2019

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Neumann R, Nguyen QD, Kramer M, Zierhut M, Kempen JH, DeSmet M, Wickstrom K. ISOPT Hot Topic Panel Discussion on Uveitis and Inflammation. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2019;35(8):433-440.Abstract
For this "hot topic" session in uveitis we selected first and foremost an issue that puts our clinical work and research in "holding pattern." The issue is our method of evaluating the severity of uveitis. We posed the following questions to our esteemed panelists: 1.The relative significance of cells vs. flare in following uveitis patients 2.Cells/flare measurements 3.A glance into the future and the relevance of endpoints in clinical studies and their methodologies While there are different opinions in managing and monitoring uveitis patients, there seems to be an agreement on the high need of improving objective mode/s of reliably measuring both cells and flare and better understand their significance.
Nguyen JQN, Resnick CM, Chang Y-H, Hansen RM, Fulton AB, Moskowitz A, Calabrese CE, Dagi LR. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on optic nerve function in patients with craniosynostosis and recurrent intracranial hypertension. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: Assessment of combined impact of intracranial pressure (ICH) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on optic nerve function in children with craniosynostosis (CS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study METHODS: Patients treated at Boston Children's Hospital for CS who had an ophthalmic examination that included pattern reversal (pr)VEP (2013-2014) and history of ICH based on direct measurement, papilledema, or classic features on neuroimaging and during cranial vault expansion were included. History of OSA was determined by polysomnography and associated conditions, including apnea and (adeno)tonsillectomy. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) resolved ICH absent history of OSA; (2) resolved ICH with history of OSA; (3) recurrent ICH absent history of OSA; and (4) recurrent ICH with history of OSA. Predictor variables included latency of P100 component of prVEP, best-corrected visual acuity, optic nerve appearance, visual fields and global RNFL. Primary outcome was association of prolonged P100 latency with resolved versus recurrent ICH and OSA. RESULTS: Twenty-eight children met inclusion criteria (mean age 11.6 ± 6.9 years): group 1 (N = 3); group 2 (N = 6); group 3 (N = 8); group 4 (N = 11). P100 latencies were not prolonged in groups 1 and 2. Three of 8 in group 3 and 9 of 11 in group 4 had prolonged P100 latency. Group 4 was significantly worse than group 3 (P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: History of OSA, in addition to recurrent ICH, is associated with greatest risk of optic neuropathy with CS. Ophthalmologists should encourage early management of OSA as well as ICH to optimize ophthalmic outcomes.
Nilsson AK, Löfqvist C, Najm S, Hellgren G, Sävman K, Andersson MX, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Influence of Human Milk and Parenteral Lipid Emulsions on Serum Fatty Acid Profiles in Extremely Preterm Infants. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2019;43(1):152-161.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely are at risk of a deficiency in ω-6 and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated how fatty acids from breast milk and parenteral lipid emulsions shape serum LC-PUFA profiles in extremely preterm infants during early perinatal life. METHODS: Ninety infants born < 28 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive parenteral lipids with or without the ω-3 LC-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (SMOFlipid: Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden, or Clinoleic: Baxter Medical AB, Kista, Sweden, respectively). The fatty acid composition of infant serum phospholipids was determined from birth to postmenstrual age 40 weeks, and in mother's milk total lipids on postnatal day 7. Enteral and parenteral intake of LC-PUFAs was correlated with levels in infant serum. RESULTS: Infants administered parenteral ω-3 LC-PUFAs received 4.4 and 19.3 times more DHA and EPA, respectively, over the first 2 weeks of life. Parenteral EPA but not DHA correlated with levels in infant serum. We found linear relationships between dietary EPA and DHA and infant serum levels in the Clinoleic (Baxter Medical AB) group. The volume of administered SMOFlipid (Fresenius Kabi) was inversely correlated with serum AA, whereas Clinoleic (Baxter Medical AB) inversely correlated with serum EPA and DHA. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no or low correlation between the amount of DHA administered parenterally and levels measured in serum. Whether this observation reflects serum phospholipid fraction only or truly represents the amount of accreted DHA needs to be investigated. None of the parenteral lipid emulsions satisfactorily maintained high levels of both ω-6 and ω-3 LC-PUFAs in infant serum.
