The introduction of ultrawide field imaging has allowed the visualization of approximately 82% of the total retinal area compared to only 30% using 7-standard field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy (ETDRS) photography. This substantially wider field of view, while useful in many retinal vascular diseases, is particularly important in diabetic retinopathy where eyes with predominantly peripheral lesions or PPL have been shown to have significantly greater progression rates compared to eyes without PPL. In telemedicine settings, ultrawide field imaging has substantially reduced image ungradable rates and increased rate of disease identification allowing care to be delivered more effectively. Furthermore, the use of ultrawide field fluorescein angiography allows the visualization of significantly more diabetic retinal lesions and allows more accurate quantification of total retinal nonperfusion, with potential implications in the management of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The focus of this paper is to review the current role of ultrawide field imaging in diabetic retinopathy and its possible future role in innovations for retinal image analysis such as artificial intelligence and vessel caliber measurements.
PURPOSE: To report the phenotypic and genotypic data of a patient with retinitis punctata albescens carrying a novel deletion in the RLBP1 gene. RESULTS: A woman of Iranian descent in her forties with a history of progressive visual deterioration since early childhood exhibited phenotypic features of retinitis punctata albescens with multiple white dots in the posterior pole and macular atrophy in both eyes. The microarray analysis identified a ∼2.160 kb homozygous deletion corresponding to a minimum deletion boundary of chr15q26.1:89,756,882-89,759,041/GRCh37 (hg19), which encompasses exon 6 of the RLBP1 gene. CONCLUSION: We describe a novel large homozygous deletion in the RLBP1 gene encoding the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in a patient of Iranian descent with retinitis punctata albescens. Genotype-phenotype studies may provide more information about the functions of the RLBP1 encoding proteins and the disease course, because RLBP1 mutations are associated with high phenotypic variability and are therefore a necessity for future tailored individual therapies.
Angiogenesis plays a key role in the pathology of diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Understanding the driving forces of endothelial cell migration and organization, as well as the time frame of these processes, can elucidate mechanisms of action of important pathological pathways. Herein, we have developed an organ-specific microfluidic platform recapitulating the in vivo angiogenic microenvironment by co-culturing mouse primary brain endothelial cells with brain pericytes in a three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffold. As a proof of concept, we show that this model can be used for studying the angiogenic process and further comparing the angiogenic properties between two different common inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvlmJ. We further show that the newly discovered angiogenesis-regulating gene Padi2 promotes angiogenesis through Dll4/Notch1 signaling by an on-chip mechanistic study. Analysis of the interplay between primary endothelial cells and pericytes in a 3D microfluidic environment assists in the elucidation of the angiogenic response.
PURPOSE: The most commonly applied prosthetic devices for corneal blindness in the setting of severe cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis are the Boston keratoprosthesis type II and the modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis, with these requiring either normal eyelid skin or a healthy cuspid tooth, respectively. For patients with neither attribute, we developed a new keratoprosthesis device combining positive aspects of both Boston keratoprosthesis type II and modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis, which we have named the "Lux." METHODS: Short-term postoperative outcomes for the Lux keratoprosthesis, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), device retention, and complications, were examined in a retrospective case series of 9 eyes of 9 patients implanted at 4 centers. RESULTS: Seven of 9 (77.8%) eyes had cicatricial corneal blindness due to autoimmune disease and 2 (22.2%) from severe burns. Preoperative BCVA was ≤hand motions in all patients. Three (33.3%) had previously received at least 1 keratoprosthesis in the affected eye, and 4 (44.4%) had previously undergone ≥1 therapeutic keratoplasty. One patient had 19 previous eye surgeries. The mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 18.7 months (range 7-28 months). BCVA of ≥20/200 was achieved in all 9 patients, with 2 (22.2%) reaching 20/20 at the last examination, and all 9 (100%) of the devices were retained. One recipient developed a retinal detachment 2 months after implantation. Two (22.2%) patients required placement of a glaucoma drainage device. CONCLUSIONS: The Lux keratoprosthesis was developed for patients with severe cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis who were otherwise not candidates for existing keratoprosthesis designs. Short-term outcomes after implantation of the Lux keratoprosthesis were encouraging.