, and integration to improve our understanding through work on structure/function and genotype/phenotype correlations and development of imaging and systemic biomarkers. We likely also need an innovative disruption. This innovation might be the concept that there are subtypes of early and intermediate AMD characterized by specific clinical phenotypes, genotype, functional characteristics, and biomarkers that are dependent on particular pathways and treatable with a specific agent. We need to encourage innovation in each of us within our research and clinical community. CONCLUSIONS: Although we have accumulated extensive knowledge about AMD, we are currently at an impasse in the development of new treatments. We need to continue the analytic process, but at the same time encourage innovative disruption to develop successful AMD therapies.
Mittal SK, Foulsham W, Shukla S, Elbasiony E, Omoto M, Chauhan SK. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Modulate Corneal Alloimmunity via Secretion of Hepatocyte Growth Factor. Stem Cells Transl Med 2019;8(10):1030-1040.Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that participate in tissue repair and possess considerable immunomodulatory potential. MSCs have been shown to promote allograft survival, yet the mechanisms behind this phenomenon have not been fully defined. Here, we investigate the capacity of MSCs to suppress the allogeneic immune response by secreting the pleiotropic molecule hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Using an in vivo mouse model of corneal transplantation, we report that MSCs promote graft survival in an HGF-dependent manner. Moreover, our data indicate that topically administered recombinant HGF (a) suppresses antigen-presenting cell maturation in draining lymphoid tissue, (b) limits T-helper type-1 cell generation, (c) decreases inflammatory cell infiltration into grafted tissue, and (d) is itself sufficient to promote transplant survival. These findings have potential translational implications for the development of HGF-based therapeutics. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1030-1040.
Moein H-R, Saeed HN, Jacobs DS, Rapoport Y, Yoon MK, Shah AS, Khan H, Raoof D, Jurkunas UV. Exposure, entropion, and bilateral corneal ulceration in a newborn as a manifestation of chromosome 22 q11.2 duplication syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2019;13:16-19.Abstract
Purpose: Chromosome 22q11.2 micro-duplication syndrome (MDS), is a rare autosomal dominant condition, with a highly variable phenotype that ranges from unremarkable and asymptomatic, to fatal due to cardiovascular defects. Hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, superior displacement of the eyebrows, and ptosis are the most commonly reported ocular manifestations. Here, we report a newborn with bilateral exposure, entropion, and corneal ulceration related to 22q11.2 MDS. Observation: A newborn girl presented with bilateral upper eyelid entropion, bilateral lower eyelid ectropion, and lagophthalmos. She subsequently developed bilateral corneal ulcers. Topical antibacterial drops, bandage contact lenses, medroxyprogesterone 1%, and fluorometholone 0.1%, together with partial tarsorrhaphy and correction of eyelid malposition, were used to treat the ulcers and address the underlying issues of exposure and entropion. Genetic testing revealed chromosome 22q11.2.MDS; further evaluation revealed systemic manifestations of this syndrome. The ocular surface healed well with gradual improvement of corneal opacification as well as bilateral partial tarsorrhaphy. Conclusion and importance: This report is the first that describes a newborn with 22q11.2 MDS presenting with sight-threatening corneal ulceration. Entropion, ectropion, and lagophthalmos were identified and treated, allowing for healing of the corneal surface. Genetic testing revealed a syndrome not known to be associated with eyelid abnormalities and corneal ulceration, but with other important systemic and ocular implications. Bilateral partial tarsorrhaphy should not be excluded as a treatment option for infants who fail more conservative measures for the treatment of exposure.
Mölzer C, Shankar SP, Griffith M, Islam MM, Forrester JV, Kuffová L. Activation of dendritic cells by crosslinked collagen hydrogels (artificial corneas) varies with their composition. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2019;13(9):1528-1543.Abstract
Activated T cells are known to promote fibrosis, a major complication limiting the range of polymeric hydrogels as artificial corneal implants. As T cells are activated by dendritic cells (DC), minimally activating hydrogels would be optimal. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a series of engineered (manufactured/fabricated) and natural collagen matrices to either activate DC or conversely induce DC apoptosis in vitro. Bone marrow DC were cultured on a series of singly and doubly crosslinked hydrogels (made from recombinant human collagen III [RHCIII] or collagen mimetic peptide [CMP]) or on natural collagen-containing matrices, Matrigel and de-cellularised mouse corneal stroma. DC surface expression of major histocompatibility complex Class II and CD86 as well as apoptosis markers were examined. Natural matrices induced low levels of DC activation and maintained a "tolerogenic" phenotype. The same applied to singly crosslinked CMP-PEG gels. RHCIII gels singly crosslinked using either N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide with the coinitiator N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC-NHS) or N-cyclohexyl-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toulenesulfonate with NHS (CMC-NHS) induced varying levels of DC activation. In contrast, however, RHCIII hydrogels incorporating an additional polymeric network of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine did not activate DC but instead induced DC apoptosis, a phenomenon observed in natural matrices. This correlated with increased DC expression of leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1. Despite low immunogenic potential, viable tolerogenic DC migrated into and through both natural and manufactured RHCIII gels. These data show that the immunogenic potential of RHCIII gels varies with the nature and composition of the gel. Preclinical evaluation of hydrogel immunogenic/fibrogenic potential is recommended.