Noble CW, Gangaputra SS, Thompson IA, Yuan A, Apolo AB, Lee J-M, Papaliodis GN, Kodati S, Bishop R, Magone TM, Sobrin L, Sen NH. Ocular Adverse Events following Use of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Metastatic Malignancies. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2019;:1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the clinical features, severity, and management of ocular immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for metastatic malignancies. METHODS: Retrospective chart review at three tertiary ophthalmology clinics. Electronic medical records were reviewed between 2000 and 2017 for patients with new ocular symptoms while undergoing checkpoint inhibition therapy. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified. Ocular irAEs ranged from keratoconjunctivitis sicca to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like findings. Average timing of irAEs from starting checkpoint inhibitor therapy was 15.7 weeks. Ocular inflammation was successfully controlled with corticosteroids in most cases, however three patients discontinue treatment as a result of ocular inflammation with decreased visual acuity, two discontinued due to progression of metastatic disease, and one discontinued due to severe systemic irAEs. CONCLUSION: We found a wide spectrum of ocular irAEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In most cases, ocular AEs did not limit ongoing cancer treatment.
Nocera AL, Mueller SK, Stephan JR, Hing L, Seifert P, Han X, Lin DT, Amiji MM, Libermann T, Bleier BS. Exosome swarms eliminate airway pathogens and provide passive epithelial immunoprotection through nitric oxide. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019;143(4):1525-1535.e1.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Nasal mucosa-derived exosomes (NMDEs) harbor immunodefensive proteins and are capable of rapid interepithelial protein transfer. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether mucosal exposure to inhaled pathogens stimulates a defensive swarm of microbiocidal exosomes, which also donate their antimicrobial cargo to adjacent epithelial cells. METHODS: We performed an institutional review board-approved study of healthy NMDE secretion after Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 stimulation by LPS (12.5 μg/mL) in the presence of TLR4 inhibitors. Interepithelial transfer of exosomal nitric oxide (NO) synthase and nitric oxide was measured by using ELISAs and NO activity assays. Exosomal antimicrobial assays were performed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proteomic analyses were performed by using SOMAscan. RESULTS: In vivo and in vitro LPS exposure induced a 2-fold increase in NMDE secretion along with a 2-fold increase in exosomal inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and function through TLR4 and inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase activation. LPS stimulation increased exosomal microbiocidal activity against P aeruginosa by almost 2 orders of magnitude. LPS-stimulated exosomes induced a 4-fold increase in NO production within autologous epithelial cells with protein transfer within 5 minutes of contact. Pathway analysis of the NMDE proteome revealed 44 additional proteins associated with NO signaling and innate immune function. CONCLUSIONS: We provide direct in vivo evidence for a novel exosome-mediated innate immunosurveillance and defense mechanism of the human upper airway. These findings have implications for lower airway innate immunity, delivery of airway therapeutics, and host microbiome regulation.
North VS, Habib L, Yoon MK. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Eyelid: a Review. Surv Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive tumor of both epithelial and neuroendocrine origin that carries a mortality rate of up to 40%. MCC tumors typically present as painless, expanding nodules on the sun-exposed skin areas of older, white patients. Eyelid and periocular tumors comprise approximately 2.5% of all cases of MCC and may be mistaken for chalazia or basal cell carcinomas. Immunosuppression is a significant risk factor, particularly in solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and patients with HIV. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is often employed for accurate staging of head and neck MCC. Treatment includes wide-local excision, commonly with the addition of radiotherapy for improved locoregional disease control. Historically, adjuvant chemotherapy had been reserved for metastatic disease, but immunotherapy and targeted chemotherapies are currently being investigated for use in primary disease. The clinical characteristics of all available published cases of eyelid MCC are summarized .