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Most patients who undergo endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) have a diagnosis of idiopathic nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of routine biopsy of the lacrimal sac performed at time of DCR on subsequent patient diagnosis and treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: The histopathology of nasolacrimal specimens (n = 769), obtained from 654 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic DCR by a single surgeon over a 30-year period, were reviewed. Specific focus included the identification of unanticipated pathologic findings as they related to pertinent patient demographics, clinical presentation, radiologic findings, and intraoperative observations. RESULTS: The study population was 69.6% female, with an average age of 56.1 ± 18.2 years. Pathological findings of tissue from the nasolacrimal sac, which was routinely sampled in all cases, showed inflammation (n = 566 [73.6%]), normal histology (n = 147 [19.1%]), granulomas (n = 8 [1.0%]), and neoplastic process (n = 7 [0.9%]). Patient history, preoperative CT scan, and/or intraoperative findings alerted the surgeon to the possibility of an unusual diagnosis in 12 of the 15 patients. An unsuspected neoplastic or granulomatous cause of lacrimal obstruction was identified on intraoperative biopsy in three patients (0.46%). CONCLUSIONS: Although neoplastic and granulomatous diseases are relatively rare causes of lacrimal obstruction necessitating DCR surgery, they may be identified by through patient evaluation in most cases and by routine intraoperative biopsy of the lacrimal sac in all cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:584-589, 2020.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the leading cause of childhood blindness in very-low-birthweight and very preterm infants in the United States. With improved survival of smaller babies, more infants are at risk for ROP, yet there is an increasing shortage of providers to screen and treat ROP. Through a literature review of new and emerging technologies, screening criteria, and analysis of a national survey of pediatric ophthalmologists and retinal specialists, the authors found the shortage of ophthalmology workforce for ROP a serious and growing concern. When used appropriately, emerging technologies have the potential to mitigate gaps in the ROP workforce.
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical characteristics and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings of patients with neuropathic corneal pain (NCP) due to refractive surgery (RS-NCP) and herpetic eye disease (H-NCP) to controls. METHODS: Sixteen patients with RS-NCP and 7 patients with H-NCP, and 37 healthy reference age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included to the study. The medical records were reviewed for demographic features, detailed disease history, ocular surface disease index (OSDI), ocular pain assessment survey (OPAS) scores. IVCM images of patients were analyzed and compared to reference controls by two masked observers. RESULTS: The mean pain intensity score for the last 24 h (5.1 ± 2.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.2; p = 0.27), last 2 weeks (6.1 ± 2.5 vs. 4.8 ± 2.3; p = 0.13) for RS-NCP vs. H-NCP respectively, and quality of life scores (p = 0.23) were similar in both groups. Quality of life, especially mood (p = 0.06) and enjoying life/relations to others (p = 0.10) were affected in both groups, but were not statistically significant between groups. The mean total nerve density was lower in RS-NCP (5702.4 ± 4599.0 μm/mm) compared to their respective controls (26,422.8 ± 4491.0; p < 0.001) and in the H-NCP group (2149.5 ± 2985.9) compared to their respective controls (22,948.8 ± 3169.0; p < 0.001). Alterations in DC density were similar between all groups (38.3 ± 48.0 cells/mm in RS-NCP, 61.0 ± 76.9 in H-NCP, p = 0.95). CONCLUSION: Neuropathic corneal pain patients due to refractive surgery show similar clinical characteristics, pain levels, quality of life impact, and IVCM findings as patients with NCP due to herpetic eye disease.
There are multiple surgical approaches to the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Here, we evaluated the outcomes of small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), alone or in combination with scleral buckle (SB-PPV), for RRD repair using a standardized technique by 3 vitreoretinal surgeons: "extensive" removal of the vitreous with scleral depression and dynamic examination of the peripheral retina. One hundred eighty seven eyes of 180 consecutive patients treated for primary RRD by three vitreoretinal surgeons at a tertiary academic medical center from September 2015 to March 2018 were analyzed. Most RRDs occurred in males (134 [71.3%] eyes), affected the left eye (102 [54.3%]), and were phakic (119 [63.3%]). PPV alone was performed in 159 eyes (84.6%), with a combined SB-PPV used in the remaining 29 eyes (15.4%); focal endolaser was used in all (100%) cases. The single surgery anatomic success rate was 186 eyes (99.5%) at 3 months, and 187 (100%) at last follow up. Overall best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had significantly improved at 3 months ([Snellen 20/47] P<0.00005) and last follow up ([Snellen 20/31] P<0.00005), as compared to day of presentation ([Snellen 20/234]). Our findings suggest that "extensive" removal of the vitreous and dynamic peripheral examination with scleral depression may lead to high single surgery success in primary uncomplicated RRD repair.
Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide, and steroids in topical ophthalmic solutions (e.g. dexamethasone eye drops) are the mainstay of therapy for ocular inflammation. For many non-infectious ocular inflammatory diseases, such as uveitis, eye drops are administered as often as once every hour. The high frequency of administration coupled with the side effects of eye drops leads to poor adherence for patients. Drug-eluting contact lenses have long been sought as a potentially superior alternative for sustained ocular drug delivery; but loading sufficient drug into contact lenses and control the release of the drug is still a challenge. A dexamethasone releasing contact lens (Dex-Lens) was previously developed by encapsulating a dexamethasone-polymer film within the periphery of a hydrogel-based contact lens. Here, we demonstrate safety and efficacy of the Dex-Lens in rabbit models in the treatment of anterior ocular inflammation. The Dex-Lens delivered drug for 7 days in vivo (rabbit model). In an ocular irritation study (Draize test) with Dex-Lens extracts, no adverse events were observed in normal rabbit eyes. Dex-Lenses effectively inhibited suture-induced corneal neovascularization and inflammation for 7 days and lipopolysaccharide-induced anterior uveitis for 5 days. The efficacy of Dex-Lenses was similar to that of hourly-administered dexamethasone eye drops. In the corneal neovascularization study, substantial corneal edema was observed in rabbit eyes that received no treatment and those that wore a vehicle lens as compared to rabbit eyes that wore the Dex-Lens. Throughout these studies, Dex-Lenses were well tolerated and did not exhibit signs of toxicity. Dexamethasone-eluting contact lenses may be an option for the treatment of ocular inflammation and a platform for ocular drug delivery. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Inflammation of the eye can happen either on the ocular surface (i.e. the cornea) or inside the eye, both of which can result in loss of vision or even blindness. Ocular inflammation is normally treated by steroid eye drops. Depending on the type and severity of inflammation, patients may have to take drops every hour for days at a time. Such severe dosing regimen can lead to patients missing doses. Also, more than 95% drug in an eye drop never goes inside the eye. Here we present a contact lens that release a steroid (dexamethasone) for seven days at a time. It is much more efficient than eye drops and a significant improvement since once worn, the patient will avoid missing doses.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of lighting changes on gait in elderly patients with glaucoma and evaluate whether associations are mediated by fear of falling (FOF). Methods: Gait initiation and parameters measured with the GAITRite Electronic Walkway were captured in normal indoor light, then in dim light, and again in normal light (normal post dim [NPD]). Participants' right and left eye visual fields (VFs) were merged into integrated VF (IVF) sensitivities. FOF was evaluated using a Rasch-analyzed questionnaire. Multivariable regression models evaluated whether IVF sensitivity was associated with lighting-dependent gait changes and if this relationship was mediated by FOF. Results: In 213 participants (mean age = 71.4 years), gait initiation in dim light took longer with more VF damage ( = 0.02). Greater VF damage was associated with slower gait in dim ( < 0.001) and NPD ( = 0.003) lighting, as well as shorter strides ( = 0.02), broader stance ( = 0.003), and more variable stride velocity and length in all lighting (all < 0.03). When moving from normal to dim lighting, those with more VF damage slowed gait and cadence, shortened stride length, and lengthened double support time (all < 0.001). Velocity, cadence, and double support time did not return to baseline in NPD lighting (all < 0.05). Fear of falling did not appear to mediate the relationship between IVF sensitivity and lighting-dependent gait changes. Conclusions: Patients with more VF damage demonstrate gait degradation in extreme or changing lighting, which is not mediated by FOF. Translational Relevance: Quantitative spatiotemporal gait evaluation reveals lighting-associated impairment, supporting patient-reported difficulty with nonideal lighting and equipping providers to advise patients about limitations.
Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) is a common cause of severe and difficult to treat ocular infection. In this study, the population structure of 68 ocular MRSA isolates collected at Massachusetts Eye and Ear between January 2014 and June 2016 was assessed. By using a combination of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, SCC typing and detection of the panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, we found that the population structure of ocular MRSA is composed of lineages with community and hospital origins. As determined by eBURST analysis of MLST data, the ocular MRSA population consisted of 14 different sequence types (STs) that grouped within two predominant clonal complexes: CC8 (47.0%) and CC5 (41.2%). Most CC8 strains were ST8, harbored type IV SCC and were positive for the PVL-toxin (93.7%). The CC5 group was divided between strains carrying SCC type II (71.4%) and SCC type IV (28.6%). Remaining isolates grouped in 6 different clonal complexes with 3 isolates in CC6 and the other clonal complexes being represented by a single isolate. Interestingly, major MRSA CC5 and CC8 lineages were isolated from discrete ocular niches. Orbital and preseptal abscess/cellulitis were predominantly caused by CC8-SCC IV PVL-positive strains. In contrast, infections of the cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal system were associated with the MDR CC5 lineage, particularly as causes of severe infectious keratitis. This niche specialization of MRSA is consistent with a model where CC8-SCC IV PVL-positive strains are better adapted to cause infections of the keratinized and soft adnexal eye tissues, whereas MDR CC5 appear to have greater ability in overcoming innate defense mechanisms of the wet epithelium of the ocular surface.
PURPOSE: To investigate the inter-individual variability in duration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment effect in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). DESIGN: Prospective observational multi-centered study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-eight patients with nvAMD treated with anti-VEGF injections were included. Both treatment naive (n=25) as well as patients who had previously received treatment with ranibizumab (n=23) more than one month prior to their enrollment were recruited. METHODS: Patients received injection with ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 ml) and were followed weekly for 4 weeks with spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) assessing the time to maximal reduction of central retinal thickness (CRT) and the presence of intraretinal and subretinal fluid. Other data collected included age, gender, visual acuity, axial length, lens status, and previous injections. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to examine normal distributions for all variables. Correlations were examined by calculating Spearman's correlation coeficient. Distributions of quantitative variables are described as means (±SD). Qualitative variables are summarized by counts and percentage. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to maximal reduction of CRT and intra- and subretinal fluid after ranibizumab injection. RESULTS: A total of 48 eyes of 48 patients (age 74.8±8.3 years, 62.5% female, 52% treatment naive, 35.4% pseudophakic) were assessed. Two-thirds (64.6%) reached maximal CRT reduction earlier than the standard 4-week interval: 6.3% at 1 week postinjection, 22.9% at 2 weeks postinjection, and 35.4% at 3 weeks postinjection. Only 35.4% of patients had maximal CRT reduction at 4 weeks. Twenty percent of treatment-naive and 34.8% of non-naive patients had a week-4 CRT that was >35 μm thicker than the earlier occuring lowest CRT value (nadir). The time to maximal CRT reduction was not related to axial length, age, lens status, or history of injections. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal dosing interval for maximal CRT reduction may be less than 4 weeks for a significant proportion of patients. Most patients will be classified as complete responders if intervals less than 4 weeks are used to assess anti-VEGF treatment response. Disease load rather than eye size appears to be the driver of anti-VEGF treatment duration and therefore, dosing interval needs to be optimized in the cohort of short-term responders.
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of bilateral cataract surgery in infants 1 to 7 months of age performed by Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) investigators during IATS recruitment and to compare them with IATS unilateral outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective case series review at 10 IATS sites. PARTICIPANTS: The Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS) is a registry of children treated by surgeons who participated in the IATS. METHODS: Children underwent bilateral cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) placement during IATS enrollment years 2004 through 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity (VA), strabismus, adverse events (AEs), and reoperations. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-eight eyes (96 children) were identified with a median age of 2.5 months (range, 1-7 months) at the time of cataract surgery. Forty-two eyes (24%) received primary IOL implantation. Median VA of the better-seeing eye at final study visit closest to 5 years of age with optotype VA testing was 0.35 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR; optotype equivalent, 20/45; range, 0.00-1.18 logMAR) in both aphakic and pseudophakic children. Corrected VA was excellent (<20/40) in 29% of better-seeing eyes, 15% of worse-seeing eyes. One percent showed poor acuity (≥20/200) in the better-seeing eye, 12% in the worse-seeing eye. Younger age at surgery and smaller (<9.5 mm) corneal diameter at surgery conferred an increased risk for glaucoma or glaucoma suspect designation (younger age: odds ratio [OR], 1.44; P = 0.037; and smaller cornea: OR, 3.95; P = 0.045). Adverse events also were associated with these 2 variables on multivariate analysis (younger age: OR, 1.36; P = 0.023; and smaller cornea: OR, 4.78; P = 0.057). Visual axis opacification was more common in pseudophakic (32%) than aphakic (8%) eyes (P = 0.009). Unplanned intraocular reoperation occurred in 28% of first enrolled eyes (including glaucoma surgery in 10%). CONCLUSIONS: Visual acuity after bilateral cataract surgery in infants younger than 7 months is good, despite frequent systemic and ocular comorbidities. Although aphakia management did not affect VA outcome or AE incidence, IOL placement increased the risk of visual axis opacification. Adverse events and glaucoma correlated with a younger age at surgery and glaucoma correlated with the presence of microcornea.