Morthen MK, Tellefsen S, Richards SM, Lieberman SM, Rahimi Darabad R, Kam WR, Sullivan DA. Testosterone Influence on Gene Expression in Lacrimal Glands of Mouse Models of Sjögren Syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(6):2181-2197.Abstract
Purpose: Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that occurs almost exclusively in women and is associated with extensive inflammation in lacrimal tissue, an immune-mediated destruction and/or dysfunction of glandular epithelial cells, and a significant decrease in aqueous tear secretion. We discovered that androgens suppress the inflammation in, and enhance the function of, lacrimal glands in female mouse models (e.g., MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr [MRL/lpr]) of Sjögren syndrome. In contrast, others have reported that androgens induce an anomalous immunopathology in lacrimal glands of nonobese diabetic/LtJ (NOD) mice. We tested our hypothesis that these hormone actions reflect unique, strain- and tissue-specific effects, which involve significant changes in the expression of immune-related glandular genes. Methods: Lacrimal glands were obtained from age-matched, adult, female MRL/lpr and NOD mice after treatment with vehicle or testosterone for up to 3 weeks. Tissues were processed for analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs using CodeLink Bioarrays and Affymetrix GeneChips. Data were analyzed with bioinformatics and statistical software. Results: Testosterone significantly influenced the expression of numerous immune-related genes, ontologies, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways in lacrimal glands of MRL/lpr and NOD mice. The nature of this hormone-induced immune response was dependent upon the autoimmune strain, and was not duplicated within lacrimal tissues of nonautoimmune BALB/c mice. The majority of immune-response genes regulated by testosterone were of the inflammatory type. Conclusions: Our findings support our hypothesis and indicate a major role for the lacrimal gland microenvironment in mediating androgen effects on immune gene expression.
Moulton EA, Borsook D. C-Fiber Assays in the Cornea vs. Skin. Brain Sci 2019;9(11)Abstract
C-fibers are unmyelinated nerve fibers that transmit high threshold mechanical, thermal, and chemical signals that are associated with pain sensations. This review examines current literature on measuring altered peripheral nerve morphology and discusses the most relevant aspects of corneal microscopy, especially whether corneal imaging presents significant method advantages over skin biopsy. Given its relative merits, corneal confocal microscopy would seem to be a more practical and patient-centric approach than utilizing skin biopsies.
Moustafa GA, Borkar DS, Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Greenstein SH, Lorch AC, Vasan RA, Kloek CE. Optimization of cataract surgery follow-up: A standard set of questions can predict unexpected management changes at postoperative week one. PLoS One 2019;14(9):e0221243.Abstract
PURPOSE: There is limited evidence to inform the optimal follow-up schedule after cataract surgery. This study aims to determine whether a standardized question set can predict unexpected management changes (UMCs) at the postoperative week one (POW1) timepoint. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fifty-four consecutive phacoemulsification cases having attended an examination between postoperative days 5-14. A set of 7 'Yes' or 'No' questions were administered to all participants by a technician at the POW1 visit. Patient answers along with perioperative patient information were recorded and analyzed. Outcomes were the incidence of UMCs at POW1. RESULTS: The incidence of UMCs was zero in uneventful cataract cases with unremarkable history and normal postoperative day one exam if no positive answers were given with the question set demonstrating 100% sensitivity (p<0.0001). A test version with 5 questions was equally sensitive in detecting UMCs at POW1 after cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: In routine cataract cases with no positive answers to the current set of clinical questions, a POW1 visit is unlikely to result in a management change. This result offers the opportunity for eye care providers to risk-stratify patients who have had cataract surgery and individualize follow-up.
Muhammad F, Wang D, Montieth A, Lee S, Preble J, Foster SC, Larson TA, Ding K, Dvorak JD, Lee DJ. PD-1 melanocortin receptor dependent-Treg cells prevent autoimmune disease. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):16941.Abstract
Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is a mouse model of human autoimmune uveitis marked by ocular autoantigen-specific regulatory immunity in the spleen. The melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r) and adenosine 2 A receptor (A2Ar) are required for induction of post-EAU regulatory T cells (Tregs) which provide resistance to EAU. We show that blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway prevented suppression of EAU by post-EAU Tregs. A2Ar induction of PD-1FoxP3 Tregs in uveitis patients was similar compared to healthy controls, but was significantly reduced with melanocortin stimulation. Further, lower body mass index correlated with responsiveness to stimulation of this pathway. These observations indicate an importance of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway to provide resistance to relapsing uveitis and shows a reduced capacity of uveitis patients to induce Tregs when stimulated through melanocortin receptors, but that it is possible to bypass this part of the pathway through direct stimulation of A2Ar.