North VS, Starks VS, Lee NG. Basal Cell Carcinoma Masquerading as a Chalazion in a 27-Year-Old Woman. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;137(7):e185435.
Notomi S, Ishihara K, Efstathiou NE, Lee J-J, Hisatomi T, Tachibana T, Konstantinou EK, Ueta T, Murakami Y, Maidana DE, Ikeda Y, Kume S, Terasaki H, Sonoda S, Blanz J, Young L, Sakamoto T, Sonoda K-H, Saftig P, Ishibashi T, Miller JW, Kroemer G, Vavvas DG. Genetic LAMP2 deficiency accelerates the age-associated formation of basal laminar deposits in the retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019;116(47):23724-23734.Abstract
The early stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are characterized by the accumulation of basal laminar deposits (BLamDs). The mechanism for BLamDs accumulating between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and its basal lamina remains elusive. Here we examined the role in AMD of lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP2), a glycoprotein that plays a critical role in lysosomal biogenesis and maturation of autophagosomes/phagosomes. LAMP2 was preferentially expressed by RPE cells, and its expression declined with age. Deletion of the gene in mice resulted in age-dependent autofluorescence abnormalities of the fundus, thickening of Bruch's membrane, and the formation of BLamDs, resembling histopathological changes occurring in AMD. Moreover, LAMP2-deficient mice developed molecular signatures similar to those found in human AMD-namely, the accumulation of APOE, APOA1, clusterin, and vitronectin-adjacent to BLamDs. In contrast, collagen 4, laminin, and fibronectin, which are extracellular matrix proteins constituting RPE basal lamina and Bruch's membrane were reduced in knockout (KO) mice. Mechanistically, retarded phagocytic degradation of photoreceptor outer segments compromised lysosomal degradation and increased exocytosis in LAMP2-deficient RPE cells. The accumulation of BLamDs observed in LAMP2-deficient mice was eventually followed by loss of the RPE and photoreceptors. Finally, we observed loss of LAMP2 expression along with ultramicroscopic features of abnormal phagocytosis and exocytosis in eyes from AMD patients but not from control individuals. Taken together, these results indicate an important role for LAMP2 in RPE function in health and disease, suggesting that LAMP2 reduction may contribute to the formation of BLamDs in AMD.
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Okunuki Y, Mukai R, Nakao T, Tabor SJ, Butovsky O, Dana R, Ksander BR, Connor KM. Retinal microglia initiate neuroinflammation in ocular autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019;116(20):9989-9998.Abstract
Autoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening ocular inflammatory condition in which the retina and uveal tissues become a target of autoreactive immune cells. While microglia have been studied extensively in autoimmune uveitis, their exact function remains uncertain. The objective of the current study was to determine whether resident microglia are necessary and sufficient to initiate and amplify retinal inflammation in autoimmune uveitis. In this study, we clearly demonstrate that microglia are essential for initiating infiltration of immune cells utilizing a murine model of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) and the recently identified microglia-specific marker P2ry12. Initiating disease is the primary function of microglia in EAU, since eliminating microglia during the later stages of EAU had little effect, indicating that the function of circulating leukocytes is to amplify and sustain destructive inflammation once microglia have triggered disease. In the absence of microglia, uveitis does not develop, since leukocytes cannot gain entry through the blood-retinal barrier, illustrating that microglia play a critical role in regulating infiltration of inflammatory cells into the retina.
