PURPOSE: Despite extensive knowledge gained over the last 3 decades regarding limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), the disease is not clearly defined, and there is lack of agreement on the diagnostic criteria, staging, and classification system among treating physicians and research scientists working on this field. There is therefore an unmet need to obtain global consensus on the definition, classification, diagnosis, and staging of LSCD. METHODS: A Limbal Stem Cell Working Group was first established by The Cornea Society in 2012. The Working Group was divided into subcommittees. Four face-to-face meetings, frequent email discussions, and teleconferences were conducted since then to obtain agreement on a strategic plan and methodology from all participants after a comprehensive literature search, and final agreement was reached on the definition, classification, diagnosis, and staging of LSCD. A writing group was formed to draft the current manuscript, which has been extensively revised to reflect the consensus of the Working Group. RESULTS: A consensus was reached on the definition, classification, diagnosis, and staging of LSCD. The clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria of LSCD were clarified, and a staging system of LSCD based on clinical presentation was established. CONCLUSIONS: This global consensus provides a comprehensive framework for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and staging of LSCD. The newly established criteria will aid in the correct diagnosis and formulation of an appropriate treatment for different stages of LSCD, which will facilitate a better understanding of the condition and help with clinical management, research, and clinical trials in this area.
Purpose: To assess the ocular surface in volunteers who consider themselves as healthy, in order to evaluate how para-inflammatory mechanisms fail with age, and thus investigate the phenomenon of "InflammAging." Methods: In this observational prospective cohort study, volunteers were categorized into three groups according to age: young (19-40 years), middle-aged (41-60 years), and older adults (61-93 years). Clinical assessments included tear breakup time (T-BUT) and Schirmer test type I. Dry eye symptoms were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. Conjunctival mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), MUC5AC, and IL-8 were measured by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Results: A total of 82 volunteers (38 males and 44 females) were enrolled. T-BUT decreased significantly with increasing age (young: 11.13 ± 0.18 seconds; middle-aged: 10.83 ± 0.56 seconds; older: 9.00 ± 1.00 seconds, P < 0.05). Schirmer test values decreased significantly with age (young: 20.6 ± 1.0 mm; middle-aged: 19.2 ± 1.2 mm; older: 16.0 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.05). OSDI scores increased with age in both groups, but they were substantially higher in women. Conjunctival expression of inflammatory markers ICAM-1, IL-8, and MUC5AC increased with age. Conclusions: Clinical signs, symptoms, and biomarkers of chronic inflammation increased with age in a cohort of volunteers who considered themselves healthy, indicating an age-related progressive impairment of ocular surface system function.
Punctal agenesis is defined as the absence of the punctum occurring secondary to a failure of embryogenesis. This review synthesizes existing data on the embryology, anatomy, clinical presentation, symptomatology, management options and treatment outcomes of punctal agenesis. A foundational knowledge of the underlying embryologic and anatomical abnormalities is fundamental to understanding its clinical presentation and assists in choosing an appropriate management strategy. Existing outcomes data is generally favorable and suggests management with a step-wise approach can alleviate symptoms in patients across a spectrum of disease.