Mukai R, Park DH, Okunuki Y, Hasegawa E, Klokman G, Kim CB, Krishnan A, Gregory-Ksander M, Husain D, Miller JW, Connor KM. Mouse model of ocular hypertension with retinal ganglion cell degeneration. PLoS One 2019;14(1):e0208713.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Ocular hypertension is a primary risk factor for glaucoma and results in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Current animal models of glaucoma lack severe RGC cell death as seen in glaucoma, making assessment of physiological mediators of cell death difficult. We developed a modified mouse model of ocular hypertension whereby long-lasting elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is achieved, resulting in significant reproducible damage to RGCs. RESULTS: In this model, microbeads are mixed with hyaluronic acid and injected into the anterior chamber of C57BL/6J mice. The hyaluronic acid allows for a gradual release of microbeads, resulting in sustained blockage of Schlemm's canal. IOP elevation was bimodal during the course of the model's progression. The first peak occurred 1 hours after beads injection, with an IOP value of 44.69 ± 6.00 mmHg, and the second peak occurred 6-12 days post-induction, with an IOP value of 34.91 ± 5.21 mmHg. RGC damage was most severe in the peripheral retina, with a loss of 64.1% compared to that of untreated eyes, while the midperiphery exhibited a 32.4% loss, 4 weeks following disease induction. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sustained IOP elevation causes more RGC damage in the periphery than in the midperiphery of the retina. This model yields significant and reproducible RGC degeneration.
Muqit MMK, Kourgialis N, Jackson-deGraffenried M, Talukder Z, Khetran ER, Rahman A, Chan WO, Chowdury FA, Nag D, Ahmad J, Friedman DS. Trends in Diabetic Retinopathy, Visual Acuity, and Treatment Outcomes for Patients Living With Diabetes in a Fundus Photograph-Based Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program in Bangladesh. JAMA Netw Open 2019;2(11):e1916285.Abstract
Importance: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of low vision among working-age adults. An estimated 6.9 million people in Bangladesh were living with diabetes in 2017, which is projected to increase to more than 10 million people in 2025. Currently, no standardized and/or large-scale DR screening program exists in Bangladesh. Objective: To develop a novel fundus photograph-based eye screening model for early detection of DR to prevent vision loss in Bangladeshi individuals with diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 49 264 patients with diabetes underwent opportunistic eye screening at 2 eye hospitals and 1 diabetic hospital in Bangladesh between June 1, 2010, and September 30, 2017. The data set was analyzed from April 8 to December 30, 2018. Technicians were trained to obtain 2-field digital fundus photographs and to grade each according to a standardized DR severity scale. Each patient was counseled and triaged for treatment using defined DR referral criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary DR grading outcomes, visual acuity, and treatment outcomes. Results: A total of 49 264 patients (54.3% male; mean [SD] age, 50.8 [12.3] years) underwent DR screening during a 7-year period. The DR prevalence rate across all 3 sites was 33% (95% CI, 33%-33%). Prevalence rates varied by center (Chittagong, 64.6% [95% CI, 64.0%-65.0%]; Dhaka, 39.8% [95% CI, 39.0%-41.0%]; and Feni, 13.0% [95% CI, 13.0%-14.0%]). Across all age groups, male patients were at higher risk of prevalent DR than female patients (odds ratio, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.90-2.07). The prevalence was 3.9% for preproliferative DR, 7.8% for proliferative DR, and 19.2% for maculopathy. Individuals with DR had significantly worse visual acuity than those with no DR (best-corrected visual acuity, 0.35 vs 0.21 logMAR; P < .001). The rate of moderate visual impairment was 12.2%, and the rate of blindness was 2.5%. Primary treatments included laser photocoagulation (n = 1637), intravitreal injection (n = 1440), and vitrectomy (n = 309). Conclusions and Relevance: Screening Bangladeshi individuals known to have diabetes using fundus photography identified large numbers of patients with sight-threatening proliferative DR, maculopathy, and visual impairment or blindness. Expansion of eye screening services in Bangladesh is warranted as part of a national government eye care and diabetes health policy.
Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia. Br J Ophthalmol 2019;103(7):871-877.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia. METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.
Nanji KC, Fain B, Morley MG, Bayes J. In Response. Anesth Analg 2019;128(1):e11-e12.