Owen LA, Shakoor A, Morgan DJ, Hejazi AA, McEntire WM, Brown JJ, Farrer LA, Kim I, Vitale A, Deangelis MM. The Utah Protocol for Postmortem Eye Phenotyping and Molecular Biochemical Analysis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(4):1204-1212.Abstract
Purpose: Current understanding of local disease pathophysiology in AMD is limited. Analysis of the human disease-affected tissue is most informative, as gene expression, expressed quantitative trait loci, microenvironmental, and epigenetic changes can be tissue, cell type, and location specific. Development of a novel translational treatment and prevention strategies particularly for earlier forms of AMD are needed, although access to human ocular tissue analysis is challenging. We present a standardized protocol to study rapidly processed postmortem donor eyes for molecular biochemical and genomic studies. Methods: We partnered with the Utah Lions Eye Bank to obtain donor human eyes, blood, and vitreous, within 6 hours postmortem. Phenotypic analysis was performed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and color fundus photography. Macular and extramacular tissues were immediately isolated, and the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid from each specimen were separated and preserved. Ocular disease phenotype was analyzed using clinically relevant grading criteria by a group of four ophthalmologists incorporating data from SD-OCT retinal images, fundus photographs, and medical records. Results: The use of multimodal imaging leads to greater resolution of retinal pathology, allowing greater phenotypic rigor for both interobserver phenotype and known clinical diagnoses. Further, our analysis resulted in excellent quality RNA, which demonstrated appropriate tissue segregation. Conclusions: The Utah protocol is a standardized methodology for analysis of disease mechanisms in AMD. It uniquely allows for simultaneous rigorous phenotypic, molecular biochemical, and genomic analysis of both systemic and local tissues. This better enables the development of disease biomarkers and therapeutic interventions.
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Pal-Ghosh S, Tadvalkar G, Lieberman VR, Guo X, Zieske JD, Hutcheon A, Stepp MA. Transient Mitomycin C-treatment of human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts alters cell migration, cytokine secretion, and matrix accumulation. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):13905.Abstract
A single application of Mitomycin C (MMC) is used clinically in ophthalmology to reduce scarring and enhance wound resolution after surgery. Here we show in vitro that a 3-hour MMC treatment of primary and telomerase immortalized human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells impacts their migration and adhesion. Transient MMC treatment induces HCLE expression of senescence associated secretory factors, cytokine secretion, and deposition of laminin 332 for several days. Transient MMC treatment also reduces migration and deposition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1)-stimulated collagen by corneal fibroblasts. Using conditioned media from control and MMC treated cells, we demonstrate that factors secreted by MMC-treated corneal epithelial cells attenuate collagen deposition by HCFs whereas those secreted by MMC-treated HCFs do not. These studies are the first to probe the roles played by corneal epithelial cells in reducing collagen deposition by corneal fibroblasts in response to MMC.
Pan P, Weisenberger DJ, Zheng S, Wolf M, Hwang DG, Rose-Nussbaumer JR, Jurkunas UV, Chan MF. Aberrant DNA methylation of miRNAs in Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):16385.Abstract
Homeostatic maintenance of corneal endothelial cells is essential for maintenance of corneal deturgescence and transparency. In Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), an accelerated loss and dysfunction of endothelial cells leads to progressively severe visual impairment. An abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a distinctive hallmark of the disease, however the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not fully understood. Here, we investigate genome-wide and sequence-specific DNA methylation changes of miRNA genes in corneal endothelial samples from FECD patients. We discover that miRNA gene promoters are frequent targets of aberrant DNA methylation in FECD. More specifically, miR-199B is extensively hypermethylated and its mature transcript miR-199b-5p was previously found to be almost completely silenced in FECD. Furthermore, we find that miR-199b-5p directly and negatively regulates Snai1 and ZEB1, two zinc finger transcription factors that lead to increased ECM deposition in FECD. Taken together, these findings suggest a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of matrix protein production by corneal endothelial cells in which miR-199B hypermethylation leads to miR-199b-5p downregulation and thereby the increased expression of its target genes, including Snai1 and ZEB1. Our results support miR-199b-5p as a potential therapeutic target to prevent or slow down the progression of FECD disease.