: Amblyopia and strabismus affect 2%-5% of the population and cause a broad range of visual deficits. The response to treatment is generally assessed using visual acuity, which is an insensitive measure of visual function and may, therefore, underestimate binocular vision gains in these patients. On the other hand, the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) generally takes longer to assess than visual acuity, but it is better correlated with improvement in a range of visual tasks and, notably, with improvements in binocular vision. The present study aims to assess monocular and binocular CSFs in amblyopia and strabismus patients. : Both monocular CSFs and the binocular CSF were assessed for subjects with amblyopia ( = 11), strabismus without amblyopia ( = 20), and normally sighted controls ( = 24) using a tablet-based implementation of the quick CSF, which can assess a full CSF in <3 min. Binocular summation was evaluated against a baseline model of simple probability summation. : The CSF of amblyopic eyes was impaired at mid-to-high spatial frequencies compared to fellow eyes, strabismic eyes without amblyopia, and control eyes. Binocular contrast summation exceeded probability summation in controls, but not in subjects with amblyopia (with or without strabismus) or strabismus without amblyopia who were able to fuse at the test distance. Binocular summation was less than probability summation in strabismic subjects who were unable to fuse. : We conclude that monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity deficits define important characteristics of amblyopia and strabismus that are not captured by visual acuity alone and can be measured efficiently using the quick CSF.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The phakomatoses are a group of inherited disorders with variable clinical manifestations that are characterized by brain, cutaneous, ocular and other distinct lesions in multiple organs. Correctly recognizing the neuro-ophthalmic signs and symptoms can lead to early diagnosis and treatment. The group is composed of neurofibromatosis (type 1 and 2), tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau, ataxia-telangiectasia and Sturge-Weber syndromes. However, more than 60 syndromes have been described in the medical literature. This review provides an update on the diagnosis and management of phakomatoses with a focus on their clinical neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: Phakomatoses are a group of inherited syndromes with variable clinical manifestations that are characterized by brain, cutaneous, ocular and other distinct lesions in multiple organs. Recent advances in diagnostic and treatment options that have contributed to prompt recognition and management of these disorders are discussed with an emphasis on the beneficial effects on vision. SUMMARY: Phakomatoses, also known as neuro-oculo-cutaneous syndromes, are inherited disorders with characteristic lesions in multiple organs. Because of their frequent ocular involvement thorough ophthalmologic and neuro-ophthalmic evaluation is critical in this patient population in order to prevent vision loss and life-threatening complications that are often associated with these disorders.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently an exceedingly powerful tool in the management of hitherto incurable malignancies and their use in clinical practice is expected to increase in the near future. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current medical uses of checkpoint inhibitors with a focus on their neuro-ophthalmic side-effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a promising breakthrough in the treatment of several tumor types. However, these targeted therapies can induce a wide range of immune-related ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic toxicities. It is important for neuro-ophthamologists to promptly recognize and manage these adverse events that can potentially threaten vision. SUMMARY: There are currently seven FDA-approved immune checkpoint inhibitors and several ones are under investigation. In general, immunotherapy is considered a well tolerated, safe and efficacious treatment option for many cancer patients. Nevertheless, because of their unique mechanism of action, these molecules can alter the immune response and result in immune-related adverse effects in almost every organ with an estimated incidence of ophthalmic side effects in this patient population of less than 1%.
To better understand AAPOS member pediatric ophthalmologists' knowledge and needs regarding genetic eye disorders, the AAPOS Genetic Eye Disease Task Force developed a 16-question survey that was circulated to national and international AAPOS members. Responses to questions on practice patterns, baseline knowledge, and educational interests regarding patients with suspected ophthalmic genetic disorders were collected. A majority of respondents (93%) evaluate patients with suspected genetic disorders. Knowledge gaps were present in heritability of certain conditions, genetic testing strategies, and referral to clinical trials. Most respondents expressed interest in further education in these areas. A model for care is proposed as a first step in the education process.
Duffy DL, Zhu G, Li X, Sanna M, Iles MM, Jacobs LC, Evans DM, Yazar S, Beesley J, Law MH, Kraft P, Visconti A, Taylor JC, Liu F, Wright MJ, Henders AK, Bowdler L, Glass D, Ikram AM, Uitterlinden AG, Madden PA, Heath AC, Nelson EC, Green AC, Chanock S, Barrett JH, Brown MA, Hayward NK, Macgregor S, Sturm RA, Hewitt AW, Hewitt AW, Kayser M, Hunter DJ, Newton Bishop JA, Spector TD, Montgomery GW, Mackey DA, Smith GD, Nijsten TE, Bishop TD, Bataille V, Falchi M, Han J, Martin NG. Publisher Correction: Novel pleiotropic risk loci for melanoma and nevus density implicate multiple biological pathways. Nat Commun 2019;10(1):299.Abstract
The original version of this Article contained errors in the spelling of the authors Fan Liu and M. Arfan Ikram, which were incorrectly given as Fan Lui and Arfan M. Ikram. In addition, the original version of this Article also contained errors in the author affiliations which are detailed in the associated Publisher Correction.
