2020

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Shanbhag SS, Hall L, Chodosh J, Saeed HN. Long-term outcomes of amniotic membrane treatment in acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ocul Surf 2020;18(3):517-522.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the long-term outcomes of amniotic membrane (AM) use in the form of transplantation (AMT) and self-retained amniotic membrane (ProKera® device, PD) in acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). METHODS: Electronic records of all patients with a diagnosis of SJS/TEN at Massachusetts Eye and Ear between January 2008 and January 2018 were reviewed. Patients who received AM in acute SJS/TEN were selected. Only patients with follow-up ≥ 3 months after discharge were included. RESULTS: Data of 55 eyes of 29 patients were analyzed. All 55 eyes received the first AM at a median interval of 5 days (inter-quartile range (IQR): 3-7 days) after onset of skin rash. Fifty-six percent of eyes (31/55) received AMT while 44% (24/55) received PD. Forty percent of eyes (22/55) required a repeat AMT or PD. Median follow-up after initial AM was 2.5 years (IQR: 1.2-3.6 years). At last follow-up, the best-corrected visual acuity was ≥20/40 in 87% of eyes (48/55). The most common complications in the chronic phase were meibomian gland disease and dry eye, seen in 78% of eyes (43/55) and 58% of eyes (32/55) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term results show that early use of AM in the acute phase of SJS/TEN may be effective in mitigating severe vision loss after SJS/TEN. However, eyelid-related complications and dry eye remain a common problem even with the use of AM.
Shi C, Pundlik S, Luo G. Without low spatial frequencies, high resolution vision would be detrimental to motion perception. J Vis 2020;20(8):29.Abstract
A normally sighted person can see a grating of 30 cycles per degree or higher, but spatial frequencies needed for motion perception are much lower than that. It is unknown for natural images with a wide spectrum how all the visible spatial frequencies contribute to motion speed perception. In this work, we studied the effect of spatial frequency content on motion speed estimation for sequences of natural and stochastic pixel images by simulating different visual conditions, including normal vision, low vision (low-pass filtering), and complementary vision (high-pass filtering at the same cutoff frequencies of the corresponding low-vision conditions) conditions. Speed was computed using a biological motion energy-based computational model. In natural sequences, there was no difference in speed estimation error between normal vision and low vision conditions, but it was significantly higher for complementary vision conditions (containing only high-frequency components) at higher speeds. In stochastic sequences that had a flat frequency distribution, the error in normal vision condition was significantly larger compared with low vision conditions at high speeds. On the contrary, such a detrimental effect on speed estimation accuracy was not found for low spatial frequencies. The simulation results were consistent with the motion direction detection task performed by human observers viewing stochastic sequences. Together, these results (i) reiterate the importance of low frequencies in motion perception, and (ii) indicate that high frequencies may be detrimental for speed estimation when low frequency content is weak or not present.
Shire DB, Gingerich MD, Wong PI, Skvarla M, Cogan SF, Chen J, Wang W, Rizzo JF. Micro-Fabrication of Components for a High-Density Sub-Retinal Visual Prosthesis. Micromachines (Basel) 2020;11(10)Abstract
We present a retrospective of unique micro-fabrication problems and solutions that were encountered through over 10 years of retinal prosthesis product development, first for the Boston Retinal Implant Project initiated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at Harvard Medical School's teaching hospital, the Massachusetts Eye and Ear-and later at the startup company Bionic Eye Technologies, by some of the same personnel. These efforts culminated in the fabrication and assembly of 256+ channel visual prosthesis devices having flexible multi-electrode arrays that were successfully implanted sub-retinally in mini-pig animal models as part of our pre-clinical testing program. We report on the processing of the flexible multi-layered, planar and penetrating high-density electrode arrays, surgical tools for sub-retinal implantation, and other parts such as coil supports that facilitated the implantation of the peri-ocular device components. We begin with an overview of the implantable portion of our visual prosthesis system design, and describe in detail the micro-fabrication methods for creating the parts of our system that were assembled outside of our hermetically-sealed electronics package. We also note the unique surgical challenges that sub-retinal implantation of our micro-fabricated components presented, and how some of those issues were addressed through design, materials selection, and fabrication approaches.