Pan BX, Margeta MA. Elevated Intraocular Pressure in a Young Man With a History of Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;
Papadopoulos Z. Aflibercept: A review of its effect on the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration. Eur J Ophthalmol 2019;29(4):368-378.Abstract
Considerable improvement has been achieved in the way in which exudative age-related macular degeneration is conventionally treated and in the associated visual outcomes and prognosis, thanks to the agents with effects against vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). By comparison to earlier treatment approaches that involved the use of lasers, the anti-VEGF agents have made it possible to accomplish more positive visual and anatomical outcomes in cases of exudative age-related macular degeneration. Indeed, owing to their positive effects, anti-VEGF agents have quickly come to be considered the gold standard for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration. Aflibercept, the most recently approved intravitreally administered anti-VEGF, seems to mark another milestone in the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration. This anti-VEGF agent presents a series of singular pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic attributes that provide it a number of biological benefits in relation to the treatment of choroidal neovascularization compared to other agents. These attributes include high level of affinity for the VEGF-A factor, an intravitreal half-life of great length, as well as the ability to serve as an antagonist for other growth factors besides VEGF. The impact of Aflibercept on the manner in which exudative age-related macular degeneration is managed was demonstrated by thoroughly reviewing the related literature. The present review article highlights the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety and effectiveness of this anti-VEGF agent as well as the landmark clinical studies that have been carried out to establish this drug as a gold standard in the therapy of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. In addition, studies regarding the outcomes and effectiveness of the various dosage regimens, either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents, are also reviewed.
Parikh R, Feng PW, Tainsh L, Sakurada Y, Balaratnasingam C, Khurana RN, Hemmati H, Modi YS. Comparison of Ophthalmic Medication Prices Between the United States and Australia. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Importance: Health care prices may drive differences in health care costs across high-income nations. Adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept are high-cost medications in the United States and Australia. A comparison of their prices over time may elucidate how ophthalmic medication prices contribute to health care costs. Objective: To compare changes in the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia, the highest and lowest spenders on health care, respectively, among high-income nations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective price comparison study examined prices paid by government entities in the United States (Medicare) and Australia (Pharmaceuticals and Benefits Scheme). The analysis and data collection were conducted from March 28 to May 4, 2018, in accordance with guidelines set by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force on Good Research Practices and prior published studies. No human participants or related data were included in this study. Exposures: The change in mean prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in the United States and Australia. Main Outcomes and Measures: Initial, final, and change in medication price annually from 2013 to 2017 in inflation-adjusted 2017 US dollars. Results: The mean prices (US dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) in 2013 and 2017 in the United States were $1114 ($1053) and $1818 ($1818), respectively, for adalimumab; $2102 ($1988) and $1904 ($1904), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2074 ($1961) and $1956 ($1956), respectively, for aflibercept. The mean (Australian dollar prices unadjusted for inflation) 2013 and 2017 prices in Australia were $1854 (A $1797) and $1206 (A $1574), respectively, for adalimumab; $2157 (A $2090) and $972 (A $1268), respectively, for ranibizumab; and $2030 ($1967) and $996 ($1300), respectively, for aflibercept. The estimated annual change in price for adalimumab was +12.8% (95% CI, 9.1%-16.5%) in the United States compared with -11.1% (95% CI, -15.0% to -7.1%) in Australia, a difference of 23.9% per year (95% CI, 19.7%-28.0%; P < .001). The annual change in price for ranibizumab was -2.6% (95% CI, -3.9% to -1.3%) in the United States compared with -18.5% (95% CI, -29.3% to -7.8%) in Australia, a difference of 15.9% per year (95% CI, 7.6%-24.2%; P = .003). The annual change in price for aflibercept was -1.5% (95% CI, -2.2% to -0.7%) in the United States compared with -16.9% (95% CI, -25.1% to -8.6%) in Australia, a difference of 15.4% (95% CI, 9.1%-21.8%; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study indicate that the prices of adalimumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept significantly decreased during the past 5 years in Australia compared with the United States. These data do not indicate why these differences are noted or what actions might affect future pricing in either country.