BACKGROUND: Orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCH) are the most common adult orbital tumor and represent an ideal index lesion for endonasal orbital tumor surgery. In order to standardize outcomes reporting, an anatomic-based staging system was developed. METHODS: An international, multidisciplinary panel of 23 experts in orbital tumor surgery was formed. A modified Delphi method was used to develop the cavernous hemangioma exclusively endonasal resection (CHEER) staging system with a total of 2 rounds being completed. RESULTS: Tumors medial to a plane along the long axis of the optic nerve may be considered amenable for an exclusively endonasal resection. In select cases, tumors may extend inferolaterally if the tumor remains below a plane from the contralateral naris through the long axis of the optic nerve (ie, plane of resectability [POR]). This definition reached consensus with 91.3% of panelists in agreement. Five stages were designed based on increasing technical resection difficulty and potential for morbidity. Stages were based on the relationship of the tumor to the extraocular muscles, the inferomedial muscular trunk of the ophthalmic artery (IMT), and orbital foramina. Staging by anatomic location also reached consensus with 87.0% of panelists in agreement. Size was not included in the staging system due to the lack of agreement on the contribution of size to resection difficulty. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic orbital tumor surgery is a nascent field with a growing, yet heterogeneous, body of literature. The CHEER staging system is designed to facilitate international, high-quality, standardized studies establishing the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of endonasal resection of OCH.
V pattern strabismus is the most common ocular motor disorder reported in patients with craniosynostosis. Strabismus management may prove challenging, and few studies provide perspective on surgical approach. The purpose of this review is to discuss evaluation and surgical options for treating V pattern strabismus in patients with craniosynostosis. We provide a step-by-step approach to facilitate surgical planning.
Angiogenesis, disruption of the retinal barrier, leukocyte-adhesion and oedema are cardinal signs of proliferative retinopathies that are associated with vision loss. Therefore, identifying factors that regulate these vascular dysfunctions is critical to target pathological angiogenesis. Given the conflicting role of bioactive lipids reported in the current literature, the goal of this review is to provide the reader a clear road map of what has been accomplished so far in the field with specific focus on the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)-derived metabolites in proliferative retinopathies. This necessarily entails a description of the different retina cells, blood retina barriers and the role of (PUFAs)-derived metabolites in diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age-related macular degeneration as the most common types of proliferative retinopathies.
: To perform a systematic review of the application of botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the management of strabismus in the adult and pediatric populations. : A systematic literature search was performed using the Medline database. : In 1989, with the FDA approval of botulinum toxin (onabotulinum toxin A, or BTA) for the treatment of strabismus, patients were provided with an alternative to surgical recession. In this review, we discuss the uses of BTA in the treatment of acute onset comitant esotropia or smaller angle esotropia and as an adjunct to surgery for larger angle esotropia or sixth nerve palsy. Its uses are also explored in intermittent exotropia and vertical strabismus, including thyroid-associated orbitopathy, fourth nerve palsies, and other orbital pathology. : Despite its transient kinetics, BTA can have permanent effects on ocular alignment, promoting binocularity and reduction of diplopia, and can serve as a primary treatment or a muscle sparing option in patients at risk of anterior segment ischemia or need for future surgeries.
The first meeting exclusively dedicated to the 'High-throughput dense reconstruction of cell lineages' took place at Janelia Research Campus (Howard Hughes Medical Institute) from 14 to 18 April 2019. Organized by Tzumin Lee, Connie Cepko, Jorge Garcia-Marques and Isabel Espinosa-Medina, this meeting echoed the recent eruption of new tools that allow the reconstruction of lineages based on the phylogenetic analysis of DNA mutations induced during development. Combined with single-cell RNA sequencing, these tools promise to solve the lineage of complex model organisms at single-cell resolution. Here, we compile the conference consensus on the technological and computational challenges emerging from the use of the new strategies, as well as potential solutions.