Shoji MK, Shishido S, Freitag SK. The Use of Sirolimus for Treatment of Orbital Lymphatic Malformations: A Systematic Review. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020;36(3):215-221.Abstract
PURPOSE: Orbital lymphatic malformations are rare congenital choristomas associated with pain, proptosis, exposure keratopathy, and vision loss. Current treatments of surgery, drainage, and sclerotherapy may have adverse effects including risk of damage to surrounding structures, swelling, and malformation persistence or recrudescence. Sirolimus, which inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin, a regulator of cell growth and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, has successfully treated systemic vascular malformations. However, its efficacy and safety have not yet been well established for orbital lymphatic malformations. METHODS: Systematic review and analysis of relevant published literature were performed. PubMed, Embase, and World of Science searches were conducted for studies involving sirolimus treatment of orbital lymphatic malformations through July 2019. RESULTS: Nine case series and reports with 10 total patients who received sirolimus for treatment of orbital lymphatic malformations were included. The age at sirolimus initiation ranged from 1 week to 23 years. The malformation was lymphatic in 6 patients, lymphaticovenous in 3 patients, and lymphatic-arteriovenous in 1 patient. Six patients underwent ineffective prior therapy including sclerotherapy, surgery, or medical therapy. Initial sirolimus dosage ranged from 0.05 mg/kg twice a day to 1 mg twice a day, and duration ranged from 6 months to 53 months. Seven patients had partial response, and 3 patients, all of whom had a microcystic malformation component, experienced complete response. Adverse effects included mild reversible leukopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and transaminitis with adverse effects denied or not specified for 6 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sirolimus may be a safe and effective treatment for orbital lymphatic malformations, especially microcystic malformations.
Shoshany TN, Michalak S, Staffa SJ, Chinn RN, Bishop K, Hunter DG. Effect of Primary Occlusion Therapy in Asymmetric, Bilateral Amblyopia. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;211:87-93.Abstract
PURPOSE: Many bilateral amblyopia patients have asymmetric visual acuity (VA). There is no standard treatment for these patients, and outcomes have not been well described. Our goal is to compare VA outcomes in this group based on timing of occlusion therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional comparative case series. METHODS: Setting: Institutional practice. PatientPopulation: Patients diagnosed with amblyopia at Boston Children's Hospital between 2010 and 2014. InclusionCriteria: VA ≥ 0.3 logMAR bilaterally by objective optotype-based measures, interocular difference (IOD) ≥ 0.18 logMAR, age 2-12 years. ExclusionCriteria: Loss to follow-up, managed surgically, deprivation amblyopia. Patients had either primary or secondary occlusion (primary = initiated when VA ≥ 0.3 logMAR bilaterally; secondary = initiated to correct residual IOD once VA improved to ≤0.18 logMAR in the stronger eye). ObservationProcedure: Patient demographics, VA, IOD, and stereopsis were compared between groups. OutcomeMeasures: VA improvement at 12-18 months and at last visits. RESULTS: Of 2,200 patients reviewed, 167 (7.6%) had asymmetric, bilateral amblyopia; 98 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were equally divided between primary (n = 50) and secondary (n = 48) occlusion groups. There were no differences in demographics, baseline VA, or IOD between groups (P ≥ .22), although the primary occlusion group had a higher proportion of strabismic amblyopia (P = .007). VA in both eyes, IOD, and stereopsis improved similarly between groups, even after stratifying by amblyopia subtype (P ≥ .48). The secondary occlusion group was more likely to achieve 20/30 bilaterally and IOD ≤ 1 line at 12-18 months (P ≤ .4), although this equalized by the last visit. CONCLUSION: In patients with asymmetric, bilateral amblyopia, VA improved by 4 lines in the weaker eye and 2 lines in the stronger eye, while IOD improved by 2 lines, irrespective of occlusion status. Primary occlusion thus provided no further benefit over spectacle correction alone.
Shoshany TN, Michalak SM, Chinn RN, Staffa SJ, Hunter DG. Evaluating Amblyopia Treatment Success Using the American Academy of Ophthalmology IRIS50 Measures. Ophthalmology 2020;127(6):836-838.