Parikh R, Avery RL, Saroj N, Thompson D, Freund BK. Incidence of New Choroidal Neovascularization in Fellow Eyes of Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated With Intravitreal Aflibercept or Ranibizumab. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Importance: Incidence of conversion to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in untreated fellow eyes of patients who are treated for nAMD in 1 eye with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents provides important prognostic information to clinically manage patients. Objective: To investigate the association of treatment assignment (intravitreal aflibercept vs ranibizumab) and baseline characteristics with fellow eye conversion to nAMD in the VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) Trap-Eye: Investigation of Efficacy and Safety in Wet AMD (VIEW) studies. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the VIEW 1 and VIEW 2 studies (randomized, double-masked, active-controlled, multicenter, 96-week, phase 3 trials comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in 2457 patients with treatment-naive eyes with nAMD) analyzed a subgroup of participants treated for nAMD in 1 eye who had untreated fellow eyes without neovascularization at baseline. All participants in the VIEW studies were included in 1 of 4 groups: ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, every 4 weeks; aflibercept, 2 mg, every 4 weeks; aflibercept, 0.5 mg, every 4 weeks; or aflibercept, 2 mg, every 8 weeks after 3 injections at 4-week intervals. Data collection in the VIEW studies occurred from July 2007 to August 2011; the data analysis presented in this report took place from April 2016 to November 2018. Interventions: Patients received no treatment in the fellow eyes unless after conversion to nAMD, when any treatment approved by heath authorities was given per the investigators' discretion. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of conversion to nAMD in patients with untreated fellow eyes that had not had clinical signs of neovascularization at baseline. Results: A total of 1561 participants were included in this analysis. At 96 weeks, 375 patients (24.0%) experienced cases of conversion to neovascular disease in the fellow eye, including 107 of the 399 individuals who received ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, every 4 weeks; 93 of the 387 individuals who received aflibercept, 2 mg, every 4 weeks; 84 of the 387 individuals who received aflibercept, 0.5 mg, every 4 weeks; and 91 of the 388 individuals who received aflibercept, 2 mg, every 8 weeks after 3 doses at 4-week intervals. The rates were 18.1, 16.2, 14.7, and 16.0 per 100 patient-years at risk at week 96, respectively. On multivariate analysis, fellow eye conversion was associated with increasing patient age (per 10 years) at baseline (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36]), female sex (HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.06-1.63]), intraretinal fluid in the study eye at baseline (HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.02-1.61]), and increasing choroidal neovascularization lesion size (per 10 mm2) in the study eye at baseline (HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.06-1.57]). Rates of fellow eye conversion were similar with either of the treatments. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of randomized clinical trial data, patients with active nAMD in 1 eye appeared to have a high risk for fellow eye conversion. Such patients should be monitored closely.
Park J, Armstrong GW, Cestari DM. Spontaneous Superior Ophthalmic Vein Thrombosis in a Transgender Man with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. LGBT Health 2019;6(4):202-204.
Paschalis EI, Lei F, Zhou C, Chen XN, Kapoulea V, Hui P-C, Dana R, Chodosh J, Vavvas DG, Dohlman CH. Microglia Regulate Neuroglia Remodeling in Various Ocular and Retinal Injuries. J Immunol 2019;202(2):539-549.Abstract
Reactive microglia and infiltrating peripheral monocytes have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases of the retina and CNS. However, their specific contribution in retinal degeneration remains unclear. We recently showed that peripheral monocytes that infiltrate the retina after ocular injury in mice become permanently engrafted into the tissue, establishing a proinflammatory phenotype that promotes neurodegeneration. In this study, we show that microglia regulate the process of neuroglia remodeling during ocular injury, and their depletion results in marked upregulation of inflammatory markers, such as , , and in the retina, and abnormal engraftment of peripheral CCR2 CX3CR1 monocytes into the retina, which is associated with increased retinal ganglion cell loss, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, and pigmentation onto the retinal surface. Furthermore, we show that other types of ocular injuries, such as penetrating corneal trauma and ocular hypertension also cause similar changes. However, optic nerve crush injury-mediated retinal ganglion cell loss evokes neither peripheral monocyte response in the retina nor pigmentation, although peripheral CX3CR1 and CCR2 monocytes infiltrate the optic nerve injury site and remain present for months. Our study suggests that microglia are key regulators of peripheral monocyte infiltration and retinal pigment epithelium migration, and their depletion results in abnormal neuroglia remodeling that exacerbates neuroretinal tissue damage. This mechanism of retinal damage through neuroglia remodeling may be clinically important for the treatment of patients with ocular injuries, including surgical traumas.