Importance: Genetic variants associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are known to influence disease risk. However, the clinical effect of associated variants individually or in aggregate is not known. Genetic risk scores (GRS) examine the cumulative genetic load by combining individual genetic variants into a single measure, which is assumed to have a larger effect and increased power to detect relevant disease-related associations. Objective: To investigate if a GRS that comprised 12 POAG genetic risk variants is associated with age at disease diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study included individuals with POAG and controls from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) study. A GRS was formulated using 12 variants known to be associated with POAG, and the alleles associated with increasing risk of POAG were aligned in the case-control sets. In case-only analyses, the association of the GRS with age at diagnosis was analyzed as an estimate of disease onset. Results from cohort-specific analyses were combined with meta-analysis. Data collection started in August 2012 for the NEIGHBOR cohort and in July 2008 for the GLAUGEN cohort and were analyzed starting in March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of a 12 single-nucleotide polymorphism POAG GRS with age at diagnosis in individuals with POAG using linear regression. Results: The GLAUGEN study included 976 individuals with POAG and 1140 controls. The NEIGHBOR study included 2132 individuals with POAG and 2290 controls. For individuals with POAG, the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 63.6 (9.8) years in the GLAUGEN cohort and 66.0 (13.7) years in the NEIGHBOR cohort. For controls, the mean (SD) age at enrollment was 65.5 (9.2) years in the GLAUGEN cohort and 68.9 (11.4) years in the NEIGHBOR cohort. All study participants were European white. The GRS was strongly associated with POAG risk in case-control analysis (odds ratio per 1-point increase in score = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.21-1.27; P = 3.4 × 10-66). In case-only analyses, each higher GRS unit was associated with a 0.36-year earlier age at diagnosis (β = -0.36; 95% CI, -0.56 to -0.16; P = 4.0 × 10-4). Individuals in the top 5% of the GRS had a mean (SD) age at diagnosis of 5.2 (12.8) years earlier than those in the bottom 5% GRS (61.4 [12.7] vs 66.6 [12.9] years; P = 5.0 × 10-4). Conclusions and Relevance: A higher dose of POAG risk alleles was associated with an earlier age at glaucoma diagnosis. On average, individuals with POAG with the highest GRS had 5.2-year earlier age at diagnosis of disease. These results suggest that a GRS that comprised genetic variants associated with POAG could help identify patients with risk of earlier disease onset impacting screening and therapeutic strategies.
PURPOSE: To describe the 6.5-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a coastal town of central Portugal. METHODS: Population-based cohort study. Participants underwent standardized interviews and ophthalmological examination. Color fundus photographs were graded according to the International Classification and Grading System for AMD and ARM. The crude and age-standardized incidence of early and late AMD was calculated, and progression was analyzed. RESULTS: The 6.5-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 10.7%, and of late AMD it was 0.8%. The incidence of early AMD was 7.2, 13.1 and 17.7% for participants aged 55-64, 65-74 and 75-84 years (p < 0.001). The late AMD incidence was 0.3, 0.9 and 2.8% for the corresponding age groups (p = 0.003). The age-standardized incidence was 10.8% (95% CI, 10.74-10.80%) for early and 1.0% (95% CI, 1.00-1.02%) for late AMD. The incidence of both neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy was 0.4%. Progression occurred in 17.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: The early AMD incidence in a coastal town of central Portugal was found to be similar to that of major epidemiological studies of European-descent populations; however, the incidence of late AMD was lower, and further analysis on risk factors will be conducted.
Measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) is the cornerstone of a comprehensive glaucoma exam. In babies or small children, however, IOP measurements are problematic, cannot often be done at the slit lamp, and are sometimes require general anesthesia. Therefore, it is essential for an ophthalmologist who examines a pediatric patient to be aware of the different tonometers used in children, as well as the effects of central corneal thickness (CCT) and anesthesia on IOP measurements. Goldmann applanation tonometry is the gold standard for IOP assessment. Most alternative tonometers tend to give higher IOP readings compared to the Goldmann applanation tonometer, and readings between different tonometers are often not interchangeable. Like Goldmann tonometry, many of these alternative tonometers are affected by CCT, with thicker corneas having artifactually high IOP readings and thinner corneas having artifactually lower IOP readings. Although various machines can be used to compensate for corneal factors (e.g. the dynamic contour tonometer and ocular response analyzer), it is important to be aware that certain ocular diseases can be associated with abnormal CCT values and that their IOP readings need to be interpreted accordingly. Because induction and anesthetics can affect IOP, office IOPs taken in awake patients are always the most accurate.