Shu DY, Butcher E, Saint-Geniez M. EMT and EndMT: Emerging Roles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Int J Mol Sci 2020;21(12)Abstract
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) are physiological processes required for normal embryogenesis. However, these processes can be hijacked in pathological conditions to facilitate tissue fibrosis and cancer metastasis. In the eye, EMT and EndMT play key roles in the pathogenesis of subretinal fibrosis, the end-stage of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that leads to profound and permanent vision loss. Predominant in subretinal fibrotic lesions are matrix-producing mesenchymal cells believed to originate from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and/or choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) through EMT and EndMT, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that EMT of RPE may also be implicated during the early stages of AMD. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is a key cytokine orchestrating both EMT and EndMT. Investigations in the molecular mechanisms underpinning EMT and EndMT in AMD have implicated a myriad of contributing factors including signaling pathways, extracellular matrix remodelling, oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagy, metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction. Questions arise as to differences in the mesenchymal cells derived from these two processes and their distinct mechanistic contributions to the pathogenesis of AMD. Detailed discussion on the AMD microenvironment highlights the synergistic interactions between RPE and CECs that may augment the EMT and EndMT processes in vivo. Understanding the differential regulatory networks of EMT and EndMT and their contributions to both the dry and wet forms of AMD can aid the development of therapeutic strategies targeting both RPE and CECs to potentially reverse the aberrant cellular transdifferentiation processes, regenerate the retina and thus restore vision.
Silpa-Archa S, Preble JM, Foster SC. VITREOUS TREPONEMAL ANTIBODY AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TEST TO SEROLOGY FOR THE CONFIRMATION OF SYPHILITIC CHORIORETINITIS. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2020;14(2):166-169.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the novel application of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody to confirm diagnosis of ocular syphilis from vitreous samples. METHODS: Two distinct case reports emphasizing the importance of confirmatory vitreous treponemal antibody. Multimodal imaging of patients was also applied. RESULTS: We report two distinct cases with positive serum treponemal antibody but opposing vitreous treponemal antibody results. One case with a positive vitreous test responded well to antisyphilitic treatment. By contrast, a case with a negative vitreous result was changed to serpiginous choroiditis, eventually cured by immunomodulatory treatment. CONCLUSION: Intraocular fluid analysis of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody may play an important role in ruling out suspected ocular syphilis in settings without a polymerase chain reaction facility, especially immunocompromised patients who are at risk of multiple infections. Further studies are needed to establish the sensitivity and specificity of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody test on vitreous samples.
Silpa-Archa S, Dejkong A, Kumsiang K, Chotcomwongse P, Preble JM, Foster SC. Poor prognostic factors in post-traumatic endophthalmitis following open globe injury. Int J Ophthalmol 2020;13(12):1968-1975.Abstract
AIM: To demonstrate prognostic factors for poor visual outcome in patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis (PTE) following open globe injury. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 66 patients (66 eyes) with PTE following open globe injury from 2005 to 2015. Potential factors accounting for good and poor visual outcome were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test and Logistic regression model. RESULTS: In 66 cases, 39 cases (59%) had a poor visual outcome. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis identified retained intraocular foreign body (IOFB) as the only factor significantly associated with poor visual outcome [adjusted odds ratio, 4.62; 95% confidence interval (1.04-20.53); =0.04]. The most common causative agents were gram-positive organisms (83%), of which (33%), was the most common pathogen. All cases received intravitreal antibiotic injections. Oral ciprofloxacin was the most used systemic antibiotic (33%). Pars plana vitrectomy was performed in 83% (55/66) of cases. At 6mo follow-up, mean BCVA was 1.74±0.72 logMAR units. CONCLUSION: In patients with PTE following open globe injury, the only predictor of poor visual outcome is the presence of IOFB. is the most isolated microorganism.
Silva RNE, Taniguchi EV, Cruzat A, Paschalis EI, Pasquale LR, Colby KA, Dohlman CH, Chodosh J, Shen LQ. Angle Anatomy and Glaucoma in Patients With Boston Keratoprosthesis. Cornea 2020;39(6):713-719.Abstract
PURPOSE: To quantitatively analyze the angle anatomy in eyes with a Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to assess the diagnostic ability of AS-OCT in KPro-associated glaucoma. METHODS: AS-OCT (RTVue) images from KPro eyes with and without glaucoma were reviewed. The angle opening distance at 500 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500), trabecular-iris angle at 500 μm from the scleral spur (TIA500), and trabecular-iris surface area at 500 μm from the scleral spur (TISA500) were measured by 2 observers masked to the diagnosis. The measurements for each visible quadrant were compared between KPro eyes with and without glaucoma. RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes with glaucoma and 17 eyes without glaucoma from 39 patients with KPro were included. Of the 4 quadrants imaged, the temporal angle was the most visible (79.5%) and angle measurements of the temporal quadrant were the only ones that differentiated the 2 groups: the mean AOD500, TIA500, and TISA500 were significantly lower in KPro eyes with glaucoma than without glaucoma (388.2 ± 234.4 μm vs. 624.5 ± 310.5 μm, P = 0.02; 26.1 ± 14.0 degrees vs. 39.1 ± 17.1 degrees, P = 0.03; and 0.15 ± 0.09 mm vs. 0.23 ± 0.12 mm, P = 0.03; respectively). The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting glaucoma was 0.75 for temporal TIA500 (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.94, P = 0.02) with 50% specificity at 80% of sensitivity and a cutoff value of 37 degrees. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal angle was the most visible on AS-OCT in eyes with a KPro. Significant narrowing of the temporal angle detected on AS-OCT was associated with glaucoma in these eyes.