Paschalis EI, Taniguchi EV, Chodosh J, Pasquale LR, Colby K, Dohlman CH, Shen LQ. Blood Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Its Type 2 Receptor Are Elevated in Patients with Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis. Curr Eye Res 2019;44(6):599-606.Abstract
: Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) patients are prone to glaucoma even with well-controlled intraocular pressure (IOP). Recent experimental data have shown that soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) after ocular injury may contribute to progressive retinal damage and subsequent glaucoma. This study evaluates the blood plasma levels of soluble TNF-, TNF receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 2 (TNFR2), and leptin in patients with Boston type I KPro. : Venous blood samples were collected from KPro patients with glaucoma (KPro G, = 19), KPro patients without glaucoma (KPro NoG, = 12), primary angle closure glaucoma without KPro (PACG, = 13), and narrow angles without glaucoma or KPro (NA, = 21). TNF-, TNFR1, TNFR2, and leptin levels were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was assessed using the Westergren test. Patients with underlying autoimmune conditions or diabetes were excluded from the study. : All groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI), IOP, and ESR ( ≥ 0.11). The mean time from KPro surgery to blood draw was 5.3 ± 3.7 years. Compared to NA patients (0.72 ± 0.3 pg/ml), KPro G and KPro NoG patients had higher blood plasma levels of TNF- (1.18 ± 0.58 pg/ml, = 0.006; 1.16 ± 0.50 pg/ml, = 0.04, respectively). Similarly, KPro G patients had higher blood plasma levels of TNFR2 (2768 ± 1368 pg/ml) than NA patients (2020 ± 435 pg/ml, = 0.048). In multivariate analysis, KPro status remained positively associated with TNF- levels ( = 0.36; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.14-0.58; = 0.002) and TNFR2 levels ( = 458.3; 95% CI: 32.8-883.7; = 0.035) after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, glaucoma status, and ESR. TNFR1 and leptin levels were not significantly different in the study groups. : We detected elevated serum levels of TNF- and TNFR2 in KPro patients. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish TNF- and TNFR2 as serum biomarkers related to KPro surgery. : BCVA: best corrected visual acuity; BMI: body mass index; CDR: cup-to-disc ratio; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HVF: Humphrey visual field; IOP: intraocular pressure; KPro G: keratoprosthesis with glaucoma; KPro NoG: keratoprosthesis without glaucoma; KPro: keratoprosthesis; MD: mean deviation; NA: narrow angle; non-KPro: without keratoprosthesis; PACG: primary angle closure glaucoma; RNFL: retinal nerve fiber layer; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFR1: tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; TNFR2: tumor necrosis factor receptor 2.
Patak J, Gilfert J, Byler M, Neerukonda V, Thiffault I, Cross L, Amudhavalli S, Pacio-Miguez M, Palomares-Bralo M, Garcia-Minaur S, Santos-Simarro F, Powis Z, Alcaraz W, Tang S, Jurgens J, Barry B, England E, Engle E, Hess J, Lebel RR. MAGEL2-related disorders: A study and case series. Clin Genet 2019;96(6):493-505.Abstract
Pathogenic MAGEL2 variants result in the phenotypes of Chitayat-Hall syndrome (CHS), Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We present five patients with mutations in MAGEL2, including the first patient reported with a missense variant, adding to the limited literature. Further, we performed a systematic review of the CHS and SYS literature, assess the overlap between CHS, SYS and PWS, and analyze genotype-phenotype correlations among them. We conclude that there is neither a clinical nor etiological difference between CHS and SYS, and propose that the two syndromes simply be referred to as MAGEL2-related disorders.

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