Virtual visits (VVs) are necessitated due to the public health crisis and social distancing mandates due to COVID-19. However, these have been rare in ophthalmology. Over 3.5 years of conducting >350 ophthalmological VVs, our group has gained numerous insights into best practices. This communication shares these experiences with the medical community to support patient care during this difficult time and beyond. We highlight that mastering the technological platform of choice, optimizing lighting, camera positioning, and "eye contact," being thoughtful and creative with the virtual eye examination, and ensuring good documenting and billing will make a successful and efficient VV. Moreover, we think these ideas will stimulate further VV creativity and expertise to be developed in ophthalmology and across medicine. This approach, holds promise for increasing its adoption after the crisis has passed.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to visualize the lamina cribrosa (LC) capillaries and collagenous beams, measure capillary tortuosity (path length over straight end-to-end length), and determine if capillary tortuosity changes when intraocular pressure (IOP) increases. Methods: Within 8 hours of sacrifice, 3 pig heads were cannulated via the external ophthalmic artery, perfused with PBS to remove blood, and then perfused with a fluorescent dye to label the capillaries. The posterior pole of each eye was mounted in a custom-made inflation chamber for control of IOP with simultaneous imaging. Capillaries and collagen beams were visualized with structured light illumination enhanced imaging at IOPs from 5 to 50 mm Hg at each 5 mm Hg increment. Capillary tortuosity was measured from the images and paired two-sample t-tests were used to assess for significant changes in relation to changes in IOP. Results: Capillaries were highly tortuous at 15 mm Hg (up to 1.45). In all but one eye, tortuosity decreased significantly as IOP increased from 15 to 25 mm Hg (P < 0.01), and tortuosity decreased significantly in every eye as IOP increased from 15 to 40 mm Hg (P < 0.01). In only 16% of capillaries, tortuosity increased with elevated IOP. Capillaries had a surprisingly different topology from the collagen beams. Conclusions: Although high capillary tortuosity is sometimes regarded as potentially problematic because it can reduce blood flow, LC capillary tortuosity may provide slack that mitigates against reduced flow and structural damage caused by excessive stretch under elevated IOP. We speculate that low capillary tortuosity could be a risk factor for damage under high IOP.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) for diabetic macular edema or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) increases the risk of traction retinal detachment (TRD) among eyes with PDR. METHODS: Pooled analysis of PDR eyes from Protocols I, J, N, S, or T with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study level ≥61 (prompt vitrectomy was not planned) randomly assigned to the control group (laser photocoagulation, sham, or intravitreal saline; 396 eyes) or anti-VEGF (487 eyes). The primary outcome was investigator-identified TRD within 1 year of randomization. RESULTS: The 1-year cumulative probability of TRD was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 4.6%-9.9%, 25 events) in control-group eyes and 4.8% (95% confidence interval: 3.2%-7.3%, 22 events) in anti-VEGF group eyes (hazard ratio = 0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.54-1.66, P = 0.86]). The cumulative probability of vitrectomy for TRD was 4.4% (16 events) in control-group eyes and 2.2% (9 events) in anti-VEGF group eyes (P = 0.19). Percentage with TRD and vitrectomy for TRD were similar within strata of diabetic retinopathy severity. CONCLUSION: These findings do not support the hypothesis that anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic macular edema or PDR increases the risk of TRD among eyes with PDR similar to those enrolled in five DRCR Retina Network protocols for which prompt vitrectomy was not planned.