Singer MC, Marchal F, Angelos P, Bernet V, Boucai L, Buchholzer S, Burkey B, Eisele D, Erkul E, Faure F, Freitag SK, Gillespie MB, Harrell RM, Hartl D, Haymart M, Leffert J, Mandel S, Miller BS, Morris J, Pearce EN, Rahmati R, Ryan WR, Schaitkin B, Schlumberger M, Stack BC, Van Nostrand D, Wong KK, Randolph G. Salivary and lacrimal dysfunction after radioactive iodine for differentiated thyroid cancer: American Head and Neck Society Endocrine Surgery Section and Salivary Gland Section joint multidisciplinary clinical consensus statement of otolaryngology, ophth. Head Neck 2020;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI) administration is widely utilized in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. While beneficial in select patients, it is critical to recognize the potential negative sequelae of this treatment. The prevention, diagnosis, and management of the salivary and lacrimal complications of RAI exposure are addressed in this consensus statement. METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of experts was convened under the auspices of the American Head and Neck Society Endocrine Surgery and Salivary Gland Sections. Following a comprehensive literature review to assess the current best evidence, this group developed six relevant consensus recommendations. RESULTS: Consensus recommendations on RAI were made in the areas of patient assessment, optimal utilization, complication prevention, and complication management. CONCLUSION: Salivary and lacrimal complications secondary to RAI exposure are common and need to be weighed when considering its use. The recommendations included in this statement provide direction for approaches to minimize and manage these complications.
Singh RB, Blanco T, Mittal SK, Taketani Y, Chauhan SK, Chen Y, Dana R. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor secreted by corneal epithelial cells regulates dendritic cell maturation in dry eye disease. Ocul Surf 2020;18(3):460-469.Abstract
PURPOSE: In this study, we quantify Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) secreted by corneal epithelial cells and evaluate its immunomodulatory functions in a murine model of dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: We induced DED in female C57BL/6 mice using a controlled environment chamber for 14 days. We quantified mRNA expression of Serpinf1 gene and PEDF protein synthesis by corneal epithelial cells (CEpCs) using RT-PCR and ELISA. CEpCs from normal or DED mice were cultured with IFNγ-stimulated-dendritic cells (DCs) for 24 h, and expression of MHC-II and CD86 by DCs was determined using flow cytometry. Next, we either added recombinant PEDF (rPEDF) or anti-PEDF antibody to co-culture, and DC expression of the above maturation markers was quantified. Lastly, we treated DED mice with either topical rPEDF, anti-PEDF Ab or murine serum albumin (MSA), and DC maturation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and DED severity were investigated. RESULTS: Serpinf1 mRNA expression and PEDF protein production levels by CEpCs were upregulated in DED. CEpCs from DED mice exhibited an enhanced suppressive effect on the expression of MHC-II and CD86 by DCs, compared to normal mice. This effect was abolished by blocking endogenous PEDF with anti-PEDF Ab or enhanced by supplementing with rPEDF. Treatment with anti-PEDF antibody blocked the effect of endogenous-PEDF and increased DC maturation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in conjunctivae, and exacerbated disease severity in DED mice. Conversely, topical rPEDF enhanced the suppressive effect of endogenous PEDF on DC maturation, decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in conjunctivae, and reduced disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: The results from our study elucidate the role of PEDF in impeding DC maturation, and suppression of ocular surface inflammation, explicating a promising therapeutic potential of PEDF in limiting the corneal epitheliopathy as a consequence of DED.
Singh RB, Saini C, Shergill S, Agarwal A. Window to the circulatory system: Ocular manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Ophthalmol 2020;:1120672120914232.
Singh RB, Ichhpujani P, Thakur S, Jindal S. Promising therapeutic drug delivery systems for glaucoma: a comprehensive review. Ther Adv Ophthalmol 2020;12:2515841420905740.Abstract
The delivery of ophthalmic drugs is challenging despite easy accessibility via the ocular surface. Topical instillation of eye drops is a relatively easy and most commonly used as a conduit for drug delivery for treating a myriad of ocular morbidities, particularly involving the anterior segment, and has an additional benefit of avoiding the first-pass metabolism while passing through the systemic circulation. The primary challenges of drug administration through traditional methods include-inadequate patient education for proper drug instillation technique, compliance, adherence, and persistence. Various dynamic (choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, lymphatic clearance, and tear dilution) and static (namely, different layers of cornea, sclera, and retina including blood aqueous and blood-retinal barriers) ocular barriers limit drug delivery to the target ocular tissues. The maintenance of the therapeutic drug levels on the ocular surface for a prolonged duration is an added challenge, thus preventing persistent delivery for longer durations. These factors result in inadequate management, leading to poor prognosis in vision loss in as many as 27% of the patients diagnosed with glaucoma. We have reviewed the research and advancements in the development of novel and well-tolerated drug delivery systems with the common goal of overcoming the factors limiting adequate drug delivery to the target tissues in glaucomatous patients with traditional techniques. In the recent past, multiple research groups have successfully designed noninvasive, sustained drug delivery systems, promoting the efficacy as well as the feasibility of delivering topical drugs to the anterior segment.
Singh RB, Sinha S, Saini C, Elbasiony E, Thakur S, Agarwal A. Recent advances in the management of non-infectious posterior uveitis. Int Ophthalmol 2020;40(11):3187-3207.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the current regimens and novel therapeutic modalities in various stages of research and development for the management of non-infectious posterior uveitis (NIPU). METHODS: We performed a thorough review of current literature using PubMed, Google Scholar and Clinicaltrials.gov to identify the published literature about the available therapeutics and novel drugs/therapies in different stages of clinical trials. RESULTS: The current management regimen for non-infectious posterior uveitis includes corticosteroids, immunomodulatory therapies and anti-metabolites. However, NIPU requires long-term management for efficacious remission of the disease and to prevent disease relapse. Long-term safety issues associated with steroids have led to efforts to develop novel therapeutic agents including biological response modulators and immunosuppressants. The current therapeutic agents in various stages of development include calcineurin inhibitors, biologic response modifiers and a more a comprehensive modalities like ocular gene therapy as well as novel drug delivery mechanisms for higher bioavailability to the target tissues, with minimal systemic effects. CONCLUSION: Novel efficacious therapeutic modalities under development will help overcome the challenges associated with the traditional therapeutic agents.
Singh T, Ichhpujani P, Singh RB. First Line of Defense in COVID-19: Masks in Clinical Practice. Asia Pac J Public Health 2020;:1010539520979928.Abstract
The current evidence suggests that masks are efficacious in limiting the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). Although cloth masks are effective in outdoor environments, there is a consensus about the requirement of N95 masks or respirators when working in close proximity to patients who may be asymptomatic carriers, specifically in ophthalmology clinics, where slit-lamp examinations, noncontact tonometry, and other procedures place the physicians and patients in close proximity with each other. In this report, we review the available evidence regarding the efficacy of different types of masks in clinical practice in ophthalmology.
Singh RB, Zhu S, Yung A, Dohlman TH, Dana R, Yin J. Efficacy of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in the management of corneal thinning and perforation due to microbial keratitis. Ocul Surf 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: Report the efficacy of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (CTA) application in the management of corneal thinning and perforations associated with microbial keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent CTA application for corneal thinning and perforation secondary to microbiologically proven infectious keratitis between 2001 and 2018 at a single center. We defined successful CTA application as an intact globe without tectonic surgical intervention. RESULTS: The cohort included 67 patients, and 37 presented with corneal perforation while 30 had corneal thinning. The perforation/thinning was central/paracentral in 43 eyes and peripheral in 23 eyes. The underlying infectious etiologies were monomicrobial in 42 cases (35 bacterial, 3 fungal, 2 viral, and 2 acanthamoeba cases) and polymicrobial in 25 cases (22 polybacterial cases and 3 cases with a combination of Gram positive bacteria and fungus). The median duration of glue retention was 29 days. The CTA success rate was 73%, 64%, and 44% at 10, 30, and 180 days, respectively. CTA application appears more successful in monomicrobial (vs. polymicrobial) and Gram positive bacterial (vs. Gram negative) keratitis but the differences are statistically non-significant. The location of perforation/thinning and the use of topical corticosteroid were not associated with CTA failure. CONCLUSION: CTA was moderately effective in restoring globe integrity in severe corneal thinning and perforation secondary to microbial keratitis in the short term. However the majority of patients require tectonic surgical intervention within 6 months. CTA application success is not significantly associated with the location of thinning/perforation or the use of topical corticosteroid.
Sinha S, Singh RB, Dohlman TH, Wang M, Taketani Y, Yin J, Dana R. Prevalence of Persistent Corneal Epithelial Defects in Chronic Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;218:296-303.Abstract
PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for persistent corneal epithelial defects (PED) in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD) and to determine visual outcomes after healing. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A chart review was conducted of patients in whom chronic oGVHD was diagnosed between January 2011 and December 2018 and their demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed to determine prevalence of PED, and multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors associated with it. RESULTS: A total of 405 patients at a mean age of 60 ± 13 years in whom chronic oGVHD was diagnosed; 58% were men. The prevalence of PED was 8.1%. The median time for PED development after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was approximately 24 months. Median time to PED resolution was 4.5 weeks after starting therapy. The mean best-corrected visual acuity declined by 2 lines post-PED resolution. The prevalence rates of corneal ulcer and perforation were 6.2% and 4.0%, respectively, over 8 years. Logistic regression analysis, used to determine factors associated with PED, showed diabetes (P = .006), limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) (P = .02), filamentary keratitis (P = .02), subconjunctival fibrosis (P = .02), and a higher National Institutes of Health (NIH) oGVHD score (P = .01) were significant risk factors for PED development. CONCLUSIONS: The study found the prevalence rate of PED, corneal ulceration, and corneal perforation in chronic oGVHD to be 8.1%, 6.2%, and 4%, respectively. Analysis showed that oGVHD patients with diabetes, LSCD, filamentary keratitis, subconjunctival fibrosis, and a high NIH score were at higher risk of developing severe corneal disease.
Sobrin L, Pistilli M, Dreger K, Kothari S, Khachatryan N, Artornsombudh P, Pujari SS, Foster SC, Jabs DA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Levy-Clarke GA, Sen NH, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Bhatt NP, Kempen JH, for Group SITEDCSR. Factors Predictive of Remission of Chronic Anterior Uveitis. Ophthalmology 2020;127(6):826-834.Abstract
PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence of medication-free remission of chronic anterior uveitis and identify predictors thereof. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with anterior uveitis of longer than 3 months' duration followed up at United States tertiary uveitis care facilities. METHODS: Estimation of remission incidence and identification of associated predictors used survival analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of medication-free remission. For the primary analysis, remission was defined as inactive uveitis while off treatment at all visits spanning an interval of at least 90 days or-for patients who did not return for follow-up after 90 days-remaining inactive without receiving suppressive medications at all of the last visits. Association of factors potentially predictive of medication-free remission was also studied. RESULTS: Two thousand seven hundred ninety-five eyes of 1634 patients with chronic anterior uveitis were followed up over 7936 eye-years (4676 person-years). The cumulative medication-free, person-year remission incidence within 5 years was 32.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.4%-35.2%). Baseline clinical factors predictive of reduced remission incidence included longer duration of uveitis at presentation (for 2 to 5 years vs. less than 6 months: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44-0.83), bilateral uveitis (aHR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.96), prior cataract surgery (aHR, 0.70; 95% CI 0.56-0.88), and glaucoma surgery (aHR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.90). Two time-updated characteristics were also predictive of reduced remission incidence: keratic precipitates (aHR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.21-0.60) and synechiae (aHR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.93). Systemic diagnosis with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and spondyloarthropathy were also associated with reduced remission incidence. Older age at presentation was associated with higher incidence of remission (for age ≥40 years vs. <40 years: aHR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of patients with chronic anterior uveitis remit within 5 years. Longer duration of uveitis, younger age, bilateral uveitis, prior cataract surgery, glaucoma surgery, presence of keratic precipitates and synechiae, and systemic diagnoses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and spondyloarthropathy predict reduced remission incidence; patients with these factors should be managed taking into account the higher probability of a longer disease course.
Sobrin L, Stone JH, Huang AJ, Niles JL, Nazarian RM. Case 14-2020: A 37-Year-Old Man with Joint Pain and Eye Redness. N Engl J Med 2020;382(18):1750-1